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Toxicologic Emergencies

Dieter Müller, Hartmud Neurath, Merja A Neukamm, Maurice Wilde, Caroline Despicht, Sabine Blaschke, Marcel Grapp
INTRODUCTION: Fentanyl derivatives like cyclopropylfentanyl have recently appeared on the recreational drug market. Cyclopropylfentanyl is probably a highly potent opioid, but human toxicological data are not available so far. Similar to other fentanyl derivatives the most serious acute health risk due to the use of cyclopropylfentanyl is likely to be respiratory depression. In case of overdose, this may lead to apnoea, respiratory arrest and death. In this paper, we present three cases of severe intoxication with cyclopropylfentanyl...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
James D Englehardt, Weihsueh A Chiu
Current efforts to assess human health response to chemicals based on high-throughput in vitro assay data on intra-cellular changes have been hindered for some illnesses by lack of information on higher-level extracellular, inter-organ, and organism-level interactions. However, a dose-response function (DRF), informed by various levels of information including apical health response, can represent a template for convergent top-down, bottom-up analysis. In this paper, a general DRF for chronic chemical and other health stressors and mixtures is derived based on a general first-order model previously derived and demonstrated for illness progression...
2019: PloS One
Andrew Grock, Natasha Wheaton, Lynn Roppolo, Chris Gaafary
The Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) Series was created in 2014 to address a lack of both curation of online educational content and a nationally available curriculum that meets individualized interactive instruction. Using an expert-based, crowdsourced approach, the AIR series identifies trustworthy, high-quality, educational blog and podcast content. Here, we summarize the content rated as high quality per our a priori criteria as evaluated by eight attending physicians...
December 5, 2018: Curēus
Dinelia Rivera-Burgos, Michael C Babin, Jillian M Staugler, Thomas Vinci, Mark R Perry
Cyanides are highly toxic compounds that have been used as weapons of terrorism throughout history. Cyanide (CN) is acutely toxic by all routes of administration; however, inhalation is the main exposure route. To adequately test effective countermeasures against inhalational CN threats, robust and well-characterized animal models are needed. This paper describes the initial development of a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) exposure swine model for documenting the physiological effects and toxicological profile during and after HCN inhalation exposure...
February 13, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Jonas Henschel, Luca Schwarz, Frank Glorius, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
This study illustrates the high complexity of phosphorus-based decomposition products in thermally treated state-of-the-art lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes. Liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated to ion trap time of flight mass spectrometry reveals 118 different organophosphate (OP) and organofluorophosphate (OFP) species, the majority of them not reported in literature so far. The application of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed phase chromatography enables the investigation of the acidic as well as non-acidic spectrum of aging products...
February 12, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Chiara Deriu, Irene Conticello, Alexander Moiseevich Mebel, Bruce McCord
: An analytical protocol based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and aimed at the detection of toxicologically relevant concentrations of JWH-018 in oral fluid is presented for the first time. A DFT-supported in-depth vibrational characterization of the drug in the solid state and in solution was also performed, providing a body of literature for future spectroscopic works on the compound. A Langmuir adsorption model was used to derive quantitative parameters such as the affinity of JWH-018 for citrate-capped gold nanospheres as well as the LOD...
February 11, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Brian Pachkowski, Gloria B Post, Alan H Stern
Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is ubiquitous in populations and environments worldwide. Its long half-life in humans, indefinite persistence in the environment, and awareness of its widespread presence in drinking water make the human health assessment of PFOS a priority. While developmental, endocrine, and hepatic effects, and increased serum cholesterol are among the outcomes resulting from PFOS exposure, immunosuppression has also consistently emerged as an adverse effect. An in-depth review of the relevant scientific literature on the toxicology of PFOS has identified immunosuppression as a sensitive endpoint for PFOS toxicity...
August 8, 2018: Environmental Research
Nathan L Pollesch, Daniel L Villeneuve, Jason M O'Brien
As the community of toxicological researchers, risk assessors, and risk managers adopt the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for organizing toxicological knowledge, the number and diversity of AOPs in the online AOP knowledgebase (KB) continues to grow. To track and investigate this growth, AOPs in the AOP-KB were assembled into a single network. Summary measures on the current state of the AOP-KB and the overall connectivity and structural features of the resulting network were calculated. Our results show that networking the 187 user-defined AOPs currently described in the AOP-KB resulted in the emergence of 9405 unique, previously undescribed, linear AOPs (LAOPs)...
February 1, 2019: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Liang Yan, Feng Zhao, Jing Wang, Yan Zu, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao
The marriage of nanotechnology and medicine offers new opportunities to fight against human diseases. Benefiting from their unique optical, thermal, magnetic, or redox properties, a wide range of nanomaterials have shown potential in applications such as diagnosis, drug delivery, or tissue repair and regeneration. Despite the considerable success achieved over the past decades, the newly emerging nanomedicines still suffer from an incomplete understanding of their safety risks, and of the relationships between their physicochemical characteristics and safety profiles...
January 30, 2019: Advanced Materials
Abu Asaduzzaman, Demian Riccardi, Akef T Afaneh, Sarah J Cooper, Jeremy C Smith, Feiyue Wang, Jerry M Parks, Georg Schreckenbach
Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental contaminant. Major anthropogenic sources of Hg emission include gold mining and the burning of fossil fuels. Once deposited in aquatic environments, Hg can undergo redox reactions, form complexes with ligands, and adsorb onto particles. It can also be methylated by microorganisms. Mercury, especially its methylated form methylmercury, can be taken up by organisms, where it bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in the food chain, leading to detrimental effects on ecosystem and human health...
January 28, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Sophie Gosselin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: CJEM
Lilian H J Richter, Jennifer Herrmann, Anastasia Andreas, Yu Mi Park, Lea Wagmann, Veit Flockerzi, Rolf Müller, Markus R Meyer
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an emerging topic amongst abused compounds. New varieties appear constantly on the market, without any knowledge about their toxicodynamic and/or -kinetic properties and knowledge of their metabolism is crucial for the development of analytical methods employed for their detection. Controlled human studies would of course be best suited but due to ethical reasons and lack of preclinical safety data, they are usually not available. Often, in vitro models are used to evaluate similarities to human in vivo hepatic phase I and II metabolism and systems explored include primary human hepatocytes, pooled human S9 fraction, and HepaRG, a human hepatic cell line...
January 22, 2019: Toxicology Letters
Qian Liu, Xuexi Tang, You Wang, Yingying Yang, Wei Zhang, Yunchen Zhao, Xinxin Zhang
As a newly emerging environmental contaminant, tributyl phosphate (TBP) is an additive flame retardant of high production volume that is frequently detected in biota and the environment. Despite evidence that TBP is a potential threat to marine organisms, ecotoxicology data for TBP in marine organisms at low trophic levels are scarce. In this study, the acute toxicological effect of TBP on the marine phytoplankton Phaeodactylum tricornutum was thoroughly investigated, and the possible mechanism was explored...
January 15, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Gina Manda, Mihail Eugen Hinescu, Ionela Victoria Neagoe, Luis Filipe Vieira Ferreira, Rica Boscencu, Paul Vasos, Selma Huveyda Basaga, Antonio Cuadrado
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species sustain tumorigenesis and cancer progression through deregulated redox signalling which also sensitize cancer cells to therapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising anti-cancer therapy based on a provoked singlet oxygen burst, exhibiting a better toxicological profile than chemo-and radiotherapy. Important gaps in the knowledge on underlining molecular mechanisms impede on its translation towards clinical applications. AIMS AND METHODS: the main objective of this review is to critically analyse the knowledge lately gained on therapeutic targets related to redox and inflammatory networks underlining PDT and its outcome in terms of cell death and resistance to therapy...
January 22, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Wenli Li, Juergen Pauluhn
Phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by a concentration x time (Cxt)-dependent increased pulmonary vascular permeability, phenotypically manifested as potentially life-threatening acute lung edema. In contemporary animal bioassays, the quantification of protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) is taken as an unequivocal endpoint suggestive of disruption of alveolar barrier function. However, extravasated protein can only be a surrogate endpoint for assessing the extravascular fluid dynamics of the lung...
January 19, 2019: Toxicology Letters
Anna N Berlina, Anatoly V Zherdev, Boris B Dzantiev
Food colorants are inalienable part of human life. Since ancient times, they have become firmly established and have undergone a number of changes. During this time, the attitude towards them has changed. The desire to color the food now raises questions about the various side effects of their use. With the development of methods of toxicology and obtaining data on the toxicity of food coloring, restrictions and standards for their content in food have emerged. The development of methods for the analysis of dyes in various food products is becoming increasingly in demand...
January 21, 2019: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Christy M Foran, Taylor Rycroft, Jeffrey Keisler, Edward J Perkins, Igor Linkov, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero
The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework is a conceptual construct that mechanistically links molecular initiating events to adverse biological outcomes through a series of causal key events (KEs) that represent the perturbation of the biological system. Quantitative, predictive AOPs are necessary for screening emerging contaminants and potential substitutes to inform their prioritization for testing. In practice, they are not widely used because they can be costly to develop and validate. A modular approach for assembly of quantitative AOPs, based on existing knowledge, would allow for rapid development of biological pathway models to screen contaminants for potential hazards and prioritize them for subsequent testing and modeling...
January 20, 2019: ALTEX
Zheng Dai, Marie A Abate, Gordon S Smith, James C Kraner, Allen R Mock
BACKGROUND: To describe and analyze the involvement of fentanyl and fentanyl analogs (FAs) in drug-related deaths in West Virginia (WV), United States. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of all WV drug-related deaths from 2005 to 2017 were performed, including comparisons of demographic and toxicological characteristics among total deaths, deaths in which fentanyl/FAs were present, deaths in which they were absent, heroin-related deaths, and prescription opioid-related deaths...
March 1, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Cesáreo Fernández Alonso, Óscar Quintela Jorge Llopis García, Begoña Bravo Serrano, Andrés E Santiago-Sáez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Odity Mukherjee, Shubhra Acharya, Mahendra Rao
The human brain and mechanisms underlying its functioning has been a field of intense research due to its complexity, inaccessibility, and the large numbers of debilitating disorders affecting this organ. Model organisms have provided great insight into the functioning of the mammalian brain; however, there exist many features unique to humans which need detailed understanding. In this context, human pluripotent stem cells (HPSCs) have emerged as a promising resource.In the developing brain, cortical diversification is achieved by neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) by altering its potency (from multipotent to unipotent) and differentiation capacity (from neurogenesis to gliogenesis)...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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