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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30896449/human-endotrophin-as-a-driver-of-malignant-tumor-growth
#1
Dawei Bu, Clair Crewe, Christine M Kusminski, Ruth Gordillo, Alexandra L Ghaben, Min Kim, Jiyoung Park, Hui Deng, Wei Xiong, Xiao-Zheng Liu, Per Eystein Lønning, Nils Halberg, Adan Rios, Yujun Chang, Anneliese Gonzalez, Ningyan Zhang, Zhiqiang An, Philipp E Scherer
We have previously reported that the carboxy-terminal proteolytic cleavage product of the COL6α3 chain that we refer to as "endotrophin" has potent effects on transformed mammary ductal epithelial cells in rodents. Endotrophin (ETP) is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue. It is a chemoattractant for macrophages, exerts effects on endothelial cells and through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances progression of tumor cells. In a recombinant form, human endotrophin exerts similar effects on human macrophages and endothelial cells as its rodent counterpart...
March 21, 2019: JCI Insight
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890444/microfragmented-human-fat-tissue-is-a-natural-scaffold-for-drug-delivery-potential-application-in-cancer-chemotherapy
#2
Giulio Alessandri, Valentina Coccè, Fabio Pastorino, Rita Paroni, Michele Dei Cas, Francesco Restelli, Bianca Pollo, Laura Gatti, Carlo Tremolada, Angiola Berenzi, Eugenio Parati, Anna Teresa Brini, Gianpietro Bondiolotti, Mirco Ponzoni, Augusto Pessina
Localization of chemotherapy at the tumor site can improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce systemic toxicity. In previous studies we have shown that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue can be loaded with the anti-cancer drug Paclitaxel (PTX) and kill cancer cells when localized nearby. We here investigated the capacity of human micro-fragmented adipose tissue (MFAT), used as a natural scaffold of MSCs, to deliver PTX with the idea to improve local drug concentration and to prolong the therapeutic activity...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890185/impact-of-hoxb7-overexpression-on-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-progenitors
#3
Elisabetta Manuela Foppiani, Olivia Candini, Ilenia Mastrolia, Alba Murgia, Giulia Grisendi, Anna Valeria Samarelli, Giulia Boscaini, Lucrezia Pacchioni, Massimo Pinelli, Giorgio De Santis, Edwin M Horwitz, Elena Veronesi, Massimo Dominici
BACKGROUND: The ex vivo expansion potential of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) together with their differentiation and secretion properties makes these cells an attractive tool for transplantation and tissue engineering. Although the use of MSC is currently being tested in a growing number of clinical trials, it is still desirable to identify molecular markers that may help improve their performance both in vitro and after transplantation. METHODS: Recently, HOXB7 was identified as a master player driving the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors...
March 19, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30889253/the-role-of-orthobiologics-in-the-management-of-osteoarthritis-and-focal-cartilage-defects
#4
Benjamin J Sherman, Jorge Chahla, Jason Glowney, Rachel M Frank
Individuals with osteoarthritis have a diminished quality of life, and the condition is a major cause of disability. Newer biologic treatments have been developed that are believed to modify disease progression. These predominantly include hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma, bone marrow aspirate concentrate, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. There is conflicting evidence regarding the use of orthobiologics for osteoarthritis and for focal chondral defects, although most studies indicate that injections of biologics are safe and without significant adverse effects...
March 1, 2019: Orthopedics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875349/gelatinous-bone-marrow-transformation-and-emergence-of-clonal-philadelphia-negative-cytogenetic-abnormalities-with-excess-blasts-in-a-patient-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-treated-with-dasatinib
#5
David J Hermel, Ali Nael, Yi-Tsung Lu, Jackson Kim, Russell K Brynes, Maria Vergara-Lluri, Mojtaba Akhtari
Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GBMT) is a rare pathologic entity of unclear etiology characterized by adipose cell atrophy, focal hematopoietic tissue hypoplasia, and a distinct eosinophilic substance that stains with Alcian blue at pH 2.5. It is traditionally described in the context of malnutrition and cachexia from generalized disease and is important to identify because of its potential reversibility. Several recent case reports have described GBMT in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) on the first-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib...
April 2019: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873124/sirt1-promotes-a-thermogenic-gene-program-in-bone-marrow-adipocytes-from-mice-to-wo-men
#6
Hanna Artsi, Irina Gurt, Madi El-Haj, Ralph Müller, Gisela A Kuhn, Gal Ben Shalom, Einav Cohen-Kfir, Eva Abramowitz, Leonid Kandel, Ori Safran, Rivka Dresner-Pollak
Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is influenced by nutritional cues, and participates in whole body energy metabolism. To investigate the role of Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a key player in metabolism, in MAT, marrow adiposity was evaluated in inbred 5-month-old 129/Sv Sirt1 haplo-insufficient ( Sirt1 Δ/+ ) and wild type (WT) mice. Decreased expression of the thermogenic genes: Prdm16, Pgc1 α , Foxc2, Dio2 , and β 3AR was detected in whole tibiae derived from Sirt1 Δ/+ compared to WT female mice. Similarly, decreased expression of Prdm16 and Pgc1 α was observed in primary bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) cultures obtained from Sirt1 Δ/+ compared to WT female mice, suggesting a cell autonomous effect of Sirt1 in BM-MSCs...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865855/mettl3-inhibits-bmsc-adipogenic-differentiation-by-targeting-the-jak1-stat5-c-ebp%C3%AE-pathway-via-an-m-6-a-ythdf2-dependent-manner
#7
Yongxi Yao, Zhen Bi, Ruifan Wu, Yuanling Zhao, Youhua Liu, Qing Liu, Yizhen Wang, Xinxia Wang
Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues, such as adipose tissue, bone, and muscle. Recent studies have shown that N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) methylation, one of the most prevalent epigenetic modifications, is involved in the development process. However, whether it plays roles in BMSC differentiation is still elusive. Here, we found that the deletion of m6 A "writer" protein methyltransferase-like (METTL)3 in porcine BMSCs (pBMSCs) could promote adipogenesis and janus kinase (JAK)1 protein expression via an m6 A-dependent way...
March 13, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862681/fpr2-deficiency-alleviates-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-through-reducing-body-weight-gain-and-inhibiting-inflammation-mediated-by-macrophage-chemotaxis-and-m1-polarization
#8
Xiaofang Chen, Shu Zhuo, Tengfei Zhu, Pengle Yao, Mengmei Yang, Hong Mei, Na Li, Fengguang Ma, Ji Ming Wang, Shiting Chen, Richard D Ye, Yu Li, Yingying Le
Obesity and related inflammation are critical for the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) plays important roles in host immune responses and inflammation-related diseases. We found that Fpr2 expression was elevated in the white adipose tissue of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and db/db mice. The systemic deletion of Fpr2 alleviated HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis...
March 12, 2019: Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30861238/adipose-derived-stem-cell-therapy-ameliorates-ionizing-irradiation-fibrosis-rif-via-hepatocyte-growth-factor-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-down-regulation-and-recruitment-of-bone-marrow-cells
#9
Asim Ejaz, Michael W Epperly, Wen Hou, Joel S Greenberger, Peter J Rubin
Radiation therapy to anatomic regions including the head and neck, chest wall and extremities can produce radiation induced fibrosis (RIF). To elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism (s) involved in RIF, female C57BL/6J mice were irradiated to the right flank to 35 Gy in single fraction using 6Mv electrons. Radiation fibrosis was detected by day 14, was increased by day 28, and confirmed by Masson's Trichrome histological staining for collagen. Biopsied tissue at day 14 showed an increase in expression of fibrosis-related genes including TGF-β, and collagens I-IV...
March 12, 2019: Stem Cells
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30856179/comparative-study-of-the-neural-differentiation-capacity-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-different-tissue-sources-an-approach-for-their-use-in-neural-regeneration-therapies
#10
Daniela N Urrutia, Pablo Caviedes, Rodrigo Mardones, José J Minguell, Ana Maria Vega-Letter, Claudio M Jofre
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can trans/differentiate to neural precursors and/or mature neurons and promote neuroprotection and neurogenesis. The above could greatly benefit neurodegenerative disorders as well as in the treatment of post-traumatic and hereditary diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). In order to attain an ideal source of adult MSCs for the treatment of CNS diseases, adipose tissue, bone marrow, skin and umbilical cord derived MSCs were isolated and studied to explore differences with regard to neural differentiation capacity...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30852370/sertoli-cell-mediated-differentiation-of-bovine-fetal-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-germ-cell-lineage-using-an-in-vitro-co-culture-system
#11
M N Segunda, J Bahamonde, I Muñoz, S Sepulveda, J Cortez, M De Los Reyes, J Palomino, C G Torres, O A Peralta
In vitro gamete derivation based on differentiation of germ cells (GC) from stem cells has emerged as a potential new strategy for the treatment of male infertility. This technology also has potential applications in animal reproduction as an alternative method for dissemination of elite animal genetics, production of transgenic animals, and conservation of endangered species. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells defined by their ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. Under the effect of selected bioactive factors, MSC upregulate expression of pluripotent and GC specific-markers revealing their potential for GC differentiation...
February 28, 2019: Theriogenology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30848792/skeletal-fragility-its-clinical-determinants-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#12
Suet Ching Chen, Sheila Shepherd, Martin McMillan, Jane McNeilly, John Foster, Sze Choong Wong, Kenneth J Robertson, S Faisal Ahmed
CONTEXT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with an increased fracture risk at all ages. OBJECTIVE: To understand the determinants of bone health and fractures in children with T1D. DESIGN: Case-control study of children with T1D on bone turnover markers, DXA and 3T-MRI of the proximal tibia to assess bone microarchitecture and vertebral marrow adiposity, compared to age and sex-matched healthy children. RESULTS: 32 children with T1D at a median (range) age of 13...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837037/-different-types-of-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-resist-bone-loss-caused-by-weightlessness
#13
Wen Yuan Li, Yong Hui Tian, Yu Hai Gao, Bao Ying Zhu, Hui Rong Xi, Ke Ming Chen
Objective To compare the effects of 50-Hz 0.6-mT low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields(PEMFs) and 50-Hz 1.8-mT sinusoidal alternating electromagnetic fields(SEMFs) in preventing bone loss in tail-suspended rats,with an attempt to improve the prevention and treatment of bone loss caused by weightlessness.Methods Tail-suspension rat models were used to simulate microgravity on the ground. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups[control group,hindlimb-suspended(HLS) group,HLS+PEMFs group,and HLS+SEMFs group],with 10 rats in each group...
February 28, 2019: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30825288/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-comparison-of-different-types-of-rabbit-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-repair
#14
Mohammad Ali Khalilifar, Mohamad Reza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohammad Ghasemzadeh, Samaneh Hosseini, Hossein Baharvand
Objective: Systematic studies indicate a growing number of clinical studies that use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of cartilage lesions. The current experimental and preclinical study aims to comparatively evaluate the potential of MSCs from a variety of tissues for the treatment of cartilage defect in rabbit's knee which has not previously been reported. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BMMSCs), adipose (AMSCs), and ears (EMSCs) of rabbits and expanded under in vitro culture...
July 2019: Cell Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30822352/a-modifying-autoantigen-in-graves-disease
#15
Rauf Latif, Mihaly Mezei, Syed A Morshed, Risheng Ma, Rachel Ehrlich, Terry F Davies
The TSH receptor (TSHR) is the major autoantigen in Graves' disease (GD). Bioinformatic analyses predicts the existence of several human TSHR isoforms from alternative splicing which can lead to the co-expression of multiple receptor forms of which the most abundant is TSHR-v1.3. In-silico modeling of TSHR v1.3 demonstrated the structural integrity of this truncated receptor isoform and its potential binding of TSH. Tissue profiling revealed wide expression of TSHRv1.3 with a predominant presence in thyroid, bone marrow, thymus and adipose tissue...
March 1, 2019: Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30819964/a-lipase-independent-pathway-of-lipid-release-and-immune-modulation-by-adipocytes
#16
Stephen E Flaherty, Ambar Grijalva, Xiaoyuan Xu, Eleanore Ables, Alireza Nomani, Anthony W Ferrante
To meet systemic metabolic needs, adipocytes release fatty acids and glycerol through the action of neutral lipases. Here, we describe a secondary pathway of lipid release from adipocytes that is independent of canonical lipolysis. We found that adipocytes release exosome-sized, lipid-filled vesicles (AdExos) that become a source of lipid for local macrophages. Adipose tissue from lean mice released ~1% of its lipid content per day via exosomes ex vivo, a rate that more than doubles in obese animals. AdExos and associated factors were sufficient to induce in vitro differentiation of bone marrow precursors into adipose tissue macrophage-like cells...
March 1, 2019: Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30817525/stem-cells-for-bone-regeneration-current-state-and-future-directions
#17
Alexandra O Luby, Kavitha Ranganathan, Jeremy V Lynn, Noah S Nelson, Alexis Donneys, Steven R Buchman
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, each of which is important for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration and repair. Reconstruction and healing of bony defects remains a major clinical challenge. Even as surgical practices advance, some severe cases of bone loss do not yield optimal recovery results. New techniques involving implantation of stem cells and tissue-engineered scaffolds are being developed to help improve bone and cartilage repair...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30816233/cd271-selected-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-adipose-tissue-enhance-cartilage-repair-and-are-less-angiogenic-than-plastic-adherent-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Nupur Kohli, Ibtesam R T Al-Delfi, Martyn Snow, Takumi Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, Hideaki Nakajima, Kenzo Uchida, William E B Johnson
CD271 is a marker of bone marrow MSCs with enhanced differentiation capacity for bone or cartilage repair. However, the nature of CD271+ MSCs from adipose tissue (AT) is less well understood. Here, we investigated the differentiation, wound healing and angiogenic capacity of plastic adherent MSCs (PA MSCs) versus CD271+ MSCs from AT. There was no difference in the extent to which PA MSCs and CD271+ MSCs formed osteoblasts, adipocytes or chondrocytes in vitro. In contrast, CD271+ MSCs transplanted into athymic rats significantly enhanced osteochondral wound healing with reduced vascularisation in the repair tissue compared to PA MSCs and control animals; there was little histological evidence of mature articular cartilage formation in all animals...
February 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30815355/correction-to-the-expression-of-immunomodulation-related-cytokines-and-genes-of-adipose-and-bone-marrow-derived-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-early-to-late-passages
#19
Chin Hee Mun, Mi-Il Kang, Yong Dae Shin, Yeseul Kim, Yong-Beom Park
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s13770-018-0147-5.].
February 2019: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30814687/combating-osteoporosis-and-obesity-with-exercise-leveraging-cell-mechanosensitivity
#20
REVIEW
Gabriel M Pagnotti, Maya Styner, Gunes Uzer, Vihitaben S Patel, Laura E Wright, Kirsten K Ness, Theresa A Guise, Janet Rubin, Clinton T Rubin
Osteoporosis, a condition of skeletal decline that undermines quality of life, is treated with pharmacological interventions that are associated with poor adherence and adverse effects. Complicating efforts to improve clinical outcomes, the incidence of obesity is increasing, predisposing the population to a range of musculoskeletal complications and metabolic disorders. Pharmacological management of obesity has yet to deliver notable reductions in weight and debilitating complications are rarely avoided. By contrast, exercise shows promise as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological method of regulating both osteoporosis and obesity...
February 27, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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