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Interneuron AND Dentate Gyrus

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718902/dorsolateral-septum-somatostatin-interneurons-gate-mobility-to-calibrate-context-specific-behavioral-fear-responses
#1
Antoine Besnard, Yuan Gao, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Hannah Twarkowski, Alexander Keith Reed, Tomer Langberg, Wendy Feng, Xiangmin Xu, Dieter Saur, Larry S Zweifel, Ian Davison, Amar Sahay
Adaptive fear responses to external threats rely upon efficient relay of computations underlying contextual encoding to subcortical circuits. Brain-wide analysis of highly coactivated ensembles following contextual fear discrimination identified the dorsolateral septum (DLS) as a relay of the dentate gyrus-CA3 circuit. Retrograde monosynaptic tracing and electrophysiological whole-cell recordings demonstrated that DLS somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) receive direct CA3 inputs. Longitudinal in vivo calcium imaging of DLS SST-INs in awake, behaving mice identified a stable population of footshock-responsive SST-INs during contextual conditioning whose activity tracked and predicted non-freezing epochs during subsequent recall in the training context but not in a similar, neutral context or open field...
February 4, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670940/the-disparity-of-impairment-of-neurogenesis-and-cognition-after-acute-or-fractionated-radiation-exposure-in-adolescent-balb-c-mice
#2
Shuang Peng, Bo Yang, Meng Yun Duan, Zi Wei Liu, Wei Feng Wang, Xiang Zhi Zhang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Ru Tang
The effect of acute X-ray irradiation with 2 Gy or fractionated exposure with 0.2 Gy continuously for 10 days (0.2 Gy × 10 = 2 Gy) was evaluated in the postnatal day 21 (P21) BALB/c mouse model. Both acute and fractionated irradiation induced impairment of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus labeled by Ki67 and doublecortin, respectively. Parvalbumin immunopositive interneurons in the subgranular zone were also reduced significantly. However, the 2 patterns of irradiation did not affect animal weight gain when measured at ages of P90 and P180 or 69 and 159 days after irradiation...
January 2019: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30632204/chronic-immobilization-stress-primes-the-hippocampal-opioid-system-for-oxycodone-associated-learning-in-female-but-not-male-rats
#3
Batsheva Reich, Yan Zhou, Ellen Goldstein, Sudarshan S Srivats, Natalina H Contoreggi, Joshua F Kogan, Bruce S McEwen, Mary Jeanne Kreek, Teresa A Milner, Jason D Gray
In adult female, but not male, Sprague-Dawley rats, chronic immobilization stress (CIS) increases mossy fiber (MF) Leu-Enkephalin levels and redistributes delta- and mu-opioid receptors (DORs and MORs) in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons to promote excitation and learning processes following subsequent opioid exposure. Here, we demonstrate that CIS females, but not males, acquire conditioned place preference (CPP) to oxycodone and that CIS "primes" the hippocampal opioid system in females for oxycodone-associated learning...
January 10, 2019: Synapse
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601685/region-specific-reduction-of-parvalbumin-neurons-and-behavioral-changes-in-adult-mice-following-single-exposure-to-cranial-irradiation
#4
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Yosuke Matsumoto, Motoi Okamoto, Takeshi Ishihara
PURPOSE: Ionizing irradiation has several long-term effects including progressive cognitive impairment. Cognitive deterioration generally appears to be caused by abnormalities in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, with abnormal function of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV neurons) in the cerebral cortex. PV neurons are vulnerable to oxidative stress, which can be caused by ionizing irradiation. We speculated that selective impairment of specific brain regions due to ionizing irradiation may alter the degree of cognitive impairment...
January 2, 2019: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594698/preferential-enhancement-of-glun2b-containing-native-nmda-receptors-by-the-endogenous-modulator-24s-hydroxycholesterol-in-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Xiaofei Wei, Toshiya Nishi, Shinichi Kondou, Haruhide Kimura, Istvan Mody
24S-hydroxycholesterol (24HC) is the major metabolic breakdown product of cholesterol in the brain. Among its other effects on neurons, 24HC modulates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA or GluN) receptors, but our understanding of this mechanism is poor. We used whole-cell patch clamp recordings and various pharmacological approaches in mouse brain slices to record isolated NMDAR-mediated (INMDA ) tonic and evoked synaptic currents. 24HC (1 μΜ) significantly enhanced tonic, but not evoked, INMDA of dentate gyrus granule cells...
December 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30559206/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mge-cell-grafting-after-status-epilepticus-attenuates-chronic-epilepsy-and-comorbidities-via-synaptic-integration
#6
Dinesh Upadhya, Bharathi Hattiangady, Olagide W Castro, Bing Shuai, Maheedhar Kodali, Sahithi Attaluri, Adrian Bates, Yi Dong, Su-Chun Zhang, Darwin J Prockop, Ashok K Shetty
Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-like interneuron precursors derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are ideal for developing patient-specific cell therapy in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, their efficacy for alleviating spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) or cognitive, memory, and mood impairments has never been tested in models of TLE. Through comprehensive video- electroencephalographic recordings and a battery of behavioral tests in a rat model, we demonstrate that grafting of hiPSC-derived MGE-like interneuron precursors into the hippocampus after status epilepticus (SE) greatly restrained SRS and alleviated cognitive, memory, and mood dysfunction in the chronic phase of TLE...
January 2, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30531788/sex-specific-effects-of-pre-pubertal-stress-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-behaviour
#7
Nichola Marie Brydges, Anna Moon, Lowenna Rule, Holly Watkin, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Experience of traumatic events in childhood is linked to an elevated risk of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not fully understood. The limbic system, particularly the hippocampus, is significantly impacted by childhood trauma. In particular, it has been hypothesised that childhood stress may impact adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and related behaviours, conferring increased risk for later mental illness. Stress in utero can lead to impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and stress in the first 2-3 weeks of life reduces AHN in animal models...
December 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30517859/supramammillary-nucleus-afferents-to-the-dentate-gyrus-co-release-glutamate-and-gaba-and-potentiate-granule-cell-output
#8
Yuki Hashimotodani, Fuyuki Karube, Yuchio Yanagawa, Fumino Fujiyama, Masanobu Kano
The supramammillary nucleus (SuM) of the hypothalamus projects to the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA2 region of the hippocampus. Although the SuM-to-hippocampus circuits have been implicated in spatial and emotional memory formation, little is known about precise neural connections between the SuM and hippocampus. Here, we report that axons of SuM neurons make monosynaptic connections to granule cells (GCs) and GABAergic interneurons, but not to hilar mossy cells, in the DG and co-release glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at these synapses...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30468337/immunoreactivity-for-calretininin-interneurons-of-the-hippocampal-ca1-field-and-dentate-gyrus-in-adult-rats-after-administration-of-habanero-peppers-capsicum-chinense-jacq
#9
J Jaworska-Adamu, A Krawczyk, K Rycerz, M Gołyński, A Wawrzyniak, K Lutnicki, I Balicki
Calretinin (CR), a calcium-binding protein from EF-hand family, is localised in non-pyramidal GABA-ergic interneurons of the hippocampus. CR takes part in maintaining calcium binding homeostasis, which suggests its neuroprotective role. Hippocampal neurons contain membrane transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) which binds to capsaicin (CAP) contained in habanero pepper fruits. Few in vivo studies have revealed the effect of CAP on interneurons containing CR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CR immunoreac- tivity in interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 field and dentate gyrus (DG) in adult rats after intragastric admin- istration of the habanero pepper fruits...
September 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30389916/parvalbumin-interneurons-obey-unique-connectivity-rules-and-establish-a-powerful-lateral-inhibition-microcircuit-in-dentate-gyrus
#10
Claudia Espinoza, Segundo Jose Guzman, Xiaomin Zhang, Peter Jonas
Parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) GABAergic interneurons in hippocampal microcircuits are thought to play a key role in several higher network functions, such as feedforward and feedback inhibition, network oscillations, and pattern separation. Fast lateral inhibition mediated by GABAergic interneurons may implement a winner-takes-all mechanism in the hippocampal input layer. However, it is not clear whether the functional connectivity rules of granule cells (GCs) and interneurons in the dentate gyrus are consistent with such a mechanism...
November 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30367961/tianeptine-antagonizes-the-reduction-of-pv-and-gad67-cells-number-in-dorsal-hippocampus-of-socially-isolated-rats
#11
Ivana Perić, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Dragos Inta, Peter Gass, Lang E Undine, Stefan Borgwardt, Dragana Filipović
Adult male rats exposed to chronic social isolation (CSIS) show depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and reduce the numbers of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in the dorsal hippocampus. We aimed to determine whether tianeptine (Tian), administered during the last three weeks of a six-week-social isolation (10 mg/kg/day), may reverse CSIS-induced behavioral changes and antagonize the CSIS-induced reduction in the number of PV+ interneurons. We also studied whether Tian affects the GABA-producing enzyme GAD67+ cells, in Stratum Oriens (SO), Stratum Pyramidale (SP), Stratum Radiatum (SR) and Stratum Lacunosum Moleculare (LM) of CA1-3, as well as in molecular layer-granule cell layer (ML-GCL) and Hilus (H) of the dentate gyrus (DG)...
October 25, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30249791/inhibitory-connectivity-dominates-the-fan-cell-network-in-layer-ii-of-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#12
Eirik S Nilssen, Bente Jacobsen, Gunhild Fjeld, Rajeevkumar R Nair, Stefan Blankvoort, Clifford Kentros, Menno P Witter
Fan cells in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) form a main component of the projection to the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA2 of the hippocampal formation. This projection has a counterpart originating from stellate cells in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). Available evidence suggests that the two pathways carry different information, exemplified by a difference in spatial tuning of cells in LEC and MEC. The grid cell, a prominent position-modulated cell type present in MEC, has been postulated to derive its characteristic hexagonal firing pattern from dominant disynaptic inhibitory connections between hippocampal-projecting stellate cells...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30145270/radioprotective-effect-of-epimedium-on-neurogenesis-and-cognition-after-acute-radiation-exposure
#13
Si Wei Wang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Qian, Xue Zhi Luo, Xi Tang, Xiao Chun Peng, Jiang Rong Huang, Feng Ru Tang
The radioprotective effect of herb epimedium (or yin yang huo) extract (5 g/kg, oral administration daily for 4 weeks) on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure with 5.5 Gy was evaluated in Balb/c mice by behavioral tests and immunohistochemical study. The results indicated that epimedium extract could improve animal weight loss, locomotor activity and spatial learning and memory which are similar to pre-irradiation intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) of amifostine phosphate, a well- known radioprotective drug...
August 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30136690/cognitive-impairment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-reduced-long-term-depression-of-excitatory-postsynaptic-potential-in-the-rat-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus
#14
Bao-Liang Zhang, Yue-Shan Fan, Ji-Wei Wang, Zi-Wei Zhou, Yin-Gang Wu, Meng-Chen Yang, Dong-Dong Sun, Jian-Ning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury can cause loss of neuronal tissue, remote symptomatic epilepsy, and cognitive deficits. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of traumatic brain injury are not yet clear. Hippocampal excitability is strongly correlated with cognitive dysfunction and remote symptomatic epilepsy. In this study, we examined the relationship between traumatic brain injury-induced neuronal loss and subsequent hippocampal regional excitability. We used hydraulic percussion to generate a rat model of traumatic brain injury...
October 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30098388/astrocytic-rather-than-neuronal-p2x7-receptors-modulate-the-function-of-the-tri-synaptic-network-in-the-rodent-hippocampus
#15
Muhammad Tahir Khan, Jan Deussing, Yong Tang, Peter Illes
Whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that in the dentate gyrus (DG) as well as in the CA3 area of mouse hippocampal slices the prototypic P2X7 receptor (R) agonist dibenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) induced inward current responses both in neurons and astrocytes. Whereas the selective P2X7R antagonist A438079 strongly inhibited both neuronal and astrocytic currents, a combination of ionotropic glutamate receptor (CNQX, AP-5) and GABAA -R (gabazine) antagonists depressed the Bz-ATP-induced current responses in the DG (granule cells) and CA3 neurons only...
August 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30057205/mossy-cells-control-adult-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-and-maintenance-through-a-dynamic-balance-between-direct-and-indirect-pathways
#16
Chia-Yu Yeh, Brent Asrican, Jonathan Moss, Luis Jhoan Quintanilla, Ting He, Xia Mao, Frederic Cassé, Elias Gebara, Hechen Bao, Wei Lu, Nicolas Toni, Juan Song
Mossy cells (MCs) represent a major population of excitatory neurons in the adult dentate gyrus, a brain region where new neurons are generated from radial neural stem cells (rNSCs) throughout life. Little is known about the role of MCs in regulating rNSCs. Here we demonstrate that MC commissural projections structurally and functionally interact with rNSCs through both the direct glutamatergic MC-rNSC pathway and the indirect GABAergic MC-local interneuron-rNSC pathway. Specifically, moderate MC activation increases rNSC quiescence through the dominant indirect pathway, while high MC activation increases rNSC activation through the dominant direct pathway...
August 8, 2018: Neuron
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30022251/cell-type-specific-effects-of-bdnf-in-modulating-dendritic-architecture-of-hippocampal-neurons
#17
Marta Zagrebelsky, N Gödecke, A Remus, Martin Korte
Brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) has been implicated in neuronal survival, differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. It was suggested that during postnatal development BDNF regulates neuronal architecture and spine morphology of neurons within certain brain areas but not others. Particularly striking are the differences between striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Whether this is due to region- or cell type-specific effects is so far not known. We address this question using conditional bdnf knock-out mice to analyze neuronal architecture and spine morphology of pyramidal cortical and hippocampal neurons as well as inhibitory neurons from these brain areas and excitatory granule neurons from the dentate gyrus...
November 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29915136/constitutive-and-synaptic-activation-of-girk-channels-differentiates-mature-and-newborn-dentate-granule-cells
#18
Jose Carlos Gonzalez, S Alisha Epps, Sean J Markwardt, Jacques I Wadiche, Linda Overstreet-Wadiche
Sparse neural activity in the dentate gyrus is enforced by powerful networks of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in combination with low intrinsic excitability of the principal neurons, the dentate granule cells (GCs). Although the cellular and circuit properties that dictate synaptic inhibition are well studied, less is known about mechanisms that confer low GC intrinsic excitability. Here we demonstrate that intact G protein-mediated signaling contributes to the characteristic low resting membrane potential that differentiates mature dentate GCs from CA1 pyramidal cells and developing adult-born GCs...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29802758/iplasticity-induced-juvenile-like-plasticity-in-the-adult-brain-as-a-mechanism-of-antidepressants
#19
REVIEW
Juzoh Umemori, Frederike Winkel, Giuliano Didio, Maria Llach Pou, Eero Castrén
The network hypothesis of depression proposes that mood disorders reflect problems in information processing within particular neural networks. Antidepressants (AD), including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), function by gradually improving information processing within these networks. AD have been shown to induce a state of juvenile-like plasticity comparable to that observed during developmental critical periods: Such critical-period-like plasticity allows brain networks to better adapt to extrinsic and intrinsic signals...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#20
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A S Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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