Read by QxMD icon Read

medium-sized spiny neuron

Anu G Nair, Liliana R V Castro, Marianne El Khoury, Victor Gorgievski, Bruno Giros, Eleni T Tzavara, Jeanette Hellgren-Kotaleski, Pierre Vincent
The opposing action of dopamine and acetylcholine has long been known to play an important role in basal ganglia physiology. However, the quantitative analysis of dopamine and acetylcholine signal interaction has been difficult to perform in the native context because the striatum comprises mainly two subtypes of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) on which these neuromodulators exert different actions. We used biosensor imaging in live brain slices of dorsomedial striatum to monitor changes in intracellular cAMP at the level of individual MSNs...
November 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Per Qvist, Simon F Eskildsen, Brian Hansen, Mohammad Baragji, Steffen Ringgaard, Jolien Roovers, Veerle Paternoster, Simon Molgaard, Thomas Juhl Corydon, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Simon Glerup, Ole Mors, Gregers Wegener, Jens R Nyengaard, Anders D Børglum, Jane H Christensen
Schizophrenia is a common and severe mental disorder arising from complex gene-environment interactions affecting brain development and functioning. While a consensus on the neuroanatomical correlates of schizophrenia is emerging, much of its fundamental pathobiology remains unknown. In this study, we explore brain morphometry in mice with genetic susceptibility and phenotypic relevance to schizophrenia (Brd1+/- mice) using postmortem 3D MR imaging coupled with histology, immunostaining and regional mRNA marker analysis...
November 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dimka Hinova-Palova, Alexandar Iliev, Lawrence Edelstein, Boycho Landzhov, Georgi Kotov, Adrian Paloff
The claustrum is a subcortical nucleus found in the telencephalon of all placental mammals. It is a symmetrical, thin and irregular sheet of grey matter which lies between the inner surface of the insular cortex and the outer surface of the putamen. The claustrum has extensive connections with the visual, auditory, somatosensory and motor regions of the cortex, as well as with subcortical and allocortical regions. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the morphology of different types of Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned neurons and fibers in the dorsal claustrum of the cat employing the combined Golgi-electron microscope Fairén method...
December 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
Thomas A Macek, Maggie McCue, Xinxin Dong, Elizabeth Hanson, Paul Goldsmith, John Affinito, Atul R Mahableshwarkar
INTRODUCTION: TAK-063 is a potent, selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 10A, an enzyme selectively expressed in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. This randomized, parallel-group study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 20-mg daily TAK-063 versus placebo in subjects with acutely exacerbated symptoms of schizophrenia (NCT02477020). METHODS: Adults aged 18 to 65 with diagnosed schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms that exacerbated within 60 days before screening were included...
September 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Scott J Mitchell, Edward P Maguire, Linda Cunningham, Benjamin G Gunn, Matthias Linke, Ulrich Zechner, Claire I Dixon, Sarah L King, David N Stephens, Jerome D Swinny, Delia Belelli, Jeremy J Lambert
Haplotypes of the Gabra2 gene encoding the α2-subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABAA R) are associated with drug abuse, suggesting that α2-GABAA Rs may play an important role in the circuitry underlying drug misuse. The genetic association of Gabra2 haplotypes with cocaine addiction appears to be evident primarily in individuals who had experienced childhood trauma. Given this association of childhood trauma, cocaine abuse and the Gabra2 haplotypes, we have explored in a mouse model of early life adversity (ELA) whether such events influence the behavioral effects of cocaine and if, as suggested by the human studies, α2-GABAA Rs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are involved in these perturbed behaviors...
October 2018: Neuropharmacology
Mónica R Fernández-Cabrera, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Isabel Fernaud-Espinosa, Javier DeFelipe, Emilio Ambrosio, Miguel Miguéns
Derivatives from the Cannabis plant are the most commonly abused illegal substances in the world. The main psychoactive component found in the plant, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), exerts its effects through the endocannabinoid system. Manipulations of this system affect some types of learning that seem to be dependent on dorsal striatum synaptic plasticity. Dendritic spines exhibit important synaptic functional attributes and a potential for plasticity, which is thought to mediate long-lasting changes in behaviour...
2018: PloS One
Sonia Marco, Alvaro Murillo, Isabel Pérez-Otaño
Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. HD symptoms include severe motor, cognitive, and psychiatric impairments that result from dysfunction and later degeneration of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. A key early pathogenic mechanism is dysregulated synaptic transmission due to enhanced surface expression of juvenile NMDA-type glutamate receptors containing GluN3A subunits, which trigger the aberrant pruning of synapses formed by cortical afferents onto MSNs...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Brandy A Briones, Vincent D Tang, Amanda E Haye, Elizabeth Gould
Increases in the number and/or the size of dendritic spines, sites of excitatory synapses, have been linked to different types of learning as well as synaptic plasticity in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, sensory cortex, motor cortex, and cerebellum. By contrast, a previous study reported that training on a maze task requiring the dorsal striatum has no effect on medium spiny neuron dendritic spines in this area. These findings might suggest brain region-specific differences in levels of plasticity as well as different cellular processes underlying different types of learning...
June 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Abraham Rosas-Arellano, Argel Estrada-Mondragón, Carola A Mantellero, Carlos Tejeda-Guzmán, Maite A Castro
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), plays a key role in all stages of life, also is considered the main inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA activates two kind of membrane receptors known as GABAA and GABAB , the first one is responsible to render tonic inhibition by pentameric receptors containing α4-6, β3, δ, or ρ1-3 subunits, they are located at perisynaptic and/or in extrasynaptic regions. The biophysical properties of GABAA tonic inhibition have been related with cellular protection against excitotoxic injury and cell death in presence of excessive excitation...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Joshua Barry, Garnik Akopian, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine
The present study examined synaptic communication between direct and indirect output pathway striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and their target structures, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the external globus pallidus (GPe) in two mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD). Cre recombination, optogenetics, and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to determine alterations in intrinsic and synaptic properties of SNr and GPe neurons from both male and female symptomatic R6/2 (>60 d) and presymptomatic (2 months) or symptomatic (10-12 months) YAC128 mice...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhe Shi, Youna Xie, Huixia Ren, Baixuan He, Meng Wang, Jian-Bo Wan, Ti-Fei Yuan, Xiaoli Yao, Huanxing Su
Alcohol addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that represents one of the most serious global public health problems. Yet, currently there still lacks an effective pharmacotherapy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs) have exhibited beneficial effects in a variety of neurological disorders, particularly in reversing behavioral deficits and neurotoxicity induced by prenatal alcohol exposure and binge drinking. In the present study, we investigated if fish oil, which is rich in N-3 PUFAs, had beneficial effects on preventing relapse and alleviating withdrawal symptoms after chronic alcohol exposure...
March 22, 2018: Addiction Biology
James P Mackay, Wissam B Nassrallah, Lynn A Raymond
Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder of typically middle-aged onset for which there is no disease-modifying treatment. Caudate and putamen medium-sized spiny projection neurons (SPNs) most severely degenerate in HD. However, it is unclear why mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) is preferentially toxic to these neurons or why symptoms manifest only relatively late in life. mHTT interacts with numerous neuronal proteins. Likewise, multiple SPN cellular processes have been described as altered in various HD models...
April 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Taichi Onishi, Hirokazu Sakamoto, Shigeyuki Namiki, Kenzo Hirose
Disc1 is a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. It has been suggested that excess transmission through dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum is an underlying mechanism of pathogenesis. In this study, we used super-resolution microscopy to study the distribution of D2Rs at the nanoscale in mice lacking exons 2 and 3 of Disc1 (Disc1-deficient mice). We found that D2Rs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of wild-type mice form nanoclusters (~ 20,000 nm2 ), and that Disc1-deficient mice have larger and more D2R nanoclusters than wild-type mice...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rafael Jijón-Lorenzo, Isaac Hiram Caballero-Florán, Sergio Recillas-Morales, Hernán Cortés, José Arturo Avalos-Fuentes, Francisco Javier Paz-Bermúdez, David Erlij, Benjamín Florán
Striatal dopamine D2 receptors activate the PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin-signaling pathway to modulate the neural excitability of En+ Medium-sized Spiny GABAergic neurons (MSN) through the regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels. Presynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors modulate GABA release at striatopallidal terminals through L-type Ca2+ channels as well, but their signaling pathway is still undetermined. Since D2 receptors are Gi/o-coupled and negatively modulate adenylyl cyclase (AC), we investigated whether presynaptic D2 receptors modulate GABA release through the same signaling cascade that controls excitability in the striatum or by the inhibition of AC and decreased PKA activity...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience
Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Kathleen A Grant, David M Lovinger
One in 12 adults suffer with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Studies suggest the younger the age in which alcohol consumption begins the higher the probability of being diagnosed with AUD. Binge/excessive alcohol drinking involves a transition from flexible to inflexible behavior likely involving the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei). A major focus of this study was to examine the effect of age of drinking onset on subsequent chronic, voluntary ethanol intake and dorsal striatal circuitry. Data from rhesus monkeys (n = 45) that started drinking as adolescents, young adults or mature adults confirms an age-related risk for heavy drinking...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ricardo Márquez-Gómez, Meridith T Robins, Citlaly Gutiérrez-Rodelo, Juan-Manuel Arias, Jesús-Alberto Olivares-Reyes, Richard M van Rijn, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
In the striatum, histamine H3 receptors (H3 Rs) are co-expressed with adenosine A2A receptors (A2A Rs) in the cortico-striatal glutamatergic afferents and the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons that originate the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. This location allows H3 Rs and A2A Rs to regulate the striatal GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission. However, whether these receptors can physically interact has not yet been assessed. To test this hypothesis, a heteromer-selective in vitro assay was used to detect functional complementation between a chimeric A2A R302 -Gαqi4 and wild-type H3 Rs in transfected HEK-293T cells...
March 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Mrunal Rane, Rohit Manchanda
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known widely for its role in the reward circuit, which is dysregulated in a number of psychological disorders. Recent evidence also suggests the contribution of this structure in spatial and gustatory memories. Because of its role in different types of memories, similar to the hippocampus, we assumed the formation of spine clusters, which are engrams of memory, to be present on dendrites of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We found that the activation of clustered inputs resulted in sublinear summation when clusters were present on the same branch and also when inputs were distributed on different branches...
July 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Abraham Rosas-Arellano, Carlos Tejeda-Guzmán, Enrique Lorca-Ponce, Lourdes Palma-Tirado, Carola A Mantellero, Patricio Rojas, Fanis Missirlis, Maite A Castro
GABA is a widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA-A receptors are hetero-pentameric channels assembled in multiple combinations from 19 available subunits; this diversity mediates phasic and tonic inhibitory synaptic potentials. Whereas GABA-A phasic receptors are located within the synaptic cleft, GABA-A tonic receptors are found peri- or extra-synaptically, where they are activated by diffusion of synaptic GABA release. In the neostriatum, GABA-A tonic subunits are present in the D2 medium-size spiny neurons...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Fernando E Padovan-Neto, Anthony R West
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis and inactivation of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP/cGMP) in the brain. Several classes of PDE enzymes with distinct tissue distributions, cyclic nucleotide selectivity, and regulatory factors are highly expressed in brain regions subserving cognitive and motor processes known to be disrupted in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, small-molecule inhibitors of several different PDE family members alter cyclic nucleotide levels and favorably enhance motor performance and cognition in animal disease models...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Keke Ren, Baolin Guo, Chunqiu Dai, Han Yao, Tangna Sun, Xia Liu, Zhantao Bai, Wenting Wang, Shengxi Wu
As the main input nucleus of the basal ganglion, the striatum executes different functions, including motivation, reward and attention. The functions of the striatum highly rely on its subregions that receive projections from various cortical areas and the distribution of striatonigral neurons that express D1 dopamine (DA) receptors (or D1 medium-sized spiny neurons, D1 MSNs) and striatopallidal neurons that express D2 DA receptors (or D2 MSNs). Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, several studies have recently been performed on the spatial distribution of D1 and D2 MSNs...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"