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Deep oscillation

Anders Christian Meidahl, Christian K E Moll, Bernadette van Wijk, Alessandro Gulberti, Gerd Tinkhauser, Manfred Westphal, Andreas K Engel, Wolfgang Hamel, Peter Brown, Andrew Sharott
Both phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and beta-bursts in the subthalamic nucleus have been significantly linked to symptom severity in Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans and emerged independently as competing biomarkers for closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, the underlying nature of subthalamic PAC is poorly understood and its relationship with transient beta burst-events has not been investigated. To address this, we studied macro- and micro electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity from 15 hemispheres in 10 PD patients undergoing DBS surgery...
February 9, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Haohua Li, Xiaobo Wang, Tian Yang, Ji Zhou
Hybridized metamaterials with collective mode resonance are usually applied as sensors. In this paper, we make use of one Mie-based hybridized metamolecule comprising of dielectric meta-atoms and an elastic bonding layer in order to detect the distances and applied forces. The hybridization induced splitting results in two new collective resonance modes, of which the red-shifted mode behaves as the in-phase oscillation of two meta-atoms. Owing to the synergy of the oscillation, the in-phase resonance appears as a deep dip with a relatively high Q-factor and figure of merit (FoM)...
February 3, 2019: Materials
Lijun Liu, Li Ding, Donglai Zhong, Jie Han, Shuo Wang, Qinghai Meng, Chenguang Qiu, Xingye Zhang, Lian-Mao Peng, Zhiyong Zhang
Along with ultra-low energy-delay products and symmetric complementary polarities, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT FETs) are expected to be promising building blocks for energy-efficient computing technology. However, the work frequencies of the existing CNT-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits (ICs) are far below the requirement (850 MHz) in state-of-art wireless communication applications. In this work, we fabricated deep sub-micron CMOS FETs with considerably improved performance of n-type CNT FETs and hence significantly promoted the work frequency of CNT CMOS ICs to 1...
January 29, 2019: ACS Nano
G E Rowlands, C A Ryan, L Ye, L Rehm, D Pinna, A D Kent, T A Ohki
We present a study of precessional magnetization switching in orthogonal spin-torque spin-valve devices at low temperatures. The samples consist of a spin-polarizing layer that is magnetized out-of-the film plane and an in-plane magnetized free and reference magnetic layer separated by non-magnetic metallic layers. We find coherent oscillations in the switching probability, characterized by high speed switching (~200 ps), error rates as low as 10-5 and decoherence effects at longer timescales (~1 ns). Our study, which is conducted over a wide range of parameter space (pulse amplitude and duration) with deep statistics, demonstrates that the switching dynamics are likely dominated by the action of the out-of-plane spin polarization, in contrast to in-plane spin-torque from the reference layer, as has been the case in most previous studies...
January 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
Aurore A Perrault, Abbas Khani, Charles Quairiaux, Konstantinos Kompotis, Paul Franken, Michel Muhlethaler, Sophie Schwartz, Laurence Bayer
Sensory processing continues during sleep and can influence brain oscillations. We previously showed that a gentle rocking stimulation (0.25 Hz), during an afternoon nap, facilitates wake-sleep transition and boosts endogenous brain oscillations (i.e., EEG spindles and slow oscillations [SOs]). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the rhythmic rocking stimulation synchronizes sleep oscillations, a neurophysiological mechanism referred to as "neural entrainment." We analyzed EEG brain responses related to the stimulation recorded from 18 participants while they had a full night of sleep on a rocking bed...
January 11, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Mehedi Masud, Mary Bishai, Poonam Mehta
The proposed Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) utilizes a wide-band on-axis tunable muon-(anti)neutrino beam with a baseline of 1300 km to search for CP violation with high precision. Given the long baseline, DUNE is also sensitive to effects due to matter induced non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) which can interfere with the standard three-flavor oscillation paradigm. Hence it is desirable to design strategies to disentangle effects due to NSI from standard oscillations. In this article, we exploit the tunability of the DUNE neutrino beam over a wide-range of energies to devise an experimental strategy for separating oscillation effects due to NSI from the standard three-flavor oscillation scenario...
January 23, 2019: Scientific Reports
Rebecca M Pullon, Samuel McCabe, Amy Gaskell, Jamie W Sleigh
The effect of anaesthetic drugs on the cortex are commonly estimated from the electroencephalogram (EEG) by quantitative EEG monitors such as the Bispectral Index (BIS). These monitors use ratios of high to low frequency power which assumes that each neurological process contributes a unique frequency pattern. However, recent research of the effect of deep brain stimulation on EEG beta oscillations suggests that wave shape, a non-sinusoidal feature that is only measurable in the time-domain, can change the frequency 'signature' of a neurological rhythmical process by the inclusion or removal of harmonic frequencies...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Simon von Stengel, Marc Teschler, Anja Weissenfels, Sebastian Willert, Wolfgang Kemmler
Background/Objective: In soccer the recovery time between matches is often not long enough for complete restoration. Insufficient recovery can result in reduced performance and a higher risk of injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Deep Oscillation (DO) as a recovery method. Methods: In a randomized crossover study including 8 male soccer players (22 ± 3.3 years) the following parameters were evaluated directly before and 48 h after a fatiguing soccer-specific exercise: Maximum isokinetic strength of the leg and hip extensors and flexors (Con-Trex® Leg Press, Physiomed, Germany), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during isokinetic testing (Borg scale 6-20), creatine kinase (CK) serum levels and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS; visual analogue scale 1-10)...
December 2018: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Robert S Eisinger, Stephanie Cernera, Aryn Gittis, Aysegul Gunduz, Michael S Okun
INTRODUCTION: Drawing on the seminal work of DeLong, Albin, and Young, we have now entered an era of basal ganglia neuromodulation. Understanding, re-evaluating, and leveraging the lessons learned from neuromodulation will be crucial to facilitate an increased and improved application of neuromodulation in human disease. METHODS: We will focus on deep brain stimulation (DBS) - the most common form of basal ganglia neuromodulation - however, similar principles can apply to other neuromodulation modalities...
January 9, 2019: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
G F Cittolin-Santos, P A Guazzelli, Y Nonose, R F Almeida, F U Fontella, M V Pasquetti, F J Ferreira-Lima, G Lazzaroto, R M Berlezi, A B Osvaldt, M E Calcagnotto, A M de Assis, D O Souza
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents a brain dysfunction caused by both acute and chronic liver failure, and its severity deeply affects the prognosis of patients with impaired liver function. In its pathophysiology, ammonia levels and glutamatergic system hyperactivity seem to play a pivotal role in the disruption of brain homeostasis. Here, we investigate important outcomes involved in behavioral performance, electroencephalographic patterns, and neurochemical parameters to better characterize the well-accepted animal model of acute liver failure induced by subtotal hepatectomy (92% removal of tissue) that produces acute liver failure (ALF)...
January 14, 2019: Neuroscience
Chi-Ming Hai
We tested the hypothesis that oscillatory ASM mechanics is governed by mechanosensitive energy loss and energy release elements that can be recruited by prestrain and cholinergic stimulation. We measured mechanical energy loss and mechanical energy release in unstimulated and carbachol-stimulated bovine ASM held at prestrains ranging from 0.3 to 1.0Lo (reference length) and subjected to sinusoidal length oscillation at 1 hz with oscillatory strain amplitudes ranging from 0.1% to 1.5%Lo. We found that oscillatory ASM mechanics during sinusoidal length oscillation is governed predominantly by one class of nonlinear mechanosensitive energy loss element and one class of nonlinear mechanosensitive energy release element with differential mechanosensitivities to oscillatory strain amplitude...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Kevin Johnston, Liya Ma, Lauren Schaeffer, Stefan Everling
Cognitive control often requires suppression of prepotent stimulus-driven responses in favour of less potent alternatives. Suppression of prepotent saccades has been shown to require proactive inhibition in the frontoparietal saccade network. Electrophysiological evidence in macaque monkeys has revealed neural correlates of such inhibition in this network, however the interlaminar instantiation of inhibitory processes remains poorly understood as these areas lie deep within sulci in macaques, rendering them inaccessible to laminar recordings...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yuta Senzai, Antonio Fernandez-Ruiz, György Buzsáki
The relationship between mesoscopic local field potentials (LFPs) and single-neuron firing in the multi-layered neocortex is poorly understood. Simultaneous recordings from all layers in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the behaving mouse revealed functionally defined layers in V1. The depth of maximum spike power and sink-source distributions of LFPs provided consistent laminar landmarks across animals. Coherence of gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) and spike-LFP coupling identified six physiological layers and further sublayers...
December 21, 2018: Neuron
Ryohei Fukuma, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Masataka Tanaka, Fumiaki Yoshida, Koichi Hosomi, Satoru Oshino, Naoki Tani, Haruhiko Kishima
The β-band oscillation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Previous studies demonstrated that l-DOPA decreases the β-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations with improvement of motor symptoms. However, it has not been elucidated whether patients with Parkinson's disease are able to control the β-band oscillation voluntarily. Here, we hypothesized that neurofeedback training to control the β-band power in the STN induces plastic changes in the STN of individuals with Parkinson's disease...
November 2018: ENeuro
Angela M Mendoza, Wilmar Bolívar-García, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez, Roberto Ibáñez, Gabriela Parra Olea
The complex geological history of Central America has been useful for understanding the processes influencing the distribution and diversity of multiple groups of organisms. Anurans are an excellent choice for such studies because they typically exhibit site fidelity and reduced movement. The objective of this work was to identify the impact of recognized geographic barriers on the genetic structure, phylogeographic patterns and divergence times of a wide-ranging amphibian species, Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni ...
2019: PeerJ
Agnes Rigouzzo, Linda Khoy-Ear, Dominique Laude, Nicolas Louvet, Marie-Laure Moutard, Nada Sabourdin, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: In this prospective randomized study we describe the electroencephalographic profiles in children anesthetized with sevoflurane or propofol: Bispectral Index (BIS)-Concentration relationship and raw electroencephalogram were analyzed. METHODS: Seventy-three subjects (11 years, range 5-18) were included and randomly assigned to two groups according to the anesthetic agent. Anesthesia was performed by Target Controlled Infusion of propofol (group P) or by sevoflurane inhalation (group S)...
January 4, 2019: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Youngjung Kim, Bumsub Ham, Minh N Do, Kwanghoon Sohn
Most variational formulations for structure-texture image decomposition force structure images to have small norm in some functional spaces, and share a common notion of edges, i.e., large-gradients or -intensity differences. However, such definition makes it difficult to distinguish structure edges from oscillations that have fine spatial scale but high contrast. In this paper, we introduce a new model by learning deep variational prior for structure images without explicit training data. An alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM) algorithm and its modular structure are adopted to plug deep variational priors into an iterative smoothing process...
December 24, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Martina Bočková, Ivan Rektor
Clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are accompanied by pathological phenomena detected locally in the basal ganglia (BG) as changes in local field potentials (LFPs) and also in cortical regions by electroencephalography (EEG). The literature published mainly between 2000 and 2017 was reviewed with an emphasis on approaches emerging after 2000, in particular on oscillatory dynamics, connectivity studies, and deep brain stimulation. Eighty-five articles were reviewed. The main observations were a general slowing of background activity, excessive synchronization of beta activity, and disturbed movement-related gamma oscillations in the BG and in the cortico-subcortical and cortico-cortical motor loops, suppressible by dopaminergic medication as well as by high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
December 3, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Marc Deffains, Hagai Bergman
Today, the basal ganglia (BG) network can be viewed as a three-layer neural network in which the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are the two BG input structures and together innervate BG downstream structures using GABA and glutamate, respectively. The striatum is larger than the STN and is the main site of dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, STN is the prime target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of patients with advanced PD. Traditionally, the efficacy of STN-DBS is attributed to the suppression of the pathological synchronous β oscillations along the cortico-thalamo BG network...
December 14, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Luke Mugge, Brianna Krafcik, Gregory Pontasch, Ahmed Alnemari, Joseph Neimat, Daniel Gaudin
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a common neurodegenerative disorder. Functional neurosurgery largely arose with the introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a potential option for PD unresponsive to medical management. Biomarkers are clinical and laboratory indicators of therapeutic success or failure. OBJECTIVES: To examine the current and published literature relating to the development and use of biomarkers in monitoring and determining the efficacy of DBS in PD...
December 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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