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Yu Zhu Lyu, Hao Jie Zhu, Mao Sun
Miniature insects fly at very low Reynolds number (Re); low Re means large viscous effect. If flapping as larger insects, sufficient vertical force cannot be produced. We measure the wing kinematics for miniature-insect species of different sizes and compute the aerodynamic forces. The planar upstroke commonly used by larger insects changes to a U-shaped upstroke, which becomes deeper as size or Re decreases. For relatively large miniature insects, the U-shaped upstroke produces a larger vertical force than a planar upstroke by having a larger wing velocity and, for very small ones, the deep U-shaped upstroke produces a large transient drag directed upwards, providing the required vertical force...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Cem Işık, Serdar Ongan, Dilek Özdemir
This study aims to test the EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis for the ten states, having the highest levels of carbon dioxide emissions in the USA, through the independent variables of real GDP, population, and renewable energy and fossil energy consumptions. To this aim, the panel estimation method with cross-sectional dependence is applied to data from 1980 to 2015. The empirical findings of the study indicate that the EKC (inverted U-shaped) hypothesis is valid only for Florida, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Ohio...
February 18, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lan Guo, Min Luo, Wanxin Wang, Guoliang Huang, Wei-Hong Zhang, Ciyong Lu
Nonmedical use of prescription drug (NMUPD) among adolescents has increased substantially over the last 2 decades, and evidence suggests that sleep duration may impact upon drug use and academic performance. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sleep duration, NMUPD, and academic performance among Chinese adolescents, to test the independent associations of sleep duration with NMUPD, and to investigate whether these associations vary by academic performance. Data were from the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey using a multi-stage, stratified-cluster, random-sampling method to collect information from 162,601 high school students [mean age (SD) =15...
February 18, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Xiao Zhou, Rui Zhen, Xinchun Wu
OBJECTIVE: We examined the trajectories of sleep problems in adolescents after the Wenchuan earthquake, and assessed predictors such as posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. METHODS: We surveyed adolescents at 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. In total, 391 adolescents completed self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: We identified five latent sleep problem trajectories, specifically, U-shaped (3.8%), low-stable (68.0%), high-stable (10...
February 19, 2019: Psychology & Health
Sejoong Kim, Jong Cheol Jeong, Shin Young Ahn, Kibbeum Doh, Dong-Chan Jin, Ki Young Na
Background: Unlike patterns observed in the general population, obesity is associated with better survival among hemodialysis patients, which could be explained by reverse causation or illness-related weight loss. However, the time-varying effect of body mass index (BMI) on hemodialysis survival has not been investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the time-varying effect of BMI on mortality after starting hemodialysis. Methods: In the present study, we examined Korean Society of Nephrology data from 16,069 adult patients who started hemodialysis during or after the year 2000...
February 18, 2019: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
In-Hwan Oh, Junho K Hur, Jae-Hong Ryoo, Ju Young Jung, Sung Keun Park, Hong Jun Yang, Joong-Myung Choi, Kyu-Won Jung, Young-Joo Won, Chang-Mo Oh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our study aimed to investigate the association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 365,457 participants aged ≥40 years were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2009 to 2015. HDL-C level was categorized into <1.0, 1.0-1.19, 1.2-1.39, 1.4-1.59, 1.6-1.79 (reference), 1.8-1.99, 2.0-2.19 and ≥ 2...
February 5, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Blaine A Jacobs, Miryam M Pando, Elaine M Jennings, Raehannah J Jamshidi, Joshua C Zamora, Teresa S Chavera, William P Clarke, Kelly A Berg
Receptor heteromers often display distinct pharmacological and functional properties compared to the individual receptor constituents. In this study, we compared the properties of the DOP-KOP heteromer agonist, 6'-guanidinonaltrindole (6'-GNTI), with agonists for DOP ([D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin [DPDPE]) and KOP (U50488) in peripheral sensory neurons in culture and in vivo. In primary cultures, all three agonists inhibited PGE2 -stimulated cAMP accumulation as well as activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) with similar efficacy...
February 15, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Yuki Shirakawa, Kiyonori Takahashi, Hiroyasu Sato, Norihisa Hoshino, Hayato Anetai, Shin-Ichiro Noro, Tomoyuki Akutagawa, Takayoshi Nakamura
The pseudo-polyrotaxane structure of [(H-bpy+)(DB[24]crown-8)]∞ (H-bpy+ = monoprotonated 4,4-bipyridinium; DB[24]crown-8 = dibenzo[24]crown-8) was incorporated into anion radical salts, [Ni(dmit)2]- (dmit2- = 1,3-dithio-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate). (H-bpy+)(DB[24]crown-8)[Ni(dmit)2]- crystallized into two polymorphs: crystals 1 and 2. Crystal 1 had a lower density and looser packing structure. In crystal 1, H-bpy+ formed a one-dimensional hydrogen bonding chain, which passed though the crown ether ring of DB[24]crown-8...
February 18, 2019: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shanshan Huang, Kairui Feng, Yujie Ren
Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) is an attractive drug target for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, a series of quinazolinone derivatives as MMP-13 inhibitors were firstly systematically studied using QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The reliable CoMFA ( q 2 = 0.646, r 2 = 0.992, R pred 2 = 0.829) and CoMSIA ( q 2 = 0.704, r 2 = 0.992, R pred 2 = 0.839) models were constructed and verified by the Topomer CoMFA model. Results of contour maps indicated that the electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bond acceptor fields primarily influenced the activity of MMP-13 inhibitors in the models...
January 1, 2019: MedChemComm
Wandong Hong, Vincent Zimmer, Zarrin Basharat, Maddalena Zippi, Simon Stock, Wujun Geng, Xueqin Bao, Junfeng Dong, Jingye Pan, Mengtao Zhou
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is no consensus on relationship between total cholesterol levels and incidence of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between total cholesterol (TC) and the disease severity of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients with acute pancreatitis between April 2012 and December 2015 in a university hospital. Fasting blood total cholesterol (TC) was assayed within 24 h of admission, as well as 3-5 days, 7-9 days and 13-15 days during hospitalization...
January 31, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hong Kyu Kim, Dawon Park, Hoon Yub Kim
BACKGROUND: Transoral approach for thyroidectomy draws attention recently among the thyroid surgeons, with the merits of cosmetic outcomes and minimal flap dissection. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the details and the steps of transoral robotic thyroidectomy. METHODS: We made three incisions in the gingival-buccal sulcus for three 8-mm intraoral ports: one inverted U-shaped 1-cm midline incision approximately 2 cm above the frenulum, and two 0.5-cm lateral incisions near the commissure of lips...
February 13, 2019: Head & Neck
Christian Rominger, Ilona Papousek, Corinna M Perchtold, Mathias Benedek, Elisabeth M Weiss, Andreas Schwerdtfeger, Andreas Fink
Although there exists increasing knowledge about brain correlates underlying creative ideation in general, the specific neurocognitive mechanisms implicated in different stages of the creative thinking process are still under-researched. Some recent EEG studies suggested that alpha power during creative ideation varies as a function of time, with the highest levels of alpha power after stimulus onset and at the end of the creative thinking process. The main aim of the present study was to replicate and extend this finding by applying an individual differences approach, and by investigating functional coupling between long distance cortical sites during the process of creative ideation...
February 12, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eva-Maria Reuter, Solveig Vieluf, Flora Koutsandreou, Lena Hübner, Henning Budde, Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
The ability to selectively attend to task-relevant information increases throughout childhood and decreases in older age. Here, we intended to investigate these opposing developmental trajectories, to assess whether gains and losses early and late in life are associated with similar or different electrophysiological changes, and to get a better understanding about the development in middle-adulthood. We (re-)analyzed behavioral and electrophysiological data of 211 participants, who performed a colored Flanker task while their Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
P Y Su, J H Hao, K Huang, Z H Huang, F B Tao
Objective: To study the dose-response relationship between maternal thyroid hormone levels in the first twenty weeks of pregnancy and the infant physical and neuropsychological development. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, a total of 945 women and their children were included. Maternal serum samples during first half of the pregnancy were collected and analyzed for levels of thyroid hormones by using the electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Maternal social demographic information was collected by using the a self-administered questionnaire...
February 10, 2019: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Aziz S Alali, Nancy Temkin, Monica S Vavilala, Abhijit V Lele, Jason Barber, Sureyya Dikmen, Randall M Chesnut
OBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to examine the relationship between early arterial oxygenation thresholds and long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).METHODSIn a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial, adults with severe TBI were classified based on exposure to different levels of arterial oxygenation as measured using the average of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) values obtained within 24 hours of admission. Potentially important PaO2 thresholds were defined a priori. The primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) score at 6 months...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jonathan Spiteri, Philip von Brockdorff
The impact of economic growth on health outcomes has generated various conflicting results in recent years, particularly with the emergence of cardiovascular disease as one of the most salient global health issues. This paper looks at the relationship between economic development and health outcomes. We first estimate an empirical model using data on annual cardiovascular disease mortality in a panel of 27 European countries, over the period 2003 to 2014, together with per capita GDP levels in each country...
January 30, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Yan He, Zhengbao Zhu, Daoxia Guo, Huan Zhang, Xiaowei Zheng, Nimei Zeng, Qiu Zhang, Hao Peng, Chongke Zhong, Aili Wang, Tan Xu, Jianhua Jin, Yonghong Zhang, Jiang He
INTRODUCTION: Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms has been suggested to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, the association between serum MTHFR level and ischemic stroke has not yet been studied. We aimed to examine the association between them in patients with large-artery atherosclerotic stroke and community-based healthy controls. METHODS: Three hundred ninety-five patients with large-artery atherosclerotic stroke from the China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke (CATIS) and 395 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from communities in China were studied...
February 7, 2019: Current Neurovascular Research
Shalini Dixit, Mary A Whooley, Eric Vittinghoff, Jason D Roberts, Susan R Heckbert, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Jue Lin, Cindy Leung, Kenneth J Mukamal, Gregory M Marcus
The relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality generally exhibits a U-shaped curve. The longevity observed with moderate alcohol consumption may be explained by other confounding factors, and, if such a relationship is present, the mechanism is not well understood. Indeed, the optimal amount of alcohol consumption for health has yet to be determined. Leukocyte telomere length is an emerging quantifiable marker of biological age and health, and a shorter telomere length is a predictor of increased mortality...
February 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Matteo Tonna, Rebecca Ottoni, Clara Pellegrini, Elena Bettini, Valeria Accardi, Paolo Ossola, Chiara De Panfilis, Carlo Marchesi
The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive functions and obsessive-compulsive dimension in schizophrenia and a possible moderating effect of schizophrenia symptom dimensions on this association. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients were administered the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), and the Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery. A U-shaped curve described a gradual transition from an inverse association to a positive relationship between YBOCS and processing speed scores, along a severity gradient of obsessive dimension...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Qingwei Ruan, Yun Huang, Lvjun Yang, Jian Ruan, Weidong Gu, Xixue Zhang, Ying Zhang, Weibin Zhang, Zhuowei Yu
BACKGROUND: Adipo-myokine irisin has important effects on the metabolism and functioning of multiple tissues and organs. However, the effects of aging and sex on irisin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and on circulation have not been comprehensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether aging and sex can affect irisin levels in both CSF and plasma; to determine whether CSF irisin uptake involves a saturable transport mechanism. DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study, the irisin levels in paired CSF and plasma samples drawn from 71 healthy individuals were used to investigate effects by using commercial ELISA kits and mass spectrometry...
February 1, 2019: Peptides
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