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Dysfunctional hdl and atherosclerosis cardiovascular

Doaa Mohammed Youssef, Mohamed Abdelsalam Gomaa, Ahmed El-Akhras, Sabry Abdel Rahman Tolba, Ghada Mohamed Abd Allah, Osama Daoud, Sameh Saber
INTRODUCTION: Disturbances of lipid metabolism has been reported in nephrotic syndrome (NS) and may predispose to atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in patients with idiopathic NS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study included 31 patients with NS and 31 healthy individuals as the control group. All patients were subjected to full clinical examination; laboratory investigations in the form of lipid profile, kidney function tests, serum protein, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, and ferritin; carotid ultrasonography, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation...
November 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Genhong Yao, Jingjing Qi, Zhuoya Zhang, Saisai Huang, Linyu Geng, Wenchao Li, Weiwei Chen, Xiaojun Tang, Shiying Wang, Lingyun Sun
AIM: Cardiovascular complications related to atherosclerosis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as having involvement in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and SLE. This study aims to evaluate endothelial cell injury in mice with the combination of lupus and atherosclerosis. METHODS: The mouse model of accelerated atherosclerosis in lupus (gld...
December 21, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
David Barros, Francisco García-Río
Lipid metabolism deregulation constitutes the pathogenic basis for the development of atherosclerosis and justifies a high incidence of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Some data suggest that dyslipidemia may be associated with sleep-disordered breathing, mainly obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), due to alterations in fundamental biochemical processes, such as intermittent hypoxia (IH). The aim of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate the current evidence supporting the existence of a possible relationship between OSA and alterations in lipid metabolism...
November 24, 2018: Sleep
Siyuan Yang, Lin Liu, Like Meng, Xuanyi Hu
Capsaicin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, as well as some benefits on the cardiovascular system. The exact effects of capsaicin on atherosclerosis are poorly understood. To investigate the effects of capsaicin on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in guinea pigs fed on a high-fat diet, as well as its potential mechanisms. Guinea pigs (n = 48) were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8/group): normal diet (control); high fat diet (model); model + low-dose capsaicin (2.5 mg/kg); model + moderate-dose capsaicin (5 mg/kg); model + high-dose capsaicin (10 mg/kg), and model + simvastatin (1...
October 17, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Aynaz Mihanfar, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Masoud Pezeshkian, Abbas Afrasiabi, Naser Safaie, Ahmad Reza Jodati, Mohammad Nouri
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atherosclerotic plaques, as a hallmark of CAD, cause chronic narrowing of coronary arteries over time and could also result in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The standard treatments for ameliorating AMI are reperfusion strategies, which paradoxically result in ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury. Sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), as a potent lysophospholipid, plays an important role in various organs, including immune and cardiovascular systems...
March 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Zsuzsa Nebenführer, Erika Szabó, Erika Kajdácsi, Kinga Viktória Kőhalmi, István Karádi, András Zsáry, Henriette Farkas, László Cervenak
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by recurrent edematous attacks. The edema formation is the consequence of interaction of bradykinin and various vasoactive peptides with endothelium. Besides these agents, danazol, a modified testosterone derivative used in these patients to prevent edematous attacks, can also affect the function of the endothelium, because it shifts the blood lipid profile to a pro-atherogenic phenotype...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Christopher C Imes, Lynn M Baniak, JiYeon Choi, Faith S Luyster, Jonna L Morris, Dianxu Ren, Eileen R Chasens
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent and consequential sleep disorder in older adults. Untreated moderate to severe OSA substantially increases the risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which can be attributed to the accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify factors that can function as correlates of endothelial function in older adults with untreated, moderate to severe OSA and CVD or CVD risk factors...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
You-Bin Lee, Kyung Mook Choi
Vascular inflammation plays a central role in atherosclerosis, from initiation and progression to acute thrombotic complications. Modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and apoB-containing particles stimulate plaque inflammation by interacting with macrophages. Loss of function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for preventing LDL particles from oxidative modification in dyslipidemic states may amplify modified LDL actions, accelerating plaque inflammation. Diets are one of the most important factors that can affect these processes of lipoprotein oxidation and vascular inflammation...
September 28, 2018: Nutrients
Matthias P Nägele, Jens Barthelmes, Valeria Ludovici, Silviya Cantatore, Michelle Frank, Frank Ruschitzka, Andreas J Flammer, Isabella Sudano
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important contributors to atherosclerosis. Whether hypercholesterolemia also affects the retinal microcirculation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to assess the association of cholesterol levels with retinal microvascular function using dynamic and static retinal vessel analysis (RVA) in a primary prevention setting. METHODS: This cross-sectional, observational study prospectively recruited 67 patients with hypercholesterolemia without known cardiovascular disease (mean age 64...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Guntur Divya, N S Jayaprakash, Krishnan Venkataraman
Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a cardinal role in alleviating atherosclerosis in various ways. Its role in reverse cholesterol transport is preeminent. However, the ApoA1 undergoes oxidation under chronic inflammatory conditions and these oxidations are mediated by myeloperoxidase. It has been reported that the oxidation of the amino acids such as methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan residues at specific sites of ApoA1 renders it not only dysfunctional but also proinflammatory and proatherogenic...
August 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Courtney L Millar, Quinn Duclos, Chelsea Garcia, Gregory H Norris, Bruno S Lemos, Diana M DiMarco, Maria Luz Fernandez, Christopher N Blesso
BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are protective against atherosclerosis. However, HDL function is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS) due to low-grade inflammation and dyslipidemia. Foods containing polyphenols, such as grapes, may prevent HDL dysfunction via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the effects of grape powder ingestion on measures of HDL function in adults with MetS. METHODS: Twenty adults (age: 32-70 years; body mass index: 25...
November 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
S Sini, D Deepa, S Harikrishnan, N Jayakumari
High density lipoprotein (HDL)-macrophage interactions have the potential to modulate macrophage function in a beneficial way to prevent the development of lipid-loaded foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. Although HDL is atheroprotective, it can become dysfunctional in chronic inflammatory conditions and increase cardiovascular risk. Here, we examined the effect of dysfunctional-HDL from patients with coronary artery disease, on macrophage function in comparison to functional-HDL from controls. Exposure of macrophages to dysfunctional-HDL for 24 h resulted significant increase in cellular oxidative stress, cholesterol, and cytotoxicity...
September 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Leonardo Roever, Elmiro Santos Resende, Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, João Lucas O'Connell, Paulo Fernando Silva Gomes, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Anaisa Silva Roerver-Borges, Fernando César Veloso, Fernanda Rodrigues de Souza, Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Thiago Montes Fidale, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo Magno Martins Dourado, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Álvaro Avezum, Mansueto Neto, André Rodrigues Durães, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Antonio José Grande, Celise Denardi, Renato Delascio Lopes, Nitesh Nerlekar, Shahab Alizadeh, Adrian V Hernandez, Maria Inês da Rosa, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades. MetS is a complex disease that includes endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, ectopic obesity, and dyslipidaemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. One function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is the cholesterol-efflux pathway, which is the pathway where cholesterol is removed from macrophages within the arterial walls back into the bloodstream and out to the liver...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nathan K P Wong, Stephen J Nicholls, Joanne T M Tan, Christina A Bursill
Almost 600 million people are predicted to have diabetes mellitus (DM) by 2035. Diabetic patients suffer from increased rates of microvascular and macrovascular complications, associated with dyslipidaemia, impaired angiogenic responses to ischaemia, accelerated atherosclerosis, and inflammation. Despite recent treatment advances, many diabetic patients remain refractory to current approaches, highlighting the need for alternative agents. There is emerging evidence that high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are able to rescue diabetes-related vascular complications through diverse mechanisms...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yudong Liu, Mariana J Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mechanisms leading to the development of premature atherosclerosis and vascular injury in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain to be fully elucidated. This is a comprehensive review of recent research developments related to the understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lupus. RECENT FINDINGS: SLE patients with lupus nephritis display significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and CVD mortality than SLE patients without lupus nephritis...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Suguru Yamamoto
Uremic toxins are linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related systemic diseases. β2 -Microglobulin (β2 -m), a water-soluble, middle-sized molecule, is associated with mortality and dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA). DRA occurs in long-term dialysis patients, with β2 -m amyloid deposited mainly in osteoarticular tissues. We investigated a model of β2 -m amyloid fibril extension at neutral pH in the presence of trifluoroethanol or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Using this model, some biological molecules, including glycosaminoglycans and lysophospholipids, were found to be chaperones for β2 -m amyloid fibril extension...
June 5, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Angela Pirillo, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Giuseppe Danilo Norata
Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease. HDLs promote reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and possess several putative atheroprotective functions, associated to the anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-oxidant properties as well as to the ability to support endothelial physiology. The assumption that increasing HDL-C levels would be beneficial on cardiovascular disease (CVD), however, has been questioned as, in most clinical trials, HDL-C-raising therapies did not result in improved cardiovascular outcomes...
May 29, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Yunyun Pan, Fenghua Zhou, Zhenhua Song, Huiping Huang, Yong Chen, Yonggang Shen, Yuhua Jia, Jisheng Chen
Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases in the world, is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by the dysfunction of arteries. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a bioactive nature product which exists in various plants and herbs. Previous studies have demonstrated that OA was involved in numerous of biological processes, including atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanisms of the anti-atherosclerosis effects of OA remain unknown. Here, in our study, we analyzed the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of OA in atherosclerosis depending a cell model and an animal model of atherosclerosis...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Baiba K Gillard, Corina Rosales, Bingqing Xu, Antonio M Gotto, Henry J Pownall
Human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are a negative risk factor for atherosclerosis-linked cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological attempts to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been disappointing so that recent research has shifted from HDL quantity to HDL quality, that is, functional vs dysfunctional HDL. HDL has varying degrees of dysfunction reflected in impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the context of atheroprotection, RCT occurs by 2 mechanisms: one is the well-known trans-hepatic pathway comprising macrophage free cholesterol (FC) efflux, which produces early forms of FC-rich nascent HDL (nHDL)...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Philip M Carlucci, Monica M Purmalek, Amit K Dey, Yenealem Temesgen-Oyelakin, Simantini Sakhardande, Aditya A Joshi, Joseph B Lerman, Alice Fike, Michael Davis, Jonathan H Chung, Martin P Playford, Mohammad Naqi, Pragnesh Mistry, Gustavo Gutierrez-Cruz, Stefania Dell'Orso, Faiza Naz, Taufiq Salahuddin, Balaji Natarajan, Zerai Manna, Wanxia L Tsai, Sarthak Gupta, Peter Grayson, Heather Teague, Marcus Y Chen, Hong-Wei Sun, Sarfaraz Hasni, Nehal N Mehta, Mariana J Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with enhanced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease not explained by Framingham risk score (FRS). Immune dysregulation associated to a distinct subset of lupus proinflammatory neutrophils (low density granulocytes; LDGs) may play key roles in conferring enhanced CV risk. This study assessed if lupus LDGs are associated with in vivo vascular dysfunction and inflammation and coronary plaque. METHODS: SLE subjects and healthy controls underwent multimodal phenotyping of vascular disease by quantifying vascular inflammation (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT [18F-FDG-PET/CT]), arterial dysfunction (EndoPAT and cardio-ankle vascular index), and coronary plaque burden (coronary CT angiography)...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
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