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Brian B Avants, R Matthew Hutchison, Alvydas Mikulskis, Cristian Salinas-Valenzuela, Richard Hargreaves, John Beaver, Ping Chiao
Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition and cognitive decline are key features of Alzheimer's disease. The relationship between Aβ status and changes in neuronal function over time, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of baseline Aβ status on reference region spontaneous brain activity (SBA-rr) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients (N = 62, [43 Aβ-positive]) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were divided into Aβ-positive and Aβ-negative groups via prespecified cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 or 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography standardized uptake value ratio cutoffs measured at baseline...
October 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Camila Orellana, Daniel Ferreira, J-Sebastian Muehlboeck, Patrizia Mecocci, Bruno Vellas, Magda Tsolaki, Iwona Kłoszewska, Hilkka Soininen, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman
BACKGROUND: Global brain atrophy is present in normal aging and different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is becoming widely used to monitor disease progression. SUMMARY: The brain volume/cerebrospinal fluid index (BV/CSF index) is validated in this study as a measurement of global brain atrophy. We tested the ability of the BV/CSF index to detect global brain atrophy, investigated the influence of confounders, provided normative values and cut-offs for mild, moderate and severe brain atrophy, and studied associations with different outcome variables...
2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Paula T Trzepacz, Helen Hochstetler, Peng Yu, Peter Castelluccio, Michael M Witte, Grazia Dell'Agnello, Elisabeth K Degenhardt
AIMS: To assess how hippocampal volume (HV) from volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (vMRI) is related to the amyloid status at different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its relevance to patient care. METHODS: We evaluated the ability of HV to predict the florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positive/negative status by group in healthy controls (HC, n = 170) and early/late mild cognitive impairment (EMCI, n = 252; LMCI, n = 136), and AD dementia (n = 75) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Grand Opportunity (ADNI-GO) and ADNI2...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Duygu Tosun, Norbert Schuff, William Jagust, Michael W Weiner
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) identify similar regional abnormalities and have comparable diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The agreement between these modalities in the AD continuum, which is an important concept for early detection and disease monitoring, is yet unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the ability of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) measures from ASL-MRI and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) measures from FDG-PET to distinguish amyloid-β-positive (Aβ+) subjects in the AD continuum from healthy controls...
2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Heidi F Christoffersen, Sara K Hansen, Brian S Vad, Erik H Nielsen, Jakob T Nielsen, Thomas Vosegaard, Troels Skrydstrup, Daniel E Otzen
The medium-length fungal peptaibol SPF-5506-A(4) has been shown to inhibit formation of the Aβ peptide involved in Alzheimer''s disease. As Aβ is a cleavage-product from the membrane-bound APP protein, we hypothesized that SPF-5506-A(4)'s activity might be linked to membrane interactions in general. Here we describe the synthesis, structure and membrane interactions of SPF-5506-A4. The challenging synthesis was carried out on solid phase and a detailed conformational analysis in solution revealed a β-bend ribbon spiral core structure with flexible termini...
August 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sheng Chih Jin, Bruno A Benitez, Celeste M Karch, Breanna Cooper, Tara Skorupa, David Carrell, Joanne B Norton, Simon Hsu, Oscar Harari, Yefei Cai, Sarah Bertelsen, Alison M Goate, Carlos Cruchaga
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid 2 (TREM2) is an immune phagocytic receptor expressed on brain microglia known to trigger phagocytosis and regulate the inflammatory response. Homozygous mutations in TREM2 cause Nasu-Hakola disease, a rare recessive form of dementia. A heterozygous TREM2 variant, p.R47H, was recently shown to increase Alzheimer''s disease (AD) risk. We hypothesized that if TREM2 is truly an AD risk gene, there would be additional rare variants in TREM2 that substantially affect AD risk...
November 1, 2014: Human Molecular Genetics
Jonathan Brouillette
The neurodegenerative process that defines Alzheimer''s disease (AD) is initially characterized by synaptic alterations followed by synapse loss and ultimately cell death. Decreased synaptic density that precedes neuronal death is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive deficits observed in AD. Substantial synapse and neuron loss occur early in disease progression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, when memory deficits become clinically detectable. Mounting evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers trigger synapse dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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