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Jie Li, Brandon A Kemp, Nancy L Howell, James Massey, Krzysztof Mińczuk, Qiao Huang, Mahendra D Chordia, R Jack Roy, James T Patrie, Giovanni E Davogustto, Christopher M Kramer, Frederick H Epstein, Robert M Carey, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Susanna R Keller, Bijoy K Kundu
Background Sustained pressure overload leads to changes in cardiac metabolism, function, and structure. Both time course and causal relationships between these changes are not fully understood. Therefore, we studied spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) during early hypertension development and compared them to control Wistar Kyoto rats. Methods and Results We serially evaluated myocardial glucose uptake rates (Ki) with dynamic 2-[18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography, and ejection fraction and left ventricular mass to body weight ratios with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in vivo, determined glucose uptake and oxidation rates in isolated perfused hearts, and analyzed metabolites, mammalian target of rapamycin activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress in dissected hearts...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Laneshia K Tague, Chad A Witt, Derek E Byers, Roger D Yusen, Patrick R Aguilar, Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, Karen Bennett Bain, Keith A Fester, Varun Puri, Daniel Kreisel, Thalachallour Mohanakumar, Elbert P Trulock, Ramsey R Hachem
RATIONALE: Allosensitization may be a barrier to lung transplantation. Currently, consideration is not given to allosensitization when assigning priority on the lung transplant waiting list. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between allosensitization and waitlist outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center cohort study of adults listed for lung transplantation at our center between 1/1/06 and 12/31/16. We screened candidates for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies prior to listing and examined the association between allosensitization and waitlist outcomes, including likelihood of transplantation and death on the waiting list, using a competing risk model...
February 14, 2019: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Tao Yang, Victor Aquino, Gilberto O Lobaton, Hongbao Li, Luis Colon-Perez, Ruby Goel, Yanfei Qi, Jasenka Zubcevic, Marcelo Febo, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Background We have demonstrated that the antihypertensive effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril ( CAP ), is associated with beneficial effects on gut pathology. Coupled with the evidence that CAP exerts prolonged reduction in blood pressure ( BP ) after discontinuation of treatment, we investigate whether persistent beneficial actions of CAP are linked to alterations of gut microbiota and improvement of hypertension-induced gut pathology. Methods and Results Spontaneously hypertensive rats ( SHR ) and Wistar Kyoto rats were treated with CAP (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks followed by withdrawal for 16 weeks...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Ahmed Elmarakby, Jessica Faulkner, Paramita Pati, R Dan Rudic, Clare Bergson
The link between blood pressure (BP) and cerebral function is well established. However, it is not clear whether a common mechanism could underlie the relationship between elevated BP and cognitive deficits. The expression of calcyon, a gene abundant in catecholaminergic and hypothalamic nuclei along with other forebrain regions, is increased in the brain of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) which is a widely accepted animal model of essential hypertension and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2019: PloS One
Rishi Deka, Brent S Rose, Alex K Bryant, Reith R Sarkar, Vinit Nalawade, Rana McKay, James D Murphy, Daniel R Simpson
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the association between the use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and the risk of developing depression. This study investigated the association between ADT use and the development of depression, outpatient psychiatric services, inpatient psychiatric services, and suicide in a homogeneous group of men with prostate cancer (PC) treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) after controlling for multiple sources of selection bias. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of 39,965 veterans with PC who were treated with definitive RT and were diagnosed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs health care system between January 1, 2001, and October 31, 2015...
February 12, 2019: Cancer
Inmaculada Jarrin, Ines Suarez-Garcia, Cristina Moreno, Maria Tasias, Jorge Del Romero, Rosario Palacios, Joaquim Peraire, Miguel Gorgolas, Santiago Moreno
BACKGROUND: We compared time to treatment change (TC), viral suppression (VS) and change in CD4+ T-cell counts of first-line antiretroviral regimens (ART). METHODS: We analyzed HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) initiating the most commonly used ART regimens from September 2014 to November 2015. We used proportional hazards models on the sub-distribution hazard to estimate sub-distribution hazard ratios (sHR) for time to TC, logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for VS (viral load<50 copies/ml), and linear regression to assess mean differences in CD4 changes from ART initiation...
February 12, 2019: Antiviral Therapy
Amy L Clarke, Francesco Zaccardi, Douglas W Gould, Katherine L Hull, Alice C Smith, James O Burton, Thomas Yates
Background: Reduced physical function is associated with an increased risk of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Assessments of physical performance can help to identify those at risk for adverse events. However, objective measures are not always feasible and self-reported measures may provide a suitable surrogate. Methods: We performed a cohort study examining associations between self-reported physical function and walking behaviour with survival in patients with CKD not requiring RRT...
February 2019: Clinical Kidney Journal
Geoffrey Johnston
By 2015, Saskatchewan's surgical wait times, once among Canada's longest, were arguably the nation's shortest. This paper highlights the principal strategies that were implemented to address the exceptionally lengthy surgical wait times in Saskatchewan's SHR. These included the province's funding the establishment of a fair operating room allocation system, a centralized provincial surgery registry, integration of priority scoring tools and creation of the Saskatchewan Surgical Care network. This coordinated backdrop facilitated the integration of Lean principles, hospital service consolidation, private third-party surgical care delivery services and policy direction setting by the provincial government...
October 2018: Healthcare Quarterly
Anna Kozłowska, Paweł Wojtacha, Maciej Równiak, Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
RATIONALE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorders with morphological and functional brain abnormalities. However, there is a growing body of evidence that abnormalities in the immune and endocrine systems may also account for the ADHD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: To test ADHD pathogenesis in neurological, immune and endocrine systems, this study examined the concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, oxidative stress markers, metabolic parameters, steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes in the serum and/or tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, animal model of ADHD) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs, control animals)...
February 8, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Rongyi Zhou, Jiaojiao Wang, Xinmin Han, Bingxiang Ma, Haixia Yuan, Yuchen Song
We aimed to test the therapeutic effects of baicalin on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an animal model and to explain the potential mechanism. We investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of baicalin in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD depending on the dopamine (DA) deficit theory. In this study, fifty SHRs were randomly divided into five groups: methylphenidate (MPH), baicalin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 150 mg/kg), and saline-treated. Ten Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as controls...
February 8, 2019: Molecular Brain
Juan Huang, Fang-Fang Kong, Ronald Wihal Oei, Rui-Ping Zhai, Chao-Su Hu, Hong-Mei Ying
BACKGROUND: In patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), death may occur prior to the occurrence of temporal lobe injury (TLI). Because such competing risk death precludes the occurrence of TLI and thus the competing risk analysis should be applied to TLI research. The aim was to investigate the incidence and predictive factors of TLI after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) among T4 NPC patients. METHODS: From March 2008 to December 2014, T4 NPC patients treated with full-course radical IMRT at our center were reviewed retrospectively...
February 8, 2019: Radiation Oncology
Biljana Jakovljevic, Tamara R Nikolic Turnic, Nevena Jeremic, Maja Savic, Jovana Jeremic, Ivan M Srejovic, Branislav Belic, Nenad Ponorac, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Vladimir I Zivkovic
This study was aimed to assess the impact of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate intensity continious training (MIT) on cardiodynamic parameters in isolated rat heart. Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to groups according to running protocol: sedentary control (CTRL), MIT, HIIT; spontaneous hypertensive sedentary control (SHR), spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) + MIT and SHR + HIIT. HIIT groups performed the running in 5 sprints x 45-55m/min for 30-90sec, with 2 mins rest after each sprint, while MIT groups performed the running of 10-15m/min for 1h with 3 mins rest/100m, both protocols were implemented 5 days/week over 4 weeks with one week of adaptation before protocols started...
February 8, 2019: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Hsiao-Ling Chen, Der-Cherng Tarng, Lian-Hua Huang
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one option for renal replacement therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Maintenance of the PD catheter is an important issue for patient outcomes and quality of life. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to clarify the risk factors of technique failure and outcomes at a single institute in Taiwan.The study enrolled ESRD patients who had received PD catheters in a tertiary hospital in northern Taiwan. Using a competing risks regression model, we reviewed clinical data and analyzed them in terms of the time to technical failure and clinical outcomes, including PD-related peritonitis and mortality...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Giuseppe Cullaro, Elizabeth C Verna, Jennifer C Lai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Renal dysfunction increases risk of death for patients with cirrhosis. We investigated whether mortality differs significantly among patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and both. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all non-status 1 adults on the waitlist for liver transplantation for at least 90 days, collected from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry from July 1, 2007 through July 1, 2014...
February 1, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Michela Giustozzi, Maria Cristina Vedovati, Melina Verso, Luca Scrucca, Serenella Conti, Paolo Verdecchia, Giulio Bogliari, Lucia Pierpaoli, Giancarlo Agnelli, Cecilia Becattini
BACKGROUND: Patients aged 90 years or older are often excluded from or under-represented in clinical trials and cohort studies. The clinical benefit of anticoagulation in nonagenarians with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains undefined. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulants in AF patients aged 90 years or older. METHODS: Non-valvular AF patients aged 90 years or older receiving direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were included in this observational multicentre study...
January 25, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Hao Wang, Xuming Sun, Sarfaraz Ahmad, Jing Su, Carlos Maria Ferrario, Leanne Groban
Chymases, a family of serine proteases with chymotryptic activity, play a significant role in cardiac angiotensin II (Ang II) formation from its substrate Ang-(1-12) in both human and rodent models. No studies, to date, have assessed the differences in enzymatic activity among these isoforms in Ang II formation, particularly in the cardiomyocyte (CM). Using PCR and DNA sequencing, we demonstrated that MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-4, and MCP-5 mRNAs are expressed in the CM of both spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY)...
February 2, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
H R Askew Page, T Dalsgaard, S N Baldwin, T A Jepps, O Povstyan, S P Olesen, I A Greenwood
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronary artery disease leads to ischaemic heart disease and ultimately myocardial infarction. Thus is it important to determine the factors that regulate coronary blood flow. Ca2+ -activated chloride channels contribute to the regulation of arterial tone; however, their role in coronary arteries is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of the main molecular correlate of Ca2+ -activated chloride channels, TMEM16A, in rat coronary arteries...
February 2, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Neus Gil-Terrón, M Jesús Cerain-Herrero, Isaac Subirana, Luisa M Rodríguez-Latre, Oriol Cunillera-Puértolas, Jordi Mestre-Ferrer, Maria Grau, Irene R Dégano, Roberto Elosua, Jaume Marrugat, Rafel Ramos, José Miguel Baena-Díez, Betlem Salvador-González
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals with mild to moderately decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR=30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) are considered at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies have compared this risk in eGFR=30-59, diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) in regions with a low incidence of CHD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 122 443 individuals aged 60-84 years from a region with a low CHD incidence with creatinine measured between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011...
January 29, 2019: Revista Española de Cardiología
Deirdre Sawinski, Kimberly A Forde, Vincent Lo Re, David S Goldberg, Jordana B Cohen, Jayme E Locke, Roy D Bloom, Colleen Brensinger, Joe Weldon, Justine Shults, Peter P Reese
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among maintenance dialysis patients. Few studies have examined both dialysis survival and transplantation outcomes for HCV-seropositive patients because registry data sets lack information for HCV serostatus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adult long-term dialysis patients treated by a US national dialysis provider between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Amandine Krzesiak, Christian Cognard, Stéphane Sebille, Grégoire Carre, Laurent Bosquet, Nathalie Delpech
Exercise training offers possible non-pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. High intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training has been shown to have as much or even more beneficial cardiovascular effect in patients with cardiovascular diseases than moderate intensity continuous exercise (CMIE) training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the two types of training on cardiac remodeling of SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) induced by hypertension...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
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