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PTSD and conversion disorder

Payman Raise Abdullahi, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Ali Ghanbari, Masoomeh Dadkhah, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arises after an individual has experienced a major traumatic event. Recent evidence suggests that acute morphine treatment may serve as a strategy to reduce PTSD development. In the present study, we investigated the time-dependent effects of morphine on behavioral and morphological deficits induced by the single prolonged stress (SPS), an experimental model of PTSD, in adult male rats. The rats were exposed to SPS (restraint for 2 h, forced swimming for 20 min, and ether anesthesia), and kept undistributed for 11 days...
February 9, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Saher Hoda Kamil, Mustafa Qureshi, Rikinkumar S Patel
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified as a somatoform conversion disorder. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with a past psychiatric history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorder, admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit. The patient experienced multiple episodes of seizures during hospitalization. Work up was unremarkable, and PNES were suspected and later confirmed with video-electroencephalography (video-EEG). He underwent supervised withdrawal of antiepileptic medications with the initiation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which reduced the frequency of seizures...
January 29, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Henrik Kessler, Emily A Holmes, Simon E Blackwell, Anna-Christine Schmidt, Johanna M Schweer, Anna Bücker, Stephan Herpertz, Nikolai Axmacher, Aram Kehyayan
OBJECTIVE: The core clinical feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is recurrent intrusive memories of trauma. This study aimed to test a novel and simple intervention, inspired by the concepts of concurrent task interference and memory reconsolidation, to reduce the occurrence of intrusive memories among inpatients with complex PTSD. METHOD: In this open-label single case series 20 patients with longstanding complex PTSD in inpatient treatment monitored the occurrence of intrusive trauma memories (intrusions) over the course of their admission (5 to 10 weeks)...
December 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Zhi Ye, Lihua Chen, Danhua Lin
The traumatic experience of contracting and living with HIV/AIDS may produce a myriad of mental health problems, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and conversely, bring posttraumatic growth (PTG), that is, positive changes resulting from a struggle with trauma. The growing body of research into the relationship between PTSD symptoms and PTG has produced mixed results. In addition, some research has suggested that psychosocial and cognitive factors may mediate the development of PTG after trauma exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephanie Milan, Christina Carlone
Dyadic interactions may be affected by the mental health of either partner; however, both partners' symptoms are typically not considered simultaneously in observational studies of parent-child relationships. Using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), we examine how depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in mothers and adolescent daughters predict their own and each other's relational behaviors (warmth, hostility, communication) during interactions, and whether partners' relational behaviors predict changes in symptoms 1 month later...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Jan Grimell
This psychological exegesis reconsiders biblical characters through recent theories on moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purposes of this article are to shed new light on these characters and to engage in conversations of what the findings may mean for pastoral care and their connections to theology. The findings include the proposal of four categorical types of combat veterans that illustrate the development of PTSD, resilience, moral injury, and unfaltering abidance to the warrior ethics...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
Crhistian Luis Bender, Marcelo Giachero, Ramiro Comas-Mutis, Victor Alejandro Molina, Gastón Diego Calfa
Fear extinction is defined as a decline in fear-conditioned responses following non-reinforced exposure to a fear conditioned stimulus, therefore the conditioned stimulus gains new predictive properties. Patients with anxiety related disorders (e.g.: PTSD) subjected to extinction-like exposure treatments often experience a relapse of symptoms. Stress is a risk factor for those psychiatric disorders and a critical modulator of fear learning that turns the memory resistant to the extinction process. Dendritic spines are the anatomical sites where neuronal activity reshapes brain networks during learning and memory processes...
September 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Laila Farhood, Souha Fares, Carmen Hamady
AbstractThe female-male ratio in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is approximately 2:1. Gender differences in experienced trauma types, PTSD symptom clusters, and PTSD risk factors are unclear. We aimed to address this gap using a cross-sectional design. A sample of 991 civilians (522 women, 469 men) from South Lebanon was randomly selected in 2007, after the 2006 war. Trauma types were grouped into disaster and accident, loss, chronic disease, non-malignant disease, and violence. PTSD symptom clusters involved re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Laila Farhood, Souha Fares, Carmen Hamady
The female-male ratio in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is approximately 2:1. Gender differences in experienced trauma types, PTSD symptom clusters, and PTSD risk factors are unclear. We aimed to address this gap using a cross-sectional design. A sample of 991 civilians (522 women, 469 men) from South Lebanon was randomly selected in 2007, after the 2006 war. Trauma types were grouped into disaster and accident, loss, chronic disease, non-malignant disease, and violence. PTSD symptom clusters involved re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal...
May 25, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Matthew B Young, Leonard L Howell, Lauren Hopkins, Cassandra Moshfegh, Zhe Yu, Lauren Clubb, Jessica Seidenberg, Jeanie Park, Adam P Swiercz, Paul J Marvar
Alterations in peripheral immune markers are observed in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized in part by impaired extinction of fear memory for a traumatic experience. We hypothesized that fear memory extinction is regulated by immune signaling stimulated when fear memory is retrieved. The relationship between fear memory and the peripheral immune response was tested using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. Memory for the association was quantified by the amount of conditioned freezing exhibited in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), extinction and time-dependent changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
August 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
S L Pineles, Y I Nillni, G Pinna, J Irvine, A Webb, K A Arditte Hall, R Hauger, M W Miller, P A Resick, S P Orr, A M Rasmusson
There is a need to identify new and more effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Allopregnanolone and its stereoisomer pregnanolone (together termed ALLO) are metabolites of progesterone that positively and allosterically modulate GABA effects at GABAA receptors, thereby reducing anxiety and depression. Previous research revealed that women with PTSD had low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ALLO levels and a low ratio of ALLO to the allopregnanolone precursor 5α-DHP, consistent with deficient activity of the ALLO synthetic enzyme 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD)...
July 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Amy E Street, Christina M Dardis
A wealth of research has established clear gender differences in exposure to potentially traumatic events and in subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One perspective that is missing from most conversations about gender differences in PTSD is a systematic discussion of gender role socialization, and relatedly, the social construction of gender within our society. The purpose of the present review is to provide exposure to these theories as they relate to gender differences in PTSD, including differences in trauma exposure, risk for the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms, and PTSD treatment outcome...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Melissa Peskin, Katarzyna Wyka, Judith Cukor, Megan Olden, Margaret Altemus, Francis S Lee, JoAnn Difede
Two studies suggest that reductions in posttraumatic symptoms (Aderka et al., 2013) and cognitions (Zalta et al., 2014) precede reductions in depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female assault survivors. The present study explored the temporal relationship between posttraumatic and depressive symptoms in a randomized trial of D-Cycloserine (DCS) versus placebo augmented virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy for chronic World Trade Center-related PTSD following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
David L Perez, Nassim Matin, Arthur Barsky, Victor Costumero-Ramos, Sara J Makaretz, Sigrid S Young, Jorge Sepulcre, W Curt LaFrance, Matcheri S Keshavan, Bradford C Dickerson
OBJECTIVE: Adverse early-life events are predisposing factors for functional neurological disorder (FND) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cingulo-insular regions are implicated in the biology of both conditions and are sites of stress-mediated neuroplasticity. We hypothesised that functional neurological symptoms and the magnitude of childhood abuse would be associated with overlapping anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular volumetric reductions, and that FND and PTSD symptoms would map onto distinct cingulo-insular areas...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
R F Cooke, L R Mehrkam, R S Marques, K D Lippolis, D W Bohnert
This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Amy J Jak, Laura D Crocker, Robin L Aupperle, Ashley Clausen, Jessica Bomyea
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is classified as a traumatic stress-related condition and is most often discussed in terms of emotional dysfunction. However, given that cognitive and emotional processes are intricately intertwined, implemented by overlapping brain networks, and effectively integrated in at least some of the same regions (e.g., prefrontal cortex, for a review, see Crocker et al. 2013), an abundance of literature now highlights the key role that cognitive functioning plays in both the development and maintenance (or exacerbation) of PTSD symptoms (Aupperle et al...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Raül Andero, Takehito Sawamura, Tanja Jovanovic, Santiago Papini, Kerry J Ressler, Seth Davin Norrholm
Deficits in fear extinction learning are hypothesized to underlie the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such deficits may, in part, be due to genetic and epigenetic variation in the stress related gene FKBP5. Conversely, altering FKBP5 epigenetic responses during memory consolidation may rescue extinction deficits making it a target for acute intervention to prevent the development of PTSD. Study 1 (Humans) examines if FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PTSD symptom domains (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, hyperarousal) are associated with abnormal fear extinction phenotypes identified using latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM)...
April 2017: Neuropharmacology
Erin L Neill, Carl F Weems, Michael S Scheeringa
Cognitive behavioral therapy techniques are empirically supported for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in youth, but the role of parents in such treatments is less clear. Theoretically there may be a reciprocal relationship such that as children improve, their parents may feel better, and conversely as parents feel better, psychologically the child may improve or improve at a greater rate. This study tested if there were indirect effects of change in child PTSD symptoms on change in parent depression symptoms, and vice versa, across treatment sessions...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Veysi Ceri, Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic, Ürün Özer, Murat Yalcin, Christian Popow, Türkan Akkaya-Kalayci
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate psychiatric problems and disorders among Yazidi Kurd refugee children and adolescents, who were assessed immediately after their forced migration following life-threatening attacks by ISIS terrorists. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the psychiatric assessments of 38 Yazidi children and adolescents (age 2-18, mean 12 years, m:f = 16:22), which were performed upon their arrival at the refugee camp. RESULTS: All children and adolescents exhibited psychiatric problems and disorders, 50 % had one, and 50 % had more than one...
September 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Chengji Piao, Xiaofei Deng, Xingyue Wang, Yiran Yuan, Zhengkui Liu, Jing Liang
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its output area, the nucleus accumbens (NAc), are implicated in mediating attentional set-shifting. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit difficulties in the disengagement of attention from traumatic cues, which is associated with impairments in set-shifting ability. However, unknown is whether alterations in corticostriatal function underlie deficits in this behavioral flexibility in individuals with PTSD. An animal model of single prolonged stress (SPS) has been partially validated as a model for PTSD, in which SPS rats recapitulate the pathophysiological abnormalities and behavioral characteristics of PTSD...
January 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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