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Anticoagulants guidelines for neuraxial blockade

Nitin Madhukar Bhorkar, Tasneem Saleh Dhansura, Urmila Bhaktiprasad Tarawade, Sanket Sharad Mehta
Coagulopathy either from the use of anticoagulant, antiplatelet, or thrombolytic medications or from underlying medical conditions is considered one of the major risk factors for epidural hematoma formation related to epidural catheter placement or removal. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) has laid down guidelines regarding timing of neuraxial blockade or removal of neuraxial catheters in patients receiving either antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy. We present a case of acute onset of paraplegia because of an epidural hematoma following removal of the epidural catheter in a patient who was given the first dose of antithrombotic therapy after the removal of the epidural catheter as per the ASRA guidelines...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
S Griffiths, C Woo, V Mansoubi, A Riccoboni, A Sabharwal, S Napier, M Columb, M Laffan, G Stocks
BACKGROUND: Low molecular weight heparin is routinely used for thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy and the puerperium. Consensus guidelines recommend waiting 10-12h after administration of a thromboprophylactic dose of low molecular weight heparin before performing a neuraxial block or removing an epidural catheter. Thromboelastography (TEG®) has been reported to be sensitive to the effects of enoxaparin 4h after administration. The purpose of this study was to use TEG to examine coagulation changes in the first 10h after a thromboprophylactic dose of tinzaparin in an attempt to ratify the current consensus guidelines about timing of neuraxial blockade and epidural catheter removal...
February 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Jinlei Li, Thomas Halaszynski
Incidence of hemorrhagic complications from neuraxial blockade is unknown, but classically cited as 1 in 150,000 epidurals and 1 in 220,000 spinals. However, recent literature and epidemiologic data suggest that for certain patient populations the frequency is higher (1 in 3,000). Due to safety concerns of bleeding risk, guidelines and recommendations have been designed to reduce patient morbidity/mortality during regional anesthesia. Data from evidence-based reviews, clinical series and case reports, collaborative experience of experts, and pharmacology used in developing consensus statements are unable to address all patient comorbidities and are not able to guarantee specific outcomes...
2015: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Guadalupe Zaragoza-Lemus, Raúl Carrillo-Esper
BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis in surgical patients requires specific measures to implement regional anesthesia techniques. In this regard the current clinical practice guidelines of anesthesiology summarizes the recommendations of the review of current evidence. OBJECTIVE: We must recognize the general guidelines for thromboprophylaxis and impact modifiers of coagulation for the Surgical Team to implement the actions for each specific patient. DISCUSSION: The most feared event by anesthesiologists is the spinal hematoma, but given its rarity there is a prospective randomized study, nor is there currently a laboratory model...
September 2012: Cirugia y Cirujanos
R Ortiz de la Tabla González, A Martínez Navas, M Echevarría Moreno
Central neuraxial blocks, which are associated with a low incidence of complications, are safe. When complications do occur, however, the resulting morbidity and mortality is considerable. The reported incidence of complications in all series is under 4 per 10000 patients, but given the absence of formal registries and notification procedures, which have legal implications, the real rate of occurrence of these rare events is uncertain. We searched the literature through PubMed and the Cochrane Plus Library for a 5-year period, using the search terms epidural anesthesia AND safety, spinal anesthesia AND safety, complications AND epidural anesthesia, complications AND spinal anesthesia, neurologic complications AND epidural anesthesia, and neurologic complications AND spinal anesthesia...
August 2011: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
W Gogarten, K Hoffmann, H Van Aken
Neuraxial blockade confers benefits to surgical patients not only due to the high analgesic quality but also through a reduction in postoperative complications, such as respiratory insufficiency and a shortening of postoperative paralytic ileus. In orthopedic surgery peripheral and neuraxial blockades are extensively used to enhance postoperative mobilization. The most serious complication of neuraxial blockade is spinal epidural hematoma, which may lead to permanent paraplegia if left untreated. The risk is enhanced in patients receiving thromboembolism prophylaxis...
November 2010: Der Unfallchirurg
Wiebke Gogarten, Erik Vandermeulen, Hugo Van Aken, Sibylle Kozek, Juan V Llau, Charles M Samama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: performing neuraxial anaesthesia in patients receiving antithrombotic drugs is controversial due to the increased risk of spinal epidural haematoma. Strict adherence to the recommended time intervals between the administration of anticoagulants, neuraxial blockade and the removal of catheters is thought to improve patient safety and reduce the risk of haematoma. Appropriate guidelines have been prepared by a number of national societies of anaesthesiologists, but they do not have universal acceptance...
December 2010: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Terese T Horlocker, Denise J Wedel, John C Rowlingson, F Kayser Enneking, Sandra L Kopp, Honorio T Benzon, David L Brown, John A Heit, Michael F Mulroy, Richard W Rosenquist, Michael Tryba, Chun-Su Yuan
The actual incidence of neurologic dysfunction resulting from hemorrhagic complications associated with neuraxial blockade is unknown. Although the incidence cited in the literature is estimated to be less than 1 in 150,000 epidural and less than 1 in 220,000 spinal anesthetics, recent epidemiologic surveys suggest that the frequency is increasing and may be as high as 1 in 3000 in some patient populations.Overall, the risk of clinically significant bleeding increase with age,associated abnormalities of the spinal cord or vertebral column, the presence of an underlying coagulopathy, difficulty during needle placement,and an indwelling neuraxial catheter during sustained anticoagulation( particularly with standard heparin or low-molecular weight heparin)...
January 2010: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Wiebke Gogarten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antithrombotic drugs are known to increase the risk of spinal epidural hematoma after neuraxial blockade. During the last few years, several new anticoagulants have been introduced, some of them more potent than the drugs currently available. More potency, however, may also indicate a higher risk of bleeding. RECENT FINDINGS: Case series from the last few years indicate that spinal epidural hematoma is more common then previously estimated, with a prevalence from 1: 100,000 in obstetric patients to as high as 1: 3,600 in female orthopedic patients...
October 2006: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
J J De Lange, J W Van Kleef, J J E Van Everdingen
In a patient with a coagulation disorder, the administration of a local anaesthetic by means of a needle or via the insertion of a catheter into the epidural space or spinal cavity may lead to bleeding and haematoma formation, with a danger of pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots. Employing the method of the Dutch Institute for Healthcare (CBO) for the development of practice guidelines, a working group of anaesthesiologists, a haematologist and a hospital chemist have drawn up recommendations for neuraxis blockade in combination with anticoagulant therapy...
July 31, 2004: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
A Tyagi, A Bhattacharya
Patients receiving anticoagulants offer a challenge to anaesthesiologists. The issue of spinal haematoma following central neuraxial block in such patients is a contentious issue. Although rare, with an estimated incidence of < 1:150,000 for epidural blocks and 1:220,000 for spinal anaesthetics in patients with normal coagulation status, this is an emergency situation with a potentially grave prognosis. The review presents cases of spinal haematomata that have occurred in the last 5 years, both spontaneously and after central neuraxial blockade...
May 2002: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
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