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Kyung-Suk Suh, Kihyun Park, Byung-Il Min, Sora Kim, Moon-Hee Han
A source detective system has been developed to estimate unknown source regions and release rates of radionuclides released into the air from covert nuclear activities and accidents. This system is composed of trajectory, atmospheric dispersion, and source term estimation models. Simulated results were compared with the measurements of a field tracer experiment performed at the Yeonggwang nuclear power plant in Korea in May 1996. Two trajectories among five computed backward trajectories moved toward the original release point, and the comparative results contained some error due to single operation of the backward trajectory model...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Pim A de Jong, Ivana Išgum
Precise segmentation and anatomical identification of the vertebrae provides the basis for automatic analysis of the spine, such as detection of vertebral compression fractures or other abnormalities. Most dedicated spine CT and MR scans as well as scans of the chest, abdomen or neck cover only part of the spine. Segmentation and identification should therefore not rely on the visibility of certain vertebrae or a certain number of vertebrae. We propose an iterative instance segmentation approach that uses a fully convolutional neural network to segment and label vertebrae one after the other, independently of the number of visible vertebrae...
February 12, 2019: Medical Image Analysis
Christoph Thomas, Robert Tampé
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules present peptides on the surface of most nucleated cells and allow the immune system to detect and eliminate infected or malignantly transformed cells. The peptides are derived from endogenous proteins by proteasomal degradation or aberrant translation, and are translocated from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a central component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC). The peptides are subsequently processed by ER-resident aminopeptidases (ERAP1/2) and loaded onto MHC I...
February 13, 2019: Current Opinion in Immunology
Deniz Atalar, Pete Thomas
Powered two wheeler (PTW) riders are a group of vulnerable road users that are overrepresented compared to other road user groups with regards to crash injury outcomes. The understanding of the dynamics that occur before a crash benefits in providing suitable countermeasures for said crashes. A clearer interpretation of which factors interact to cause collisions allows an understanding of the mechanisms that produce higher risk in specific situations in the roadway. Real world in-depth crash data provides detailed data which includes human, vehicular and environmental factors collected on site for crash analysis purposes...
February 13, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Zheng Gu, Yang Shen, Xin-Ye Tang, Xia Ke, Hong-Bing Yao, Su-Ling Hong, Hou-Yong Kang
OBJECTIVES: Asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) frequently occur as comorbid diseases of the upper airways. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FCRL3 and FCRL5 genes have recently been shown to be associated with various immune-related disorders. This study evaluated the association of FCRL3 and FCRL5 polymorphisms with asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) in a Han Chinese population. METHODS: Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FCRL3 and FCRL5 were genotyped in 300 asthmatic children, and 206 healthy unrelated individuals using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
C Gómez-Aix, C Alcaide, P Gómez, M A Aranda, M A Sánchez-Pina
In situ hybridization (ISH) is an informative and relatively accessible technique for the localization of viral genomes in plant tissue and cells. However, simultaneous visualization of related plant viruses in mixed infections may be limited by the nucleotide similarity in the genomes and the single chromogenic detection over the same sample preparation. To address this issue, we used two Pepino mosaic virus isolates and performed ISH over consecutive serial cross-sections of paraffin-embedded leaf samples of single and mixed infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virological Methods
Yuta Yamamoto, Tetsuya Saita, Rintaro Sogawa, Kenji Ogata, Yutaro Yamamoto, Sakiko Kimura, Yutaka Narisawa, Shinya Kimura, Masashi Shin
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib is extensively metabolized in the body, and consequently the development of specific immunoassays for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of ponatinib is challenging. If two antibodies simultaneously recognize the entire structure of ponatinib, they could be utilized to establish an ultra-specific sandwich immunoassay for ponatinib, free of any interference from ponatinib metabolites. In this study, we created two types of anti-ponatinib polyclonal antibodies that recognize two different ponatinib epitopes, and sandwiched almost all structural components of ponatinib in these two antibodies in order to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique not affected by any ponatinib metabolites...
February 13, 2019: Analytical Biochemistry
Brendan M Smalec, Thomas N Heider, Brianna L Flynn, Rachel J O'Neill
A common feature of eukaryotic centromeres is the presence of large tracts of tandemly arranged repeats, known as satellite DNA. However, these centromeric repeats appear to experience rapid evolution under forces such as molecular drive and centromere drive, seemingly without consequence to the integrity of the centromere. Moreover, blocks of heterochromatin within the karyotype, including the centromere, are hotspots for chromosome rearrangements that may drive speciation events by contributing to reproductive isolation...
February 15, 2019: Chromosome Research
David Pilecky, Mate Vamos, Peter Bogyi, Balazs Muk, Dora Stauder, Hajnalka Racz, Noemi Nyolczas, Gabor Z Duray, Gabor Zacher, Endre Zima
OBJECTIVE: Patients with electrical injury are considered to be at high risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Due to the small number of studies, there is no widely accepted guideline regarding the risk assessment and management of arrhythmic complications after electrical accident (EA). Our retrospective observational study was designed to determine the prevalence of ECG abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias after EA, to evaluate the predictive value of cardiac biomarkers for this condition and to assess in-hospital and 30-day mortality...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Jung Keun Lee, Gail M Moraru, John V Stokes, Amanda N Benton, Robert W Wills, Haley P Nabors, Catherine L Smith, Amanda M Lawrence, Bridget V Willeford, Andrea S Varela-Stokes
Rickettsia parkeri, a causative agent of spotted fever rickettsiosis, is transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick), a tick that may also carry a non-pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae". Here, we evaluated R. parkeri and "Candidatus R. andeanae" in tissues from A. maculatum prior to, during, and after blood feeding on rabbits. Using colony-reared A. maculatum that were capillary-fed uninfected cells, R. parkeri, "Candidatus R. andeanae", or both rickettsiae, we detected higher levels of Rickettsia spp...
February 15, 2019: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Huilin Liu, Ying Zhang, Dianwei Zhang, Fuping Zheng, Mingquan Huang, Jinyuan Sun, Xiaotao Sun, Hehe Li, Jing Wang, Baoguo Sun
An efficient and rapid fluorescent nanoprobe is described for the determination of the aroma compound 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG). A molecularly imprinted polymer was doped with a covalent organic framework (COF) grafted onto carbon nanodots that was prepared by one-pot reverse microemulsion polymerization. Amino groups at the surface of carbon nanodots coordinate to the COFs to produce a strong bond and this warrants thermal and chemical stability of the probe. Remaining free amino groups interact with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of 4-EG through acid-base pairing interactions...
February 15, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Xuefeng Shen, Yang Liu, Cheng Xiao, Chen Zheng, Jingfei Huang, He Shi, Quyi Xu, Jianding Cheng, Chao Liu, Jian Zhao
Diatom test has been a significant tool for the diagnosis of drowning. The reliability of the diatom test is still in strong dispute in the field of forensic science because of the false-positive results. This study was designed to quantitatively compare the numbers of the diatoms in false-positive cases and true drowning cases. Diatom samples from 64 victims were used in this study: 32 cases are confirmed drowning victims and other 32 cases died from non-drowned death. Samples were subject for the diatom test those were analyzed by the microwave digestion-vacuum filtration-automated scanning electron microscopy method (MD-VF-Auto SEM method) that we developed before...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Etienne Xavier Keller, Steeve Doizi, Luca Villa, Olivier Traxer
PURPOSE: To present attributes of currently available flexible ureteroscopes to define the best flexible ureteroscope for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scopus and Medline databases were searched for articles relating to performance of flexible ureteroscopes. A consensus for final inclusion of articles judged to be relevant for UTUC treatment was reached between the authors. Instrument characteristics were extracted from manufacturers' product brochures...
February 15, 2019: World Journal of Urology
Cheng Luo, Xiang Li, Qinghua Zhang, Jianbing Yan
Meiotic crossover (CO) plays a key role in producing gametophytes and generating genetic variation. The patterns of CO production differ inter- and intra-species, as well as between sexes. However, sex-specific patterns of CO production have not been accurately profiled independently of genetic backgrounds in maize. Here, we develop a method to isolate single female gametophyte for genomes sequencing in maize. We show that more COs are observed in male (19.3 per microspore) than in female (12.4 per embryo sac)...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Svetlana Trushakova, Lidiya Kisteneva, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Evgenia Mukasheva, Irina Kruzhkova, Ainara Mira-Iglesias, Kirill Krasnoslobodtsev, Ekaterina Morozova, Ludmila Kolobukhina, Joan Puig-Barberà, Elena Burtseva
BACKGROUND: To better understand the impact of seasonal influenza in pregnant women we analyzed data collected during four seasons at a hospital for acute respiratory infection that specializes in treating pregnant women. METHODS: This was a single-center active surveillance study of women 15-44 years of age hospitalized for acute respiratory diseases between 2012/2013 and 2015/2016 in Moscow, Russian Federation. Women had to have been hospitalized within 7 days of the onset of symptoms...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Irene Galani, Konstantina Nafplioti, Panagiota Adamou, Ilias Karaiskos, Helen Giamarellou, Maria Souli
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the in vitro activities of plazomicin and comparator aminoglycosides and elucidate the underlying aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms among carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates collected during a nationwide surveillance study in Greek hospitals. METHODS: Three hundred single-patient carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were studied, including 200 KPC-, 50 NDM-, 21 VIM-, 14 KPC & VIM-, 12 OXA-48-, two NDM & OXA- and one KPC & OXA-producing isolates...
February 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Amin R Mohamed, Klara L Verbyla, Hawlader A Al-Mamun, Sean McWilliam, Bradley Evans, Harry King, Peter Kube, James W Kijas
BACKGROUND: A key developmental transformation in the life of all vertebrates is the transition to sexual maturity, whereby individuals are capable of reproducing for the first time. In the farming of Atlantic salmon, early maturation prior to harvest size has serious negative production impacts. RESULTS: We report genome wide association studies (GWAS) using fish measured for sexual maturation in freshwater or the marine environment. Genotypic data from a custom 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to identify 13 significantly associated SNP for freshwater maturation with the most strongly associated on chromosomes 10 and 11...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Andrew Catanach, Ross Crowhurst, Cecilia Deng, Charles David, Louis Bernatchez, Maren Wellenreuther
Recent studies have highlighted an important role of structural variation (SV) in ecological and evolutionary processes, but few have studied non-model species in the wild. As part of our long-term research programme on the non-model teleost fish Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) we aim to build one of the first catalogues of genomic variants (SNPs and indels, and deletions, duplications and inversions) in fishes, and evaluate overlap of genomic variants with regions under putative selection (Tajima's D and π), and coding sequences (genes)...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Ecology
Pojchanun Kanitthamniyom, Yi Zhang
Magnetic digital microfluidics uses magnetic force to manipulate droplets on a Teflon-coated substrate through the added magnetic particles. To achieve a wide range of droplet manipulation, hydrophilic patterns, known as surface energy traps, are introduced onto the Teflon-coated hydrophobic substrate. However, the Teflon-coated substrate is difficult to modify because it is non-wettable, and existing techniques for patterning surface energy traps have many limitations. Inspired by the mussel adhesion mechanism, we use polydopamine, a bioinspired substance that adheres strongly to almost any materials, to pattern surface energy traps on the Teflon-coated substrate with a great ease...
February 16, 2019: Electrophoresis
Alison Han, Lindsay M Czajkowski, Amanda Donaldson, Holly Ann Baus, Susan M Reed, Rani S Athota, Tyler Bristol, Luz Angela Rosas, Adriana Cervantes-Medina, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Matthew J Memoli
BACKGROUND: The development of vaccines and therapeutics have relied on healthy volunteer influenza challenge studies. A validated human infection model with wild-type A(H1N1)pdm09 was reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To characterize a wild-type Influenza A/Bethesda/MM1/H3N2 challenge virus in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Participants received a single dose of a cell-based, reverse-genetics, GMP-produced wild-type influenza A/H3N2/2011 virus intranasally and were isolated at the NIH Clinical Center for > 9 days...
February 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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