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KSHV mitochondria

Suchitra Mohanty, Amit Kumar, Piyanki Das, Sushil Kumar Sahu, Tathagata Choudhuri
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B cells. KSHV latent and lytic antigens modulate several host cellular signalling pathways especially mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), STAT-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) for rapid tumor progression and immune evasion. Current chemotherapeutic strategies are becoming ineffective as they kill only dividing cells and inefficient to target molecular pathways crucial for active virus replication and its survival...
September 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Antonio Gallo, Melanie Lampe, Thomas Günther, Wolfram Brune
KS-Bcl-2 is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded viral Bcl-2 (vBcl-2) homolog which has apoptosis- and autophagy-inhibiting activity when expressed in transfected cells. However, little is known about its function during viral infection. As KS-Bcl-2 is expressed during the lytic replication cycle, we used constitutively lytic and inducibly lytic KSHV mutants to investigate the role of KS-Bcl-2 during the lytic cycle. We show that KSHV cannot complete the lytic replication cycle and produce infectious progeny in the absence of KS-Bcl-2, indicating that the protein is essential for KSHV replication...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Christine M Burrer, Glenna W Foight, Amy E Keating, Gary C Chan
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with B-cell lymphomas including primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV establishes latency within B cells by modulating or mimicking the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins to promote cell survival. Our previous BH3 profiling analysis, a functional assay that assesses the contribution of Bcl-2 proteins towards cellular survival, identified two Bcl-2 proteins, cellular Mcl-1 and viral KsBcl-2, as potential regulators of mitochondria polarization within a latently infected B-cell line, Bcbl-1...
January 4, 2016: Virus Research
Somayeh Jalilvand, Zabihollah Shoja, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Zahra Safaie-Naraghi, Keramat Nourijelyani, Asgar Baghernejad Nesheli, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
Inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production have recently considered as key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Since mitochondria are the major source of ROS production, this organelle may play a main role in KS development. However, there are no studies on mtDNA variations and haplogroups in this area. The focus of this study was to investigate the mtDNA variants and haplogroups in KS patients and their relationship to tumor development. To address this, we have genotyped mtDNA in 45 Iranian KS patients and 48 age and sex-matched Iranian controls...
September 2015: Journal of Medical Virology
Ohad Yogev, Dimitris Lagos, Tariq Enver, Chris Boshoff
Altered cell metabolism is inherently connected with pathological conditions including cancer and viral infections. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KS tumour cells display features of lymphatic endothelial differentiation and in their vast majority are latently infected with KSHV, while a small number are lytically infected, producing virions. Latently infected cells express only a subset of viral genes, mainly located within the latency-associated region, among them 12 microRNAs...
September 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Inna Kalt, Tatyana Borodianskiy-Shteinberg, Adi Schachor, Ronit Sarid
KS-Bcl-2, encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a structural and functional homologue of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators. Like several other Bcl-2 family members, KS-Bcl-2 protects cells from apoptosis and autophagy. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we identified a novel KS-Bcl-2-interacting protein, referred to as protein interacting with carboxyl terminus 1 (PICT-1), encoded by a candidate tumor suppressor gene, GLTSCR2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed nucleolar localization of PICT-1, whereas KS-Bcl-2 was located mostly at the mitochondrial membranes with a small fraction in the nucleoli...
March 2010: Journal of Virology
Ren-In You, Mei-Chieh Chen, Hsei-Wei Wang, Yang-Chieh Chou, Chi-Hung Lin, Shie-Liang Hsieh
TNFSF14/LIGHT is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that binds to lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) to induce cell death via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. It has been shown that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 inhibits cell death by binding to LTbetaR-TRAF2/TRAF3 complexes and caspases. In this study, we found that both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K7 (KSHV-K7), a viral inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and the structurally related protein survivin-DeltaEx3 could inhibit LTbetaR-mediated caspase-3 activation...
March 15, 2006: Cancer Research
Shannon A Keller, Denise Hernandez-Hopkins, Jelena Vider, Vladimir Ponomarev, Elizabeth Hyjek, Elaine J Schattner, Ethel Cesarman
Activated NF-kappaB is a critical mechanism by which lymphoma cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV/HHV-4) and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) are protected from apoptotic stress. Selective pharmacologic inhibition of constitutive NF-kappaB activity induces apoptosis in KSHV- and EBV-infected lymphoma cells. In both tumor types, pharmacologic inhibition of NF-kappaB in vitro induced identical mitochondrially mediated apoptosis cascades. Assessment of gene regulation by microarray analysis revealed that the inhibition of NF-kappaB in tumor cells results in the down-regulation of a distinct group of prosurvival genes, including cIAP-1, cIAP-2, cFLIP, and IL-6...
April 15, 2006: Blood
Donna M D'Agostino, Paolo Bernardi, Luigi Chieco-Bianchi, Vincenzo Ciminale
Molecular analyses of tumor virus-host cell interactions have provided key insights into the genes and pathways involved in neoplastic transformation. Recent studies have revealed that the human tumor viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) express proteins that are targeted to mitochondria. The list of these viral proteins includes BCL-2 homologues (BHRF1 of EBV; KSBCL-2 of KSHV), an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) resembling Survivin (KSHV K7), proteins that alter mitochondrial ion permeability and/or membrane potential (HBV HBx, HPV E[wedge]14, HCV p7, and HTLV-1 p13(II)), and K15 of KSHV, a protein with undefined function...
2005: Advances in Cancer Research
Shahab Uddin, Azhar R Hussain, Khaled A Al-Hussein, Pulicat S Manogaran, Amitha Wickrema, Marina I Gutierrez, Kishor G Bhatia
PURPOSE: Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3'-kinase) can be activated by the K1 protein of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV). However, the role of PI3'-kinase in KSHV-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is not known. To assess this, we studied survival and apoptosis in PEL cell lines following inhibition of PI3'-kinase. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Constitutive activation of several targets of PI3-kinase and apoptotic proteins were determined by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies...
April 15, 2005: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Pinghui Feng, Junsoo Park, Bok-Soo Lee, Sun-Hwa Lee, Richard J Bram, Jae U Jung
On viral infection, infected cells can become the target of host immune responses or can go through a programmed cell death process, called apoptosis, as a defense mechanism to limit the ability of the virus to replicate. To prevent this, viruses have evolved elaborate mechanisms to subvert the apoptotic process. Here, we report the identification of a novel antiapoptotic K7 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) which expresses during lytic replication. The KSHV K7 gene encodes a small mitochondrial membrane protein, and its expression efficiently inhibits apoptosis induced by a variety of apoptogenic agents...
November 2002: Journal of Virology
Hsei-Wei Wang, Tyson V Sharp, Andrew Koumi, Georgy Koentges, Chris Boshoff
We have investigated the expression and function of a novel protein encoded by open reading frame (ORF) K7 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Computational analyses revealed that K7 is structurally related to survivin-DeltaEx3, a splice variant of human survivin that protects cells from apoptosis by an undefined mechanism. Both K7 and survivin-DeltaEx3 contain a mitochondrial-targeting sequence, an N-terminal region of a BIR (baculovirus IAP repeat) domain and a putative BH2 (Bcl-2 homology)-like domain...
June 3, 2002: EMBO Journal
Tyson V Sharp, Hsei-Wei Wang, Andrew Koumi, Daniel Hollyman, Yoshio Endo, Hongtao Ye, Ming-Qing Du, Chris Boshoff
The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (or human herpesvirus 8) open reading frame (ORF) K15 encodes a putative integral transmembrane protein in the same genomic location as latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein-Barr virus. Ectopic expression of K15 in cell lines revealed the presence of several different forms ranging in size from full length, approximately 50 kDa, to 17 kDa. Of these different species the 35- and 23-kDa forms were predominant. Mutational analysis of the initiator AUG indicated that translation initiation from this first AUG is required for K15 expression...
January 2002: Journal of Virology
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