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Soomin Han, Yoo-Jin Park, Eun-Jung Park, Younghun Kim
As an alternative to traditional cancer treatment, photothermal therapy is a promising method with advantages such as non-invasiveness and high efficiency. Herein, we synthesized armored golden Escherichia coli (AGE) microrods as photothermal agents to evaluate the viability of cancer cell. The hollow gold nanoshell (HAuNS) was synthesized for photothermal effects under near infrared (NIR) region using unicellular E. coli as framework. Coupling HAuNS onto the surface of E. coli@SiO2 enhanced temperature elevation and resulted in high conversion efficiency...
February 14, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gregory C Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ajay Katiyar, Tandra Nandi, Priyanka Katiyar, Purbarun Dhar, N Eswara Prasad
Herein, we report a novel nanosilica-based shear-thickening fluid, whose shear-thickening performance has been largely augmented by surface functionalizing silica employing silane chains. The functionalized shear-thickening colloids were transparent; this suggested that they have promise for application. An enhancement in viscosity was observed by over an order of magnitude by the usage of functionalized particles, which could be explained on the basis of enhanced hydroclustering and an order-to-disorder transition of the particles due to physical bonding of the silane with the base polymer...
February 11, 2019: Soft Matter
Jinrong Wu, Zhao Qin, Liangliang Qu, Hao Zhang, Fei Deng, Ming Guo
Homarus americanus, known as American lobster, is fully covered by its exoskeleton composed of rigid cuticles and soft membranes. These soft membranes are mainly located at the joints and abdomen to connect the rigid cuticles and greatly contribute to the agility of the lobster in swimming and preying. Herein, we show that the soft membrane from American lobster is a natural hydrogel (90% water) with exceptionally high toughness (up to 24.98 MJ/m3 ) and strength (up to 23.36 MPa), and is very insensitive to cracks...
January 31, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Katelynn Edgehouse, Maria Escamilla, Louisa Wang, RhayAuna Dent, Kevin Pachuta, Lee Kendall, Peiran Wei, Alp Sehirliolgu, Emily Pentzer
Pickering emulsions are emulsions stabilized by particles instead of small molecules or polymers, and commonly consist of oil droplets dispersed into a continuous water phase with particles lying at the fluid-fluid interface. New particle surfactants are important for tuning the composition and properties of assemblies and enabling advanced applications, such as energy harvesting and management. Although most particle surfactants are spherical, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and clay platelets have garnered recent attention as 2D (i...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xuan Zhou, Yu-Run Miao, William L Shaw, Kenneth S Suslick, Dana D Dlott
Recent investigations into the mechanical properties and mechanochemical reactions of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have suggested the potential for energy dissipation by multiple mechanisms. Although the possibility of efficient multifunctional shock dissipation by MOFs was suggested by static high pressure studies, there is little known about MOFs under shock compression. Here, we measure the attenuation of shock wave by the MOF denoted zeolitic-imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) in its desolvated, porous state...
February 4, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Seweryn Zielinski, Camilo M Botero, Andrea Yanes
Cleaning is a fundamental concern of beach managers in many destinations as well as an important requirement in beach quality awards. However, it has been largely neglected in the literature. This paper provides an overview of empirical studies on beach cleaning and analyzes cleaning-related requirements of 11 beach awards that generate controversy in the literature. This study comments on key aspects of beach cleaning, resolves various misconceptions, and provides new perspectives by integrating related topics drawn from a wide range of literature...
February 2019: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Vincent Alcazer, Christophe Delenda, Laurent Poirot, Stéphane Depil
CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES: While Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cells have shown outstanding results in some hematologic malignancies, studies in solid tumors are less encouraging with poor response rates. Several factors can account for this lack of efficiency in solid tumors: heterogeneous expression or absence of specific target antigen (and so higher risk of toxicity), immunosuppressive microenvironment, homing and tumoral trafficking issues or lack of CAR T-cell persistence. Different approaches can be considered to overcome these resistance mechanisms: bispecific CARs, use of logic gates, combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, engineered CAR T-cells resistant to immunosuppressive molecules, addition of chemokines or enzymes, combination with oncolytic virus, intra-tumoral administration, selection of memory T cell subpopulations and development of armored CAR T-cells secreting cytokines such as IL-12, -15 or -18...
December 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Bibifatima Kaupbayeva, Hironobu Murata, Amber Lucas, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Jonathan S Minden, Alan J Russell
The molecular sieving properties of protein surface-attached polymers are the central features in how polymers extend therapeutic protein lifetimes in vivo. Yet, even after thirty years of research, permeation rates of molecules through polymer-surrounded protein surfaces are largely unknown. As a result, the generation of protein-polymer conjugates remains a stochastic process, unfacilitated by knowledge of structure-function-polymer architecture relationships. In this work, polymers are grown from the surface of avidin using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used to determine how polymer length and density influence the binding kinetics of ligands as a function of ligand size and shape...
January 16, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Marianne Torp Stensvehagen, Berit Arnesveen Bronken, Lars Lien, Gerry Larsson
The impact of stress on health can depend on factors such as frequency, heightening of stress during a given period or the presence of one or a few repeated hassles of psychological importance. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how adult women experience and cope with daily hassles after sexual abuse. Ten interviews were analysed using the grounded theory method. The theoretical model of 'protecting armor in daily life' emerged. The aftermath of sexual abuse related coping with daily stress can be understood as a three-phase process: (1) avoiding and escaping-coping after experiencing sexual abuse; (2) accepting and disclosing-starting a process of recovery; and (3) reconciling and repossessing-living with the experience in the present...
January 10, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
A H Abu Alloush
The consumption rate, survival, and developmental duration of the coccidophagous coccinellid Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of the armored scale insect, Aspidiotus nerii Bouche (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) were studied under laboratory conditions at two temperature regimes of 25 ± 1 and 30 ± 1°C, 50-65% RH, and 16L:8D. Developmental time (egg to adult) significantly decreased with increase in the temperature. It lasted 27.5 days at 25 ± 1°C and 21.3 days at 30 ± 1°C...
January 8, 2019: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Potier, Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Baudrit, Denis Lafont, Richard Douard
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) commonly known as the crash test dummy is also used in the military domain to assess the risk of injury of armored vehicles occupants from lateral impact. The loading conditions range from low velocity - long duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms) similar to the automotive domain, to high velocity - short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion. The human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum previously mentioned, and also at intermediate conditions (14 m/s - 9 ms) in previous studies...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Marloes Dekker Nitert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Circulation Research
Thomas E Marler, Paris N Marler
The scale predator Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisdell was introduced to Guam and Rota to control invasive Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi armored scale infestations on the native Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill populations. The predator demonstrated a clear preference for A. yasumatsui infesting adult plants, resulting in 100% seedling mortality due to the lack of a biocontrol of the scale on seedlings. A Y-tube olfactometer was employed to determine if scale-infested seedling leaves were less attractive to R. lophanthae than scale-infested mature tree leaves...
December 18, 2018: Insects
Mark Lang, Gary H Kamimori, Anthony Misistia, Christina R LaValle, A N Ramos, M Y Ghebremedhin, Michael Joseph Egnoto
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, military and law enforcement are using .50-caliber rifles for conflict resolution involving barricades, armor, vehicles, and situations that require increased kinetic energy. Consequences to the shooter resulting from the blast produced while firing these rifles remain unknown. We measured blast overpressure (OP) and impulse across various positions, environments, and weapon configurations to evaluate blast exposures to shooters. METHODS: Two separate, multiday, ...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Snehil Budhwar, Priyanka Verma, Rachna Verma, Sangeeta Rai, Kiran Singh
In recent years, most of our knowledge about myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) has come from cancer studies, which depicts Yin side of MDSCs. In cancer, inherent immunosuppressive action of MDSCs favors tumor progression by inhibiting antitumor immune response. However, recently Yang side of MDSCs has also been worked out and suggests the role in maintenance of homeostasis during non-cancer situations like pregnancy, obesity, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. Continued work in this area has armored the biological importance of these cells as master regulators of immune system and prompted scientists all over the world to look from a different perspective...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhou Liu, Yuyan Zhang, Chengliu Chen, Tiyun Yang, Jidong Wang, Ling Guo, Peng Liu, Tiantian Kong
Understanding the mechanical stability of granular-armored liquid marbles is prerequisite for their applications including encapsulation, sensors, microreactions, and miniaturized liquid storage. Most liquid marbles are armored with agglomerated granular structure which complicates the wetting and interacting states of particles, hence, impeding one from understanding the effect of granular size on the mechanical stability of marbles. In this work, using a custom-built platform to examine the liquid marbles armored by a single layer of uniform grains, it is revealed that larger microsized grains produce stronger liquid marble...
December 13, 2018: Small
Lushi Kong, Yu Wang, Hongsheng Yu, Bingxue Liu, Shengli Qi, Dezhen Wu, Wei-Hong Zhong, Guofeng Tian, Jie Wang
Development of non-flammable separators with excellent properties is in urgent need by next-generation advanced and safe energy storage devices. However, it has been extremely challenging to simultaneously achieve fire-resistance, high mechanical strength, good thermo-mechanical stability and low ion-transport resistance for polymeric separators. Herein, to address all these needs, we report an in-situ formed core-shell silica@ silica-imbedded polyimide (in-situ SiO2 @(PI/SiO2 )) nanofabric as a new high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid separator...
December 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gavin K Lenton, Tim L A Doyle, David G Lloyd, Jeremy Higgs, Daniel Billing, David J Saxby
Soldiers regularly transport loads weighing >20 kg at slow speeds for long durations. These tasks elicit high energetic costs through increased positive work generated by knee and ankle muscles, which may increase risk of muscular fatigue and decrease combat readiness. This study aimed to determine how modifying where load is borne changes lower-limb joint mechanical work production, and if load magnitude and/or walking speed also affect work production. Twenty Australian soldiers participated, donning a total of 12 body armor variations: six different body armor systems (one standard-issue, two commercially available [cARM1-2], and three prototypes [pARM1-3]), each worn with two different load magnitudes (15 and 30 kg)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Ben D Cox, Alessandro De Simone, Valerie A Tornini, Sumeet P Singh, Stefano Di Talia, Kenneth D Poss
Osteoblasts are matrix-depositing cells that can divide and heal bone injuries. Their deep-tissue location and the slow progression of bone regeneration challenge attempts to capture osteoblast behaviors in live tissue at high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we have developed an imaging platform to monitor and quantify individual and collective behaviors of osteoblasts in adult zebrafish scales, skeletal body armor discs that regenerate rapidly after loss. Using a panel of transgenic lines that visualize and manipulate osteoblasts, we find that a founder pool of osteoblasts emerges through de novo differentiation within one day of scale plucking...
November 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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