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Endomembrane trafficking

Jonathan Michael Dragwidge, Stefan Scholl, Karin Schumacher, Anthony Richard Gendall
The regulation of ion and pH homeostasis of endomembrane organelles is critical for functional protein trafficking, sorting and modification in eukaryotic cells. pH homeostasis is maintained through the activity of vacuolar H+ -ATPases (V-ATPases) pumping protons (H+ ) into the endomembrane lumen, and counter-action by cation/proton exchangers such as the NHX family of Na+ (K+ )/H+ exchangers. In plants, V-ATPase activity at the trans -Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) is important for secretory and endocytic trafficking, however the role of the endosomal antiporters NHX5 and NHX6 in endomembrane trafficking is unclear...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Cell Science
Fernando Vaz Dias, Susana Serrazina, Miguel Vitorino, Dario Marchese, Ingo Heilmann, Margarida Godinho, Mário Rodrigues, Rui Malhó
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) play a major role in the production of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and were implicated in endomembrane trafficking and signalling cascades. In plants, the role of DGKs is less clear, as PtdOH seems to arise mostly from phospholipase D activity. Here, we investigated the function of the Arabidopsis gene encoding DGK4, which is highly expressed in pollen. In vitro, pollen tubes from homozygous dgk4 plants showed normal morphology but reduced growth rate, altered stiffness and adhesion properties (revealed by atomic force microscopy)...
January 9, 2019: New Phytologist
Luis S Mayorga, Ignacio Cebrian, Meghna Verma, Stefan Hoops, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
BACKGROUND: Reproducing cell processes using an in silico system is an essential tool for understanding the underlying mechanisms and emergent properties of this extraordinary complex biological machine. However, computational models are seldom applied in the field of intracellular trafficking. In a cell, numerous molecular interactions occur on the surface or in the interior of membrane-bound compartments that continually change position and undergo dynamic processes of fusion and fission...
November 23, 2018: Biology Direct
Tomáš Takáč, Olga Šamajová, Pavol Vadovič, Tibor Pechan, Jozef Šamaj
Phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1) belongs to phospholipases, a large phospholipid hydrolyzing protein family. PLDα1 has a substrate preference for phosphatidylcholine leading to enzymatic production of phosphatidic acid, a lipid second messenger with multiple cellular functions. PLDα1 itself is implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Here, we present a shot-gun differential proteomic analysis on roots of two Arabidopsis pldα1 mutants compared to the wild type. Interestingly, PLDα1 deficiency leads to altered abundances of proteins involved in diverse processes related to membrane transport including endocytosis and endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport...
December 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rosalie Sinclair, Michel Ruiz Rosquete, Georgia Drakakaki
The cell wall, a complex macromolecular composite structure surrounding and protecting plant cells, is essential for development, signal transduction, and disease resistance. This structure is also integral to cell expansion, as its tensile resistance is the primary balancing mechanism against internal turgor pressure. Throughout these processes, the biosynthesis, transport, deposition, and assembly of cell wall polymers are tightly regulated. The plant endomembrane system facilitates transport of polysaccharides, polysaccharide biosynthetic and modifying enzymes and glycoproteins through vesicle trafficking pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Luciana Renna, Giovanni Stefano, Erin Slabaugh, Clarissa Wormsbaecher, Alan Sulpizio, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Federica Brandizzi
Defining convergent and divergent mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and function of endomembrane organelles is fundamentally important in cell biology. In all eukaryotes, the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) is the hub where the exocytic and endocytic pathways converge. To gain knowledge in the mechanisms underlying TGN biogenesis and function, we characterized TGNap1, a protein encoded by a plant gene of unknown function conserved with metazoans. We demonstrate that TGNap1 is a TGN protein required for the homeostasis of biosynthetic and endocytic traffic pathways...
December 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Valentin Roustan, Wolfram Weckwerth
Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the evolutionary conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase which promotes and coordinates translation with cell growth and division. In heterotrophic organisms, TOR regulation is based on intra- and extracellular stimuli such as amino acids level and insulin perception. However, how plant TOR pathways have evolved to integrate plastid endosymbiosis is a remaining question. Despite the close association of the TOR signaling with the coordination between protein turn-over and growth, proteome and phosphoproteome acclimation to a rapamycin treatment have not yet been thoroughly investigated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Renu Khasa, Anuradha Vaidya, Sudhanshu Vrati, Manjula Kalia
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is one of the leading global causes of virus-induced encephalitis. The infectious life-cycle of viruses is heavily dependent on the host membrane trafficking network. Here, we have performed a RNA-interference-based screen using a siRNA panel targeting 136 membrane trafficking proteins to identify the key regulators of JEV infection in HeLa cells. We identified 35 proteins whose siRNA depletion restricts JEV replication by over twofold. We observe that JEV infection in HeLa cells is largely dependent on components of the clathrin-mediated endocytic (CME) pathway...
November 29, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Ekansh Mittal, Michael L Skowyra, Grace Uwase, Emir Tinaztepe, Alka Mehra, Stefan Köster, Phyllis I Hanson, Jennifer A Philips
Intracellular pathogens have varied strategies to breach the endolysosomal barrier so that they can deliver effectors to the host cytosol, access nutrients, replicate in the cytoplasm, and avoid degradation in the lysosome. In the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the bacterium perforates the phagosomal membrane shortly after being taken up by macrophages. Phagosomal damage depends upon the mycobacterial ESX-1 type VII secretion system (T7SS). Sterile insults, such as silica crystals or membranolytic peptides, can also disrupt phagosomal and endolysosomal membranes...
November 27, 2018: MBio
Gildas Bourdais, Deirdre H McLachlan, Lydia M Rickett, Ji Zhou, Agnieszka Siwoszek, Heidrun Häweker, Matthew Hartley, Hannah Kuhn, Richard J Morris, Dan MacLean, Silke Robatzek
Expansion of gene families facilitates robustness and evolvability of biological processes but impedes functional genetic dissection of signalling pathways. To address this, quantitative analysis of single cell responses can help characterise the redundancy within gene families. We developed high-throughput quantitative imaging of stomatal closure, a response of plant guard cells, and performed a reverse genetic screen in a group of Arabidopsis mutants to five stimuli. Focussing on the intersection between guard cell signalling and the endomembrane system, we identified eight clusters based on the mutant stomatal responses...
November 16, 2018: Traffic
Manoj K Singh, Sandra Richter, Hauke Beckmann, Marika Kientz, York-Dieter Stierhof, Nadine Anders, Florian Fäßler, Michael Nielsen, Christian Knöll, Alexis Thomann, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Boris Macek, Karen Skriver, Peter Pimpl, Gerd Jürgens
In eukaryotes, GTP-bound ARF GTPases promote intracellular membrane traffic by mediating the recruitment of coat proteins, which in turn sort cargo proteins into the forming membrane vesicles. Mammals employ several classes of ARF GTPases which are activated by different ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In contrast, flowering plants only encode evolutionarily conserved ARF1 GTPases (class I) but not the other classes II and III known from mammals, as suggested by phylogenetic analysis of ARF family members across the five major clades of eukaryotes...
November 2018: PLoS Genetics
Aishwarya Narayan, Pragati Mastud, Vandana Thakur, Pradipsinh K Rathod, Asif Mohmmed, Swati Patankar
Glutathione peroxidase-like thioredoxin peroxidase (PfTPxGl ) is an antioxidant enzyme trafficked to the apicoplast, a secondary endosymbiotic organelle, in Plasmodium falciparum . Apicoplast trafficking signals usually consist of N-terminal signal and transit peptides, but the trafficking signal of PfTPxGl appears to exhibit important differences. As transfection is a protracted process in P. falciparum , we expressed the N terminus of PfTPxGl as a GFP fusion protein in a related apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii , in order to dissect its trafficking signals...
November 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Catalina Martínez Jaramillo, Claudia M Trujillo-Vargas
Bi-allelic mutations in LRBA (from Lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein ) result in a primary immunodeficiency with clinical features ranging from hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphoproliferative syndrome to inflammatory bowel disease and heterogeneous autoimmune manifestations. LRBA deficiency has been shown to affect vesicular trafficking, autophagy and apoptosis, which may lead to alterations of several molecules and processes that play key roles for immunity. In this review, we will discuss the relationship of LRBA with the endovesicular system in the context of receptor trafficking, autophagy and apoptosis...
September 30, 2018: Colombia Médica: CM
Amit Tuli, Mahak Sharma
Pathogens have devised various strategies to alter the host endomembrane system towards building their replicative niche. This is aptly illustrated by Salmonella Typhimurium, whereby it remodels the host endolysosomal system to form a unique niche, also known as Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Decades of research using in vitro cell-based infection studies have revealed intricate details of how Salmonella effectors target endocytic trafficking machinery of the host cell to acquire membrane and nutrients for bacterial replication...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Sergey Ivanov, Maria J Harrison
Phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid are small anionic lipids that comprise a minor proportion of total membrane lipids in eukaryotic cells but influence a broad range of cellular processes including endomembrane trafficking, signaling, exocytosis and endocytosis. To investigate the spatial distribution of phosphoinositides during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, we generated fluorescent reporters of PI(4,5)P2 and PI4P, as well as phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol and used them to monitor lipid distribution on the cytoplasmic side of membrane bilayers in colonized cortical cells...
October 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Bridget L Menasche, Lauren Crisman, Daniel R Gulbranson, Eric M Davis, Haijia Yu, Jingshi Shen
About one-third of cellular proteins in eukaryotic cells are localized to membrane-enclosed organelles in the endomembrane system. Trafficking of these membrane proteins (including soluble lumenal proteins) among the organelles is mediated by small sac-like vesicles. Vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking regulates a broad range of biological processes, many of which are still poorly understood at the molecular level. A powerful approach to dissect a vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking pathway is unbiased genome-wide genetic screening, which only recently became possible in mammalian cells with the isolation of haploid human cell lines and the development of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing...
September 28, 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Michèle Roy, Sophie Roux
Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorbing cells that maintain bone homeostasis. OC differentiation, survival, and activity are regulated by numerous small GTPases, including those of the Rab family, which are involved in plasma membrane delivery and lysosomal and autophagic degradation pathways. In resorbing OCs, polarized vesicular trafficking pathways also result in formation of the ruffled membrane, the resorbing organelle, and in transcytosis.
2018: BioMed Research International
Jin-Zheng Wang, Katayoon Dehesh
Cellular adaptive responses arise from an array of spatially and temporally distinct biochemical interactions that modulate biological processes and reorganize subcellular structures tailored to the nature of stimulus. As such, cells have evolved elegantly and tightly regulated mechanisms to enable interorganellar communication in part through the dynamic readjustment of physical distance enabling the tethering between two closely apposed membranous organelles and thus formation of Membrane Contact Sites (MCSs)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Plant Cell
Silvia Sposini, Aylin C Hanyaloglu
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily activates complex signal pathways, yet untangling these signaling systems to understand how specificity in receptor signaling pathways is achieved, has been a challenging question. The roles of membrane trafficking in GPCR signal regulation has undergone a recent paradigm shift, from a mechanism that programs the plasma membrane G protein signaling profile to providing distinct signaling platforms critical for specifying receptor function in vivo. In this chapter, we discuss this evolution of our understanding in the endocytic trafficking systems employed by GPCRs, and how such systems play a deeply integrated role with signaling...
2018: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
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