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Small opening frame encoded peptides

Laura Lorenzo-Orts, Janika Witthoeft, Jules Deforges, Jacobo Martinez, Sylvain Loubéry, Aleksandra Placzek, Yves Poirier, Ludwig A Hothorn, Yvon Jaillais, Michael Hothorn
Eukaryotic mRNAs frequently contain upstream open reading frames (uORFs), encoding small peptides that may control translation of the main ORF (mORF). Here, we report the characterization of a distinct bicistronic transcript in Arabidopsis. We analysed loss-of-function phenotypes of the inorganic polyphosphatase TRIPHOSPHATE TUNNEL METALLOENZYME 3 (AtTTM3), and found that catalytically inactive versions of the enzyme could fully complement embryo and growth-related phenotypes. We could rationalize these puzzling findings by characterizing a uORF in the AtTTM3 locus encoding CELL DIVISION CYCLE PROTEIN 26 (CDC26), an orthologue of the cell cycle regulator...
February 2019: Nature Plants
Xinqiang Yin, Yuanyuan Jing, Hanmei Xu
Small open reading frames (sORFs) with potential protein-coding capacity have been disclosed in various transcripts, including long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs), mRNAs (5'-upstream, coding domain, and 3'-downstream), circular RNAs, pri-miRNAs, and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Recent characterization of several sORF-encoded peptides (SEPs or micropeptides) revealed their important roles in many fundamental biological processes in a broad range of species from yeast to human. The success in mining of micropeptides attributes to the advanced bioinformatics and high-throughput sequencing techniques...
January 22, 2019: Expert Review of Proteomics
Christopher Scheidler, Leonhard Kick, Sabine Schneider
Genetically encoded and ribosomally synthesised small proteins and peptides act as important regulators in fundamental cellular processes, including gene expression, development, signalling and metabolism. Moreover, they also play a crucial role in the eukaryotic and prokaryotic defence against microorganisms and are extremely diverse in size and structure, and are often subject to extensive posttranslational modification. Recent technological advances now allow the analysis of the whole cellular transcriptome and proteome, revealing the presence of hundreds, long overlooked, alternative and short open reading frames (ORFs) in mRNA and supposedly non-coding RNAs...
January 16, 2019: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Cuitong He, Yao Zhang, Ying Jiang, Ping Xu
Small proteins (SPs) are defined as peptides of 100 amino acids or less encoded by short open reading frames (sORFs). SPs participate in a wide range of functions in cells, including gene regulating, cell signaling and metabolism. However, most annotated SPs in all living organisms are currently lacking expression evidence at the protein level and regarded as missing proteins (MPs). High efficient SPs identification is the prerequisite for their functional study and contribution to MPs searching. In this study, we identified 72 SPs and successfully validated 9 MPs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on SPs enrichment strategy...
November 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Michael S Brito, Henrique C DePaoli, Viviani Cossalter, Nilton C Avanci, Pedro B Ferreira, Mariana S Azevedo, Edward J Strini, Andréa C Quiapim, Gustavo H Goldman, Lázaro E P Peres, Maria Helena S Goldman
Plant morphogenesis is dependent on cell proliferation and cell expansion, which are responsible for establishing final organ size and shape during development. Several genes have been described as encoding components of the plant cell development machinery, among which are the plant peptides. Here we describe a novel cysteine-rich plant peptide (68 amino acids), encoded by a small open reading frame gene (sORF). It is specifically expressed in the reproductive organs of Nicotiana tabacum and is developmentally regulated...
December 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Yuqi Bai, Donghong Niu, Yan Li, Yulin Bai, Tianyi Lan, Maoxiao Peng, Zhiguo Dong, Fanyue Sun, Jiale Li
Galectins are lectins possessing an evolutionarily conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with affinity for β-galactoside. The key role played by innate immunity in invertebrates has recently become apparent. Herein, a full-length galectin (ScGal) was identified in razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta). The 528 bp open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 176 amino acids with a single CRD and no signal peptide. ScGal mRNA transcripts were mainly expressed in hemolymph and gill, and were significantly up-regulated following bacterial challenge...
October 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Rashmi R Hazarika, Nikolina Sostaric, Yifeng Sun, Vera van Noort
Several recent studies indicate that small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) embedded within multiple eukaryotic non-coding RNAs can be translated into bioactive peptides of up to 100 amino acids in size. However, the functional roles of the 607 Stress Induced Peptides (SIPs) previously identified from 189 Transcriptionally Active Regions (TARs) in Arabidopsis thaliana remain unclear. To provide a starting point for functional annotation of these plant-derived peptides, we performed a large-scale prediction of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces using coarse-grained peptide docking...
2018: PloS One
Laura Manuelidis
Small circular DNAs of 1.8 and 2.4 kb were initially discovered in highly infectious Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and scrapie particles from mammalian brain and cultured cells. Surprisingly, these protected cytoplasmic "SPHINX" DNAs contained replication (REP) initiation sequences resembling those of Acinetobacter phage viruses. An antibody was generated against a REP peptide encoded by the SPHINX 1.8 open reading frame (ORF) that was not present in mammals. It bound to a 41kd "spx1" protein on Western blots...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Shengzhen Jin, Xin Zhao, Hongquan Wang, Jianming Su, Jing'an Wang, Chunhua Ding, Yaoguo Li, Tiaoyi Xiao
The barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus) is a kind of small size commercial fish species that is widely spread in Asia and has shown significant resistance to disease. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 from S. curriculus, designated as ScTLR7 and ScTLR8, were cloned, and their differences in the structure and the responses to the grass carp (GCRV) infection and lipopolysaccharide stimulation were investigated. The full-length 3715 base pair (bp) cDNA of ScTLR7 contained a complete open reading frame of 3162 bp and encoded a putative polypeptide of 1053 amino acid residues...
September 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Annie Rathore, Qian Chu, Dan Tan, Thomas F Martinez, Cynthia J Donaldson, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Alan Saghatelian
Recent technological advances led to the discovery of hundreds to thousands of peptides and small proteins (microproteins) encoded by small open reading frames (smORFs). Characterization of new microproteins demonstrates their role in fundamental biological processes and highlights the value in discovering and characterizing more microproteins. The elucidation of microprotein-protein interactions (MPIs) is useful for determining the biochemical and cellular roles of microproteins. In this study, we characterize the protein interaction partners of mitochondrial elongation factor 1 microprotein (MIEF1-MP) using a proximity labeling strategy that relies on APEX2...
September 25, 2018: Biochemistry
Mukul Sharma, Madhusmita Das, D Diana, Anna Wedderburn, Roy Anindya
Mycobacterium leprae is an unculturable obligate pathogen and causative agent for debilitating human disease leprosy. Due to reductive genome evolution M leprae genome harbours large number of pseudogenes and small number of genes (∼1600 genes and ∼1300 pseudogenes). How M leprae remained a successful human parasite with small set of genes remains poorly understood and provided us the impetus to investigate the intergenic regions of M leprae genome for the presence of possible open reading frames (ORFs)...
August 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Min Zhu, Xiaolong Hu, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
A large number of DNAs in eukaryote genomes can code for atypical transcripts, and their functions are controversial. It has been reported that the transcripts contain many small open reading frames (sORFs), which were originally considered as non-translatable RNAs. However, increasing evidence has suggested that some of these sORFs can encode for small peptides and some are conserved across large evolutionary distances. It has been reported that the small peptides have functions and may be involved in varieties of cellular processes, playing important roles in development, physiology, and metabolism...
June 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dinglong Yang, Qianqian Zhang, Qing Wang, Lizhu Chen, Yongliang Liu, Ming Cong, Huifeng Wu, Fei Li, Chenglong Ji, Jianmin Zhao
Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins that are ubiquitously present in both vertebrates and invertebrates and constitute the front line of host innate immunity. In the present study, a defensin-like antimicrobial peptide (designed as RpdefB) was identified and characterized from the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The open reading frame of RpdefB encoded a 70-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 7.5 kDa and isoelectric point of 8.16. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that RpdefB was a new member of the defensin family...
September 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cuitong He, Chenxi Jia, Yao Zhang, Ping Xu
Microproteins are peptides composed of 100 amino acids (AA) or fewer, encoded by small open reading frames (smORFs). It has been demonstrated that microproteins participate in and regulate a wide range of functions in cells. However, the annotation and identification of microproteins is challenging in part owing to their low molecular weight, low abundancy, and hydrophobicity. These factors have led to the unannotation of smORFs in genome processing and have made their identification at the protein level difficult...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Paul Gaytán, Abigail Roldán-Salgado, Jorge A Yáñez, Sandra Morales-Arrieta, Víctor R Juárez-González
Circularly permuted proteins (cpPs) represent a novel type of mutant proteins with original termini that are covalently linked through a peptide connector and opened at any other place of the polypeptide backbone to create new ends. cpPs are finding wide applications in biotechnology because their properties may be quite different from those of the parental protein. However, the actual challenge for the creation of successful cpPs is to identify those peptide bonds that can be broken to create new termini and ensure functional and well-folded cpPs...
July 9, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Yanan Pang, Chuanbin Mao, Shanrong Liu
The universal expression of various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is now considered the main feature of organisms' genomes. Many regions in the genome are transcribed but not annotated to encode proteins, yet contain small open reading frames (smORFs). A widely accepted opinion is that a vast majority of ncRNAs are not further translated. However, increasing evidence underlines a series of intriguing translational events from the ncRNAs, which were previously considered to lack coding potential. Recent studies also suggest that products derived from such novel translational events display important regulatory functions in many fundamental biological and pathological processes...
2018: Theranostics
Hui Li, Li Xiao, Lili Zhang, Jiarui Wu, Bin Wei, Ninghui Sun, Yi Zhao
smORFs are small open reading frames of less than 100 codons. Recent low throughput experiments showed a lot of smORF-encoded peptides (SEPs) played crucial rule in processes such as regulation of transcription or translation, transportation through membranes and the antimicrobial activity. In order to gather more functional SEPs, it is necessary to have access to genome-wide prediction tools to give profound directions for low throughput experiments. In this study, we put forward a functional smORF-encoded peptides predictor (FSPP) which tended to predict authentic SEPs and their functions in a high throughput method...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jiao Ma, Alan Saghatelian, Maxim Nikolaievich Shokhirev
Proteogenomics methods have identified many non-annotated protein-coding genes in the human genome. Many of the newly discovered protein-coding genes encode peptides and small proteins, referred to collectively as microproteins. Microproteins are produced through ribosome translation of small open reading frames (smORFs). The discovery of many smORFs reveals a blind spot in traditional gene-finding algorithms for these genes. Biological studies have found roles for microproteins in cell biology and physiology, and the potential that there exists additional bioactive microproteins drives the interest in detection and discovery of these molecules...
2018: PloS One
Sabrina Kragness, Mark A A Harrison, Joby J Westmoreland, Adam Burstain, Laurie R Earls
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries increased risk for both physical and psychiatric symptoms, including a high risk for schizophrenia. Understanding the genetic elements within the deletion region therefore has the potential to unlock the mysteries of both diseases. While most of the protein-coding genes in this region have been characterized, novel elements, such as non-coding RNAs and small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) remain unstudied. We have identified a novel, highly-conserved mouse sORF in a region of the mouse genome that is orthologous to a portion of the 22q11...
June 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Dong-Li Li, Xue-Jiao Chang, Xiao-Lu Xie, Shu-Cheng Zheng, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Shu-Ao Jia, Ke-Jian Wang, Hai-Peng Liu
The β-thymosins are a group of structurally related, highly conserved intracellular small peptides in vertebrates with various biological functions, including cytoskeletal remodeling, neuronal development, cell migration, cell survival, tissue repair and inhibition of inflammation. In contrast to vertebrates, the function of β-thymosin is not fully understood in crustaceans. Previously, we found that a thymosin-repeated protein1 (CqTRP1) gene was up-regulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge in hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus...
July 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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