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Forced air

Xin Ye, Yang Liu, Qing Guo, Quanxiang Han, Chao Ge, Shuangyue Cui, Leilei Zhang, Xutang Tao
Organic cocrystals possess valuable properties owing to the synergistic effect of the individual components. However, the growth of molecular cocrystals is still in its primary stage. Here we develop a microspacing in-air sublimation method to grow organic cocrystals, and furthermore to realize morphology control on them, which is essential for structure-property relations. A series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)‒1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB) complexes cocrystals are grown directly on the substrate, with the morphology tunable from 1D needle-like to 2D plate-like on demand...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Lorena Bechthold, Erik Schulze Zur Wiesche, Franz J Wortmann
The appearance of hair is a crucial factor of human well-being. Besides hair color and shine, the dynamic movement characteristics have a great impact on a youthful look, which is desirable at all ages. However, the hair follicle is subject to biochemical changes which tend to become obvious in the mid-30s by the appearance of the first nonpigmented "gray" hairs. Especially, these fibers seem to be unruly, hereby influencing the hair collective. In this investigation, the complex dynamic movement of swinging hair is modeled by an in vitro method...
September 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Anke Hüls, Dorothee Sugiri, Michael J Abramson, Barbara Hoffmann, Holger Schwender, Katja Ickstadt, Ursula Krämer, Tamara Schikowski
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial effect of improving air quality on lung function in the elderly remains unclear. We examined associations between decline in air pollutants and lung function and effect modifications by genetics and Body Mass Index (BMI) in elderly German women. METHODS: Data were analysed from the prospective Study on the influence of Air pollution on Lung function, Inflammation and Aging (SALIA; N=601). Spirometry was conducted at baseline (1985-1994; 55 years), in 2007-2010 and in 2012-2013...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
De-Lin Lai, Gang Kong, Xiao-Cong Li, Chun-Shan Che
Superhydrophobic ZnO nanorods coatings with a strong adhesive force to the surface (rose petal effect) or a low sliding angle (lotus leaf effect) were fabricated on the zinc plate by the hydrothermal plus sol-gel method. The corrosion resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic coatings in 5 wt% NaCl solution were investigated. The coating with loose ZnO nanostructure on ZnO nanorods shows a high adhesive force to water with low corrosion resistance, while the coating with a layer of dense nanotubes on nanorods exhibits a low adhesive to water with a high corrosion resistance due to a layer of trapped air among micro/nanostructures, which can delay the penetration of corrosive media...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Leonardo N Furini, Luis F C Morato, Danilo S Olivier, Monique Lemos, Eloi Feitosa, Carlos J L Constantino
Carbendazim (MBC) is a fungicide widely used in agriculture which allows the high productivity of several cultures, a necessary condition considering the growing of the world population. Moreover, MBC has environmental impact mainly on the soil and water sources, and consequently, on animal and human lives. However, even though the toxicity of fungicides is well established, their action mechanism in cell membranes are not completely understood. Herein, we investigate the interaction of different polar headgroups: dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODAB), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG); and different chain unsaturation degrees DPPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) with MBC...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sophie Ramananarivo, Thomas Mitchel, Leif Ristroph
Aeronautical studies have shown that subtle changes in aerofoil shape substantially alter aerodynamic forces during fixed-wing flight. The link between shape and performance for flapping locomotion involves distinct mechanisms associated with the complex flows and unsteady motions of an air- or hydro-foil. Here, we use an evolutionary scheme to modify the cross-sectional shape and iteratively improve the speed of three-dimensional printed heaving foils in forward flight. In this algorithmic-experimental method, 'genes' are mathematical parameters that define the shape, 'breeding' is the combination of genes from parent wings to form a daughter, and a wing's measured speed is its 'fitness' that dictates its likelihood of breeding...
January 2019: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Siyang Zeng, Andrea Tham, Bruce Bos, Joan Jin, Mehrdad Arjomandi
BACKGROUND: Abnormal lung volumes that represent air trapping are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their clinical significance in those without spirometrically defined COPD (normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 ] to forced vital capacity [FVC] ratio) is unclear. METHODS: Using the Veterans Administration Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI) database, we identified 7,479 patients at risk for COPD (smokers > 40 years of age without restrictive lung disease) who had preserved spirometry (FEV1 /FVC and FEV1  ≥ lower limit of normal) and also had concomitant lung volume measurements by plethysmography across 37 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the United States between 1985 and 2017, and examined their subsequent health records for clinical diagnoses of COPD, respiratory exacerbations, healthcare utilization, spirometry, and mortality...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Qimeng Song, Marc Steuber, Sergey I Druzhinin, Holger Schönherr
A novel concept to obtain cell microenvironments by microobject assembly at the water/air interface is reported. Since the orientation of 30 μm sized polymer cubes and their capillary force assembly is found to be controlled by surface wettability, afforded by coating the initially exposed surfaces by gold and self-assembled monolayers, unique niches in closely packed arrays of cubes with vertex up orientation can be realized. The random assembly of distinctly different cubes, pre-functionalized or surface-structured exclusively on their top surface, facilitates the massively parallel generation of different microenvironments in a combinatorial manner, which paves the way to future systematic structure-property relationship studies with cells...
February 13, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
M A Feofilova, O G Pavlov, V E Geimerling
The prospective observation of women with uterus myoma being on operative treatment in gynecological department of the Tula oblast clinical hospital during 2011-2012 was implemented. The regular female donors of the department of transfusiology of the given medical institution were used as the comparison group. It is established that female contingent with uterus myoma has a complex of such predisposing medical social risk factors as lower motion activity, financial neediness, increased stress load, diet of lower quality and its limitations, increased liquid intake, inobservance of work and rest regime, with passive character of longer day rest, certain occupational hazards...
November 2018: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Chi-Yao Chen, Maw-Tien Lee
Many studies have used rubber as an additive to form a cement-matrix composite (rubcrete). However, rubcrete has a lower mechanical strength than standard concrete. To improve the properties of rubcrete, this study performed surface modifications on crumb rubber through a partial oxidization reaction. The optimal ratio of air to nitrogen was determined by experiments to be 1:4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify the functional groups on the surface of the crumb rubber. A colloidal probe of calcium silicate hydrate (C⁻S⁻H) was prepared, and the intermolecular interactions between the rubber and the C⁻S⁻H were measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM)...
February 10, 2019: Materials
Alexandra Dobosz, Torben Daeneke, Ali Zavabeti, Bao Yue Zhang, Rebecca Orrell-Trigg, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Anna Wójcik, Wojciech Maziarz, Tomasz Gancarz
Ga⁻Sn⁻Zn eutectic alloy is a non-toxic liquid metal alloy which could be used in a multitude of applications, including as a heat transfer agent, in gas sensing, and in medicine. Alloys containing gallium readily oxidise in air, forming a thin oxide layer that influences the properties of liquid metals and which has not been studied. In this study, the oxide layer formed on Ga⁻Sn⁻Zn alloy was transferred at room temperature onto three substrates-quartz, glass and silicon. The contact angle between the liquid alloy and different substrates was determined...
February 9, 2019: Nanomaterials
A Berman
Global warming seems more probable, whether as gradual warming or increased frequency of warmer episodes. The productivity of cattle in temperate countries will decline unless counteracting steps are adopted. The probability of pre-emptive breeding for maintaining temperate breed performance coupled with heat stress tolerance is too low to be adopted for counteracting warming. The expected warming will mostly involve temperature increases. These will indirectly affect radiant heat gain in animals owing to reduced radiant heat dissipation from the body by convective heat loss, which results in an increased sensitivity to incoming radiant heat at higher air temperatures...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biometeorology
Sadeq Al-Murshedi, Peter Hogg, Andrew England
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of being overweight on image quality (IQ), radiation dose and acquisition parameters when undertaking adult chest X-ray (CXR) examinations using routine acquisition protocols. METHODS: The Lungman chest phantom, with and without chest plates, was used to simulate the chest region for larger size and average adult patients, respectively. Radiographic acquisitions were conducted using 17 X-ray machines located in eight hospitals using their routine clinical protocols...
January 2019: Physica Medica: PM
Mariela Caputo, A Sala, D Corach
The Y chromosome behaves as a single locus. Its genetic information is useful in forensic casework, deficiency kinship testing, and population genetics studies. Continuous increases of loci number within commercial kits forced modification of worldwide reference databases. In Pan American countries, like Argentina, diverse parental ethnic groups contributed to the extant admixed urban populations. We report 509 additional haplotypes of 23 Y-STRs from donors inhabiting urban areas of six Argentinean provinces: Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Santa Cruz, Rio Negro, Santa Fe, and Formosa...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xingwei Guo, Yuru Zhang, Dangxiao Wang, Lei Lu, Jian Jiao, Weiliang Xu
Electrovibration has become one of the promising approaches for adding tactile feedback on touchscreen. Previous studies revealed that the normal force applied on the touchscreen by the finger affects significantly the electrostatic force. It is obvious that the normal force affects the electrostatic force if it changes the contact area between the finger and the touchscreen. However, it is unclear whether the normal force affects the electrostatic force when the apparent contact area is constant. In this paper, we estimated the electrostatic force via measuring the tangential force of the finger sliding on a 3M touchscreen at different normal forces under the constant apparent contact area...
February 6, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Anne Bouchaudy, Jean-Baptiste Salmon
We first report an original setup that enables continuous measurements of stresses induced by the drying of confined drops of complex fluids. This setup is mainly based on a precision scale working with an electromagnetic force compensation technique that provides accurate measurements of forces, while allowing simultaneously controlled evaporation rates, in situ microscopic observations, and thus quantitative estimates of normal stresses. We then performed an extensive study of the drying of a charged colloidal dispersion using this setup...
February 8, 2019: Soft Matter
Christi Patten, Xin-Qun Wang, Jon O Ebbert, Melissa A Little, Gerald W Talcott, Ann S Hryshko-Mullen, Robert C Klesges
This study examined gender, prior tobacco use, and social-environmental factors as predictors of intentions to use tobacco (cigarette smoking and/or smokeless tobacco [ST]) after a forced period of abstinence among U.S. Air Force (USAF) trainees. Trainees completed 8½ weeks of basic military training (BMT), then 4 weeks of Technical Training; both required abstinence from tobacco. A cross-sectional survey of 13,514 USAF trainees (73% male, 90% age 18-24, 43% prior tobacco use) was conducted at the beginning of the 4-week Technical Training period...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
S Wernecke, J Lührs, B Hossfeld
This article presents the German Armed Forces Strategic Aeromedical Evacuation system. The following factors are described in detail: the path of alert, the used aircrafts, the medical equipment, the medical care personnel with its associated training as well as the aeronautical and medical issues. This military system for long haul intensive care transport offers many medical possibilities in critical care repatriations from deployment areas, as well as disaster relief missions. It has been successfully proven in numerous military and civil operations and continues to have high recognition among all military allies until today...
February 5, 2019: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Marc A Badger, Hao Wang, Robert Dudley
Flying organisms frequently confront the challenge of maintaining stability when moving within highly dynamic airflows near the Earth's surface. Either aerodynamic or inertial forces generated by appendages and other structures, such as the tail, may be used to offset aerial perturbations, but these responses have not been well characterized. To better understand how hummingbirds modify wing and tail motions in response to individual gusts, we filmed Anna's hummingbirds as they negotiated an upward jet of fast-moving air...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
You-Jie Wang, Xiao-Hong Shi, Jia-Xuan Li, Yan-Long Hong, Fei Wu, Li-Jie Zhao, Yi Feng
A new device was designed to measure adhesive force and predict whether traditional Chinese medicine extracts would appear hot-melt sticking in spray drying process.Based on the physical property tester as fundamental test platform, the device was fixed with a camera, a temperature and humidity sensor probe and a set of equipment for hot air. This device could simulate the dry environment of spray dryer and analyze the variables of testing solutions' adhesiveness against drying time. To establish and validate a model of predicting hot-melt sticking in spray drying, data was collected by using data mining...
December 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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