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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761080/zebrafish-as-an-emerging-model-for-osteoporosis-a-primary-testing-platform-for-screening-new-osteo-active-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Dylan J M Bergen, Erika Kague, Chrissy L Hammond
Osteoporosis is metabolic bone disease caused by an altered balance between bone anabolism and catabolism. This dysregulated balance is responsible for fragile bones that fracture easily after minor falls. With an aging population, the incidence is rising and as yet pharmaceutical options to restore this imbalance is limited, especially stimulating osteoblast bone-building activity. Excitingly, output from large genetic studies on people with high bone mass (HBM) cases and genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the population, yielded new insights into pathways containing osteo-anabolic players that have potential for drug target development...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758423/inhibition-of-the-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-in-the-elderly-clinical-and-mechanistic-insights-into-safety-and-efficacy
#2
Riobaldo Cintra, Filipe A Moura, Luis Sergio F de Carvalho, Joaquim Barreto, Marcos Tambascia, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Andrei C Sposito
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the elderly grew sharply over the last decade. Reduced insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, weight gain, sarcopenia, and elevated adiposity are all common metabolic and body changes in the aging population that favor an increased risk of hypoglycemia, frailty syndrome, falls, and cognitive dysfunction. First line antidiabetic therapy is frequently not safe in older individuals because of its high risk of hypoglycemia and prevalent co-morbid diseases, such as chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and obesity...
January 2019: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746503/hyponatremia-is-associated-with-increased-osteoporosis-and-bone-fractures-in-patients-with-diabetes-with-matched-glycemic-control
#3
Rachel L Usala, Stephen J Fernandez, Mihriye Mete, Nawar M Shara, Joseph G Verbalis
Context: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for bone fragility fracture secondary to multiple mechanisms. Hyperglycemia can induce true dilutional hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is associated with gait instability, osteoporosis, and increased falls and bone fractures, and studies suggest that compromised bone quality with hyponatremia may be independent of plasma osmolality. We performed a case-control study of patients with diabetes mellitus matched by median glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to assess whether hyponatremia was associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and/or fragility fracture...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740382/non-traumatic-unilateral-femur-neck-fracture-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-septuagenarian-indian-male-a-unique-case-report
#4
Sharath Kittanakere Ramanath, Rahul Hemant Shah
Introduction: Antiretroviral drugs are known to cause osteoporosis making the bones susceptible to fracture. Osteoporotic fractures are majorly seen in the vertebral bodies. Pathological fractures need to be fixed without much delay to start mobilization of the patients. Case Report: The present case describes a 72-year-old male who was diagnosed to be human immunodeficiency virus-positive 11 months back for which the patient was on a combination of antiretroviral therapy for 11 months...
September 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733130/association-between-speed-of-sound-of-calcaneal-bone-assessed-by-quantitative-ultrasound-and-sarcopenia-in-a-general-older-adult-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Hiromi Matsumoto, Chika Tanimura, Shinji Tanishima, Hiroshi Hagino
BACKGROUND: Lower calcaneal speed of sound may be related to sarcopenia because sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis show a linked relationship in older adults. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether the speed of sound of calcaneal bone assessed by quantitative ultrasound is associated with sarcopenia in a community-dwelling older adult population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study. The participants in the study were recruited from a group of individuals who had registered for an annual town-sponsored medical check-up...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717716/oxygen-desaturation-during-the-6-min-walk-test-as-a-risk-for-osteoporosis-in-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#6
Hung-Yu Huang, Te-Fang Sheng, Chang-Wei Lin, Ting-Wen Wang, Chun-Yu Lo, Fu-Tsai Chung, Lan-Yan Yang, Yu-Bin Pan, Chun-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a common comorbidity in non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis patients. We determined whether desaturation during 6-min walk test (6MWT) can be a predictor for osteoporosis risk. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Sixty-six non-CF bronchiectasis patients were enrolled. Lung function, walking distance, the lowest oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), the fall in SpO2 (ΔSpO2 ), and the distance-saturation product (DSP) were determined during the 6MWT...
February 4, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706096/effect-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-on-the-development-of-spine-hip-and-wrist-fractures
#7
S C Yang, Y C Chiu, P H Liu, T J Hsieh, Y H Kao, Y K Tu
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is one of the most common diseases in the elderly male population. The urinary tract symptoms may increase the risk of falls and fractures. The results indicated that patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia could increase the risk of vertebral compression fractures in both the thoracic and lumbar spine and also hip fractures, but did not increase the risk of wrist fracture. INTRODUCTION: The relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia and the development of fall-related fractures, especially vertebral compression fractures, has been seldom mentioned in the literature...
January 31, 2019: Osteoporosis International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701437/the-role-of-parathyroid-hormone-pth-and-vitamin-d-in-falls-and-hip-fracture-type
#8
Konstantinos Dretakis, Vasilios G Igoumenou
BACKGROUND: Fragility fractures of the hip are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and represent a rather devastating consequence of osteoporosis. Hip fractures are traditionally investigated as a whole, although it has been recently implied that distinct pathogenic mechanisms may lead either to trochanteric or subcapital fractures. AIMS: To investigate whether differences exist by hip fracture type with respect to serum 25(OH)D (vitamin D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, in addition to epidemiological and demographic data, including history of falls...
January 30, 2019: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701342/cost-effectiveness-of-gastro-resistant-risedronate-tablets-for-the-treatment-of-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis-in-france
#9
M Hiligsmann, J-Y Reginster
The use of gastro-resistant risedronate, a convenient dosing regimen for oral bisphosphonate therapy, seems a cost-effective strategy compared with weekly alendronate, generic risedronate, and no treatment for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in France. INTRODUCTION: Gastro-resistant (GR) risedronate tablets are associated with improved persistence compared to common oral bisphosphonates but are slightly more expensive. This study assessed its cost-effectiveness compared to weekly alendronate and generic risedronate for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in France...
January 30, 2019: Osteoporosis International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698279/vitamin-d-and-falls-in-older-african-american-women-the-poda-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
John F Aloia, Rakhil Rubinova, Melissa Fazzari, Shahidul Islam, Mageda Mikhail, Louis Ragolia
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the influence of vitamin D on falls in older high-functioning black American women. Endocrine Society guidelines propose serum 25(OH)D levels over 30 ng/mL. OBJECTIVE: To determine if maintenance of serum 25(OH)D above 30 ng/mL protects against falls. DESIGN: The Physical Performance, Osteoporosis and Vitamin D in African American Women (PODA) trial had a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy design with two arms: one with placebo and one with vitamin D3 adjusted to maintain serum 25(OH)D above 30 ng/mL...
January 30, 2019: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688030/intervention-for-increasing-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-a-deficient-rehabilitation-population-outcomes-of-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#11
Christine Krull, Abramoff Benjamin, Jerome Mairin, Jessica Principe, Qingpo Cai, Yogita Tailor
BACKGROUND: Inadequate vitamin D is highly prevalent. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) increases the risk of osteoporosis, falls, and fractures. Patients in acute inpatient rehabilitation have several risk factors for VDD, the adverse effects of which may hinder long-term functional gain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for VDD in patients admitted to acute inpatient rehabilitation along with the efficacy of a standardized vitamin D screening and supplementation protocol...
January 27, 2019: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30648159/urinary-n-telopeptide-the-new-diagnostic-test-for-osteoporosis
#12
Ganesan Ram Ganesan, Phagal Varthi Vijayaraghavan
Context  Osteoporosis is a silent disease until it is complicated by trivial fall fractures. There is an increasing interest within the orthopaedic community in the noninvasive cost-effective measurement of the bone mineral density. Aims  The aim of the study is to assess whether urinary N-telopeptide level can be a new diagnostic tool in diagnosing osteoporosis. Methods and Material  This prospective study was done at Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre (SRMC) hospital from October 2015 to October 2017. The study was conducted among patients who comes to SRMC as inpatient or outpatient with suspected osteoporosis and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urinary N-telopeptide...
January 2019: Surgery Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640156/the-effects-of-dual-task-balance-training-on-gait-in-older-women-with-osteoporosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
David Conradsson, Alexandra Halvarsson
BACKGROUND: Although there is a growing body of literature showing promising effects of balance training on gait in older adults, little is known about the effects of dual-task training on varying domains of spatial and temporal gait parameters. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the short-term effects of dual-task balance training differ between single and dual-task gait in older women with osteoporosis with regards to different gait domains (pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry and postural control)? METHODS: Elderly women with osteoporosis who experienced fear of falling and/or ≥1 fall the last 12 months were recruited...
February 2019: Gait & Posture
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635697/chronic-hyponatremia-and-association-with-osteoporosis-among-a-large-racially-ethnically-diverse-population
#14
A L Adams, B H Li, S Bhandari, S Kamat, S Sundar, H Krasa, C M Rhee, K Kalantar-Zadeh, S J Jacobsen, J J Sim
Chronic hyponatremia may contribute to decreased bone density. We studied 341,003 men and women who underwent DXA testing and observed that individuals with chronic hyponatremia (sodium < 135 mEq/L) had an 11% greater likelihood of having osteoporosis. There was a dose-dependent effect with lower sodium and stronger association with osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Chronic hyponatremia has been associated with both neurologic deficits and increased risk of gait abnormalities leading to falls and resultant bone fractures...
January 11, 2019: Osteoporosis International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617538/-femoral-shaft-fractures
#15
T Gösling, C Krettek
Femoral shaft fractures after completion of growth predominantly affect young people with healthy bones. The causes are mostly high-velocity traffic accidents, crushing or running over mechanisms and falls from a great height. Gunshot wounds are relatively rare in Germany but have a certain importance internationally and in military medicine. Accompanying injuries in local or other regions are frequent. The predominant fracture types are transverse, wedge, segment and comminuted fractures. Spiral fractures are a sign of indirect force and are therefore frequently found in older patients with osteoporosis...
January 7, 2019: Der Unfallchirurg
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611923/3d-patient-specific-finite-element-models-of-the-proximal-femur-based-on-dxa-towards-the-classification-of-fracture-and-non-fracture-cases
#16
Carlos Ruiz Wills, Andy Luis Olivares, Simone Tassani, Mario Ceresa, Veronika Zimmer, Miguel A González Ballester, Luis Miguel Del Río, Ludovic Humbert, Jérôme Noailly
Osteoporotic bone fractures reduce quality of life and drastically increase mortality. Minimally irradiating imaging techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allow assessment of bone loss through the use of bone mineral density (BMD) as descriptor. Yet, the accuracy of fracture risk predictions remains limited. Recently, DXA-based 3D modelling algorithms were proposed to analyse the geometry and BMD spatial distribution of the proximal femur. This study hypothesizes that such approaches can benefit from finite element (FE)-based biomechanical analyses to improve fracture risk prediction...
January 3, 2019: Bone
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30570741/osteoporosis-in-older-persons-old-and-new-players
#17
REVIEW
Jesse Zanker, Gustavo Duque
Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease in humans. Older persons are at higher risk of osteoporotic fractures that also result in poor quality of life, disability, loss of independence, institutionalization, and higher mortality. Osteoporosis shares a distinct pathophysiologic relationship with sarcopenia, an age-related disease comprising declines in muscle mass, strength, or function. The combination of these two diseases is known as osteosarcopenia. Understanding the pathophysiology of osteosarcopenia, in addition to its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, is key in providing older adults with the best falls and fractures prevention strategies...
December 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30559636/relevance-of-whole-body-vibration-exercises-on-muscle-strength-power-and-bone-of-elderly-individuals
#18
Debra Bemben, Christina Stark, Redha Taiar, Mario Bernardo-Filho
Beneficial effects are associated with whole-body vibration exercises (WBVEs). Increases in muscular strength/power, flexibility, and gait speed; improvements in bone mineral density, balance, and the quality of life; and decreased pain and risk of falls are reported. The aim is to present a review about the importance of WBVE for elderly individuals, considering clinical studies and meta-analyses, on bone and muscle strength/power. There is evidence supporting beneficial effect of WBVE in postmenopausal women (PW); however, effects in PW with osteoporosis are unclear...
October 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541669/frequency-of-osteoporosis-and-vertebral-fractures-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients
#19
Mariana R Gazzotti, Carolina M Roco, Cristiane O Pradella, Oliver A Nascimento, Elias F Porto, Mariana Adas, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, José R Jardim
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and/or microarchitectural deterioration of bone. Osteoporosis is a risk factor for fractures specially in patients with advanced COPD. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the frequency of osteoporosis and vertebral fracture in COPD patients. METHODS: We evaluated 91 COPD patients and compared to 82 healthy subjects (control group) matched for gender and age...
December 9, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30526921/femoral-neck-fractures-after-internal-fixation-of-trochanteric-fractures-with-implants-in-situ-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#20
Antonio Barquet, Peter V Giannoudis, Andrés Gelink
INTRODUCTION: Femoral neck fractures (FNF) after internal fixation of trochanteric fractures (AIFTF) with the implant in situ (WIIS) are uncommon. Publications of FNFAIFTFWIIS are rare. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on the frequency, risk factors, mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes and the eventual prevention of this complication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines with no language restriction...
December 2018: Injury
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