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Severe obesity

Maciej Haberka, Michael Skilton, Małgorzata Biedroń, Karolina Szóstak-Janiak, Małgorzata Partyka, Monika Matla, Zbigniew Gąsior
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial chronic disease. Our aim was to assess the associations between obesity, fat depots and carotid artery stenosis (CAS) in patients with high cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: The study group included 391 patients (F/M: 136/255 pts.; age: 61.8 ± 8 years) scheduled for elective coronary angiography. A comprehensive clinical assessment included a carotid artery and abdominal ultrasound involving the following fat depots: (1) carotid extra-media thickness (EMT) indexed to the body mass index (perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]), and (2) abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Ehab M M Ali, Thoria Diab, Afaf Elsaid, Hamada A Abd El Daim, Rami M Elshazli, Ahmad Settin
BACKGROUND: Several studies addressed the contribution of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and leptin receptor (LEPR) polymorphisms for the susceptibility to obesity among different ethnic subjects. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the association of these polymorph\isms with obesity among Egyptian subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case-control study was carried out on 110 unrelated obese Egyptian subjects who were compared with 122 controls...
February 15, 2019: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tarfa Ibrahim Albrahim, Manal Abdulaziz Binobead
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between Bone mineral density in lumber spine and femoral neck with serum total levels of vitamin D, sun exposure and Consumption of vitamin D Supplement in obese Saudi females aged between 30 and 54 years old. Recent attention to the high prevalence of osteoporosis and its association with low vitamin D levels in adults has raised the importance of vitamin D evaluation. A low level of vitamin D is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for osteoporosis...
February 2019: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Sirtaj B Singh, Juliette Madan, Modupe Coker, Anne Hoen, Emily R Baker, Margaret R Karagas, Noel T Mueller
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-newborn transmission of obesity-associated microbiota may be modified by birth mode (vaginal vs. Cesarean delivery). Prospective data to test this hypothesis are still sparse. OBJECTIVE: To examine prospective associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with the infant gut microbiome by birth-mode strata. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 335 mother-infant pairs in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort, we ascertained data from questionnaires and medical records, and generated microbiome data from 6-week-old infants' stool using Illumina 16s rRNA gene sequencing (V4-V5 region)...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jonathan DeAntonio, Hannah Cockrell, Hae Sung Kang, Melanie K Bean, Nancy Thompson, Matthew Brengman, Claudio Oiticica, Edmond Wickham, David Lanning
BACKGROUND: Metabolic and bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity has been demonstrated to be safe and have long-term treatment efficacy. However, less than 0.1% of adolescents meeting criteria undergo surgery. METHODS: A prospective pilot study of adolescents who underwent laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP) was conducted to evaluate safety and effects on anthropometrics and weight-related medical and psychological comorbidities. RESULTS: Four adolescents enrolled and underwent LGP; two withdrew 90 days postoperatively and two were followed through 36 months...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Nisachol Cetthakrikul, Sirinya Phulkerd, Nongnuch Jaichuen, Gary Sacks, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
OBJECTIVE: To review the publicly available policies and commitments of selected food companies in Thailand relating to obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevention, and to assess these stated policies and commitments against global recommendations. METHODS: Nineteen food and beverage companies, including 13 packaged food, three non-alcoholic beverage, two food retailer, and one fast food company were selected, based on their market share by sector and food category...
February 14, 2019: Globalization and Health
Mohammad S Jalali, Hazhir Rahmandad, Sally Lawrence Bullock, Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alice Ammerman
Overall impact of public health prevention interventions relies not only on the average efficacy of an intervention, but also on the successful adoption, implementation, and maintenance (AIM) of that intervention. In this study, we aim to understand the dynamics that regulate AIM of organizational level intervention programs. We focus on two well-documented obesity prevention interventions, implemented in food carry-outs and stores in low-income urban areas of Baltimore, Maryland, which aimed to improve dietary behaviour for adults by providing access to healthier foods and point-of-purchase promotions...
December 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Tobias A Mattei, Carlos R Goulart, Shawn S Rai, Azeem A Rehman, Michelle Williams, Ehud Mendel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described the association of spinal epidural lipomatosis with several conditions including chronic steroid therapy, Cushing's syndrome, obesity, Paget's disease, and hypothyroidism. We present a report of rapid development of spinal epidural lipomatosis after treatment with second-generation anti-androgen therapy, a new strategy for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer which has been increasingly employed in the past few years...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Dominique Musselman, Neeta Shenvi, Amita Manatunga, Andrew H Miller, Edward Lin, Nana Gletsu-Miller
BACKGROUND: Neurobehavioral symptoms and cognitive dysfunction related to mood disorders are present in individuals with severe obesity. We sought to determine acute improvements in these symptoms and relationships with adiposity, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity after roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. METHODS: The self-report Zung Depression Rating (ZDRS) and Neurotoxicity Rating (NRS) scales were administered before, and at 6-months after RYGB surgery in severely obese women (body mass index > 35 kg/m2 ; N = 19)...
February 11, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Jerrold J Heindel
The Obesogen field developed from two separate scientific research areas, endocrine disruptors and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that interfere with the action of hormones. Exposure to EDCs during early development (DOHaD) has been shown to increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases including infertility, asthma, breast and prostate cancer, early puberty, susceptibility to infections, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/learning disability...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Emanuela Bianciardi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Cinzia Niolu, Sophia Betrò, Francesca Zerbin, Paolo Gentileschi, Alberto Siracusano
INTRODUCTION: For bariatric surgery candidates body image dissatisfaction (BID) may influence both psychological well-being and motivation to obtain surgery. This study aims to examine possible psychiatric predictors of BID. In particular, we explored the burden of new associated factors such as early trauma and attachment style (AS), which have not been assessed in previous literature. METHODS: In this study, 536 patients with extreme obesity (mean Body Mass Index, BMI=43 kg/m2, SD=6...
January 2019: Rivista di Psichiatria
In Cheol Hwang, Jeong Hun Bae, Joon Mo Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Among the 1130 participants 19 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the nationwide survey, a total of 887 participants were included in the analyses after excluding patients with ungradable fundus images. The presence and severity of DR were graded with seven-field fundus photographs...
February 13, 2019: Eye
Cornelia Brendle, Norbert Stefan, Irina Stef, Sabine Ripkens, Martin Soekler, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Christina Pfannenberg
Increased activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in adults is thought to prevent obesity. Therefore, regulators of BAT activity might serve as anti-obesity therapy in future, but are not investigated thoroughly up to now. In our study, we assessed retrospectively the association of BAT activity with several external factors and diverse chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents in a collective of 702 patients. The patients underwent at least two clinically indicated PET/CT examinations in the course of different oncological and inflammatory diseases...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Marta M Jankowska, Dorothy D Sears, Loki Natarajan, Elena Martinez, Cheryl A M Anderson, James F Sallis, Stephen A Matthews, Katie Crist, Lindsay Dillon, Eileen Johnson, Angelica Barrera-Ng, Kelsey Full, Suneeta Godbole, Jacqueline Kerr
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are modifiable behaviors that lead to several cancers. Biologically, these behaviors are linked to cancer through obesity-related insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Individual strategies to change physical activity and diet are often short lived with limited effects. Interventions are expected to be more successful when guided by multi-level frameworks that include environmental components for supporting lifestyle changes...
February 13, 2019: BMC Public Health
Halimatou Alaofè, Ibitola Asaolu
BACKGROUND: Double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is an emerging public health concern in urban Benin. However, an understanding of the phenomena in rural areas of the country is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of DBM and to investigate the sociodemographic and dietary characteristics that differentiate DBM from undernourished children only, overweight/obese mothers only, and normal households in Kalalé district. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 426 mother-child pairs: nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 6 to 59 months...
February 13, 2019: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Carmem Peres Valgas da Silva, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Joseph D White, Kristin I Stanford
The rise in obesity over the last several decades has reached pandemic proportions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that is involved in energy expenditure and represents an attractive target to combat both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cold exposure and exercise training are two stimuli that have been investigated with respect to BAT activation, metabolism, and the contribution of BAT to metabolic health. These two stimuli are of great interest because they have both disparate and converging effects on BAT activation and metabolism...
February 12, 2019: Biology
Silvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Rafaela Carolina Soares Bonato, Matheus de Carvalho Sales-Peres, Francisco Haiter-Neto, Elinton Adami Chaim
BACKGROUND: Systemic bone loss may lead to more severe periodontal destruction, decreasing local bone mineral density. AIM: A cross-sectional designed was performed to study associations among alveolar bone pattern, salivary leptin concentrations, and clinical periodontal status in premenopausal obese and eutrophic women. METHODS: Thirty morbid obese (G1) and 30 normal-weight (G2) women were included. Anthropometric and periodontal measurements (probing depth - PD, clinical attachment levels - CAL, presence of calculus, bleeding on probing -BOP, and plaque accumulation) were assessed...
February 7, 2019: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Mikael Rydén, Paul Petrus, Daniel P Andersson, Gema Medina-Gómez, Elia Escasany, Patricia Corrales Cordón, Ingrid Dahlman, Agné Kulyté, Peter Arner
OBJECTIVE: Many overweight/obese subjects appear metabolically healthy with normal in vivo insulin sensitivity. Still, they have increased long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that adipose tissue dysfunction involving decreased insulin action in adipocytes is present in apparently healthy overweight/obese subjects. DESIGN/METHODS: Subjects with normal metabolic health according to Adult Treatment Panel-III or Framingham risk score criteria were subdivided into 67 lean, 32 overweight and 37 obese according to body mass index...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Suman Lee
Low-density lipoprotein Receptor Related Protein 1B (LRP1B) is homologous to the gigantic lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 that belongs to the family of Low-density lipoprotein receptors. Previous genetic association studies of the LRP1B gene have shown its genetic association with obesity. Through exome sequencing of the LRP1B gene from a childhood severe obesity cohort (n = 692), we found novel single nucleotide polymorphism (rs431809) in intron 4, which has been significantly correlated with both body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip-ratio (WHR)...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Daniel J Gorski, Anne Petz, Christina Reichert, Sören Twarock, Maria Grandoch, Jens W Fischer
Diabetic patients are at a greater risk of heart failure due to diabetic cardiomyopathy and worsened outcome post-myocardial infarction. While the molecular mechanisms remain unclear, fibrosis and chronic inflammation are common characteristics of both conditions. Diabetes mellitus (types I and II) results in excessive hyaluronan (HA) deposition in vivo, and hyperglycemia stimulates HA synthesis for several cell types in vitro. HA-rich extracellular matrix contributes to fibrotic, hyperplastic and inflammatory disease progression...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
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