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calcium-sensing receptor

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769016/activation-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-human-valvular-interstitial-cells-promotes-calcification
#1
Hawraa Issa, Lucie Hénaut, Jeanne Bou Abdallah, Cédric Boudot, Gaëlle Lenglet, Carine Avondo, Aida Ibrik, Thierry Caus, Michel Brazier, Romuald Mentaverri, Kazem Zibara, Saïd Kamel
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disease in western countries. It has been reported that activation of the calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR) expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells prevents vascular calcification. However, to date, the CaSR's expression and function in cardiac valves have not been studied. The present study sought to evaluate the presence of the CaSR within human valvular interstitial cells (hVICs), assess the CaSR's functionality, and ascertain its involvement in hVIC calcification...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741675/potential-astrocytic-receptors-and-transporters-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Xiaohua Zhang, Kejing Lao, Zhongyin Qiu, Md Saidur Rahman, Yuelin Zhang, Xingchun Gou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is characterized by the progressive loss of memory and cognition in the aging population. However, the etiology of and therapies for AD remain far from understood. Astrocytes, the most abundant neuroglia in the brain, have recently aroused substantial concern due to their involvement in synaptotoxicity, amyloidosis, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. In this review, we summarize the candidate molecules of astrocytes, especially receptors and transporters, that may be involved in AD pathogenesis...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712039/effects-of-long-term-cinacalcet-administration-on-parathyroid-gland-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#3
Senji Okuno, Masaaki Inaba, Eiji Ishimura, Shinya Nakatani, Hidenori Chou, Shigeichi Shoji, Tomoyuki Yamakawa
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cinacalcet, an allosteric modulator of the calcium (Ca) sensing receptor, reduces the level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in serum as well as parathyroid gland volume following administration in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, though long-term results are yet to be reported. METHODS: Serum parameters (n = 23), together with total parathyroid gland volume (n = 18), were determined in Japanese hemodialysis patients given cinacalcet treatment for 8 years...
February 1, 2019: Nephron
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690792/parathyroid-targeted-overexpression-of-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-5-r-gs5-causes-hyperparathyroidism-in-transgenic-mice
#4
Nariman Balenga, James Koh, Pedram Azimzadeh, Joyce Hogue, Mostafa Gabr, Joseph P Stains, John A Olson
The relationship between impaired calcium sensing, dysregulated parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, and parathyroid cell proliferation in parathyroid neoplasia is not understood. We previously reported that a GTPase activating protein, regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5) is overexpressed in a subset of parathyroid tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), and that RGS5 can inhibit signaling from the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). In vivo, we found that RGS5-null mice have abnormally low PTH levels...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677043/gcm2-regulates-the-maintenance-of-parathyroid-cells-in-adult-mice
#5
Taku Yamada, Norifumi Tatsumi, Akane Anraku, Hideaki Suzuki, Sahoko Kamejima, Taketo Uchiyama, Ichiro Ohkido, Takashi Yokoo, Masataka Okabe
Glial cells missing homolog 2 (GCM2), a zinc finger-type transcription factor, is essential for the development of parathyroid glands. It is considered to be a master regulator because the glands do not form when Gcm2 is deficient. Remarkably, Gcm2 expression is maintained throughout the fetal stage and after birth. Considering the Gcm2 function in embryonic stages, it is predicted that Gcm2 maintains parathyroid cell differentiation and survival in adults. However, there is a lack of research regarding the function of Gcm2 in adulthood...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626206/spermine-on-endothelial-extracellular-vesicles-mediates-smoking-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-partially-through-calcium-sensing-receptor
#6
Liping Zhu, Rui Xiao, Xiuyun Zhang, Yuheng Lang, Fangbo Liu, Zhe Yu, Jiwei Zhang, Yuan Su, Yankai Lu, Tao Wang, Shengquan Luo, Jian Wang, Ming-Lin Liu, Jocelyn Dupuis, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Tong Li, Weining Xiong, Qinghua Hu
Objective- This study aims to determine whether and how the enriched metabolites of endothelial extracellular vesicles (eEVs) are critical for cigarette smoke-induced direct injury of endothelial cells and the development of pulmonary hypertension, rarely explored in contrast to long-investigated mechanisms secondary to chronic hypoxemia. Approach and Results- Metabonomic screen of eEVs from cigarette-smoking human subjects reveals prominent elevation of spermine-a polyamine metabolite with potent agonist activity for the extracellular CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor)...
January 10, 2019: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624783/calcium-sensing-receptor-in-developing-human-airway-smooth-muscle
#7
Anne M Roesler, Sarah A Wicher, Jovanka Ravix, Rodney D Britt, Logan Manlove, Jacob J Teske, Katelyn Cummings, Michael A Thompson, Carol Farver, Peter MacFarlane, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) regulation of airway structure and contractility is critical in fetal/neonatal physiology in health and disease. Fetal lungs experience higher Ca2+ environment that may impact extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]o ) sensing receptor (CaSR). Well-known in the parathyroid gland, CaSR is also expressed in late embryonic lung mesenchyme. Using cells from 18-22 week human fetal lungs, we tested the hypothesis that CaSR regulates intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) in fetal ASM (fASM). Compared with adult ASM, CaSR expression was higher in fASM, while fluorescence Ca2+ imaging showed that [Ca2+ ]i was more sensitive to altered [Ca2+ ]o ...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30603367/a-case-of-hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia-related-with-a-calcimimetic-agent
#8
Satoru Takashima, Takuma Narita, Hitomi Otomo, Tatsunori Shimizu, Yuichiro Yamada
We herein report a case of a 60-year-old female receiving hemodialysis who developed severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and lost her consciousness. A calcimimetic agent had been administered for the secondary hyperparathyroidism. The calcimimetic agent, mimicking the elevation of the extracellular calcium ion concentration, activates calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) of the parathyroid cells and inhibits the parathyroid hormone secretions. The previous study suggested that the CaSR are also expressed in both human β cells and insulinoma cells, but the reactivity to change in the extracellular calcium ion concentration is different between normal β cells and insulinoma cells...
July 2018: Diabetology International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30579813/spatiotemporal-pattern-of-calcium-activity-in-astrocytic-network
#9
REVIEW
Alexey Semyanov
Ca2+ influx through an astrocyte plasma membrane is mediated by ionotropic receptors and Ca2+ channels according the electrochemical gradient. These conductances allow astrocytes to sense the levels of neuronal activity and environmental changes. Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) removes elevated Ca2+ from the cell but can reverse and bring Ca2+ in. Ca2+ entry through the plasma membrane produces local Ca2+ elevations that can be further amplified by Ca2+ induced activation of inositol-3-phosphate (IP3 ) receptors and subsequent Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores...
December 17, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565894/electrical-stimulation-by-an-organic-transistor-architecture-induces-calcium-signaling-in-nonexcitable-brain-cells
#10
Ana Isabel Borrachero-Conejo, Emanuela Saracino, Marco Natali, Federico Prescimone, Saskia Karges, Simone Bonetti, Grazia Paola Nicchia, Francesco Formaggio, Marco Caprini, Roberto Zamboni, Francesco Mercuri, Stefano Toffanin, Michele Muccini, Valentina Benfenati
Organic bioelectronics have a huge potential to generate interfaces and devices for the study of brain functions and for the therapy of brain pathologies. In this context, increasing efforts are needed to develop technologies for monitoring and stimulation of nonexcitable brain cells, called astrocytes. Astroglial calcium signaling plays, indeed, a pivotal role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the brain. Here, the use of transparent organic cell stimulating and sensing transistor (O-CST) architecture, fabricated with N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13), to elicit and monitor intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) in primary rat neocortical astrocytes is demonstrated...
December 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545844/synaptotagmin-3-drives-ampa-receptor-endocytosis-depression-of-synapse-strength-and-forgetting
#11
Ankit Awasthi, Binu Ramachandran, Saheeb Ahmed, Eva Benito, Yo Shinoda, Noam Nitzan, Alina Heukamp, Sabine Rannio, Henrik Martens, Jonas Barth, Katja Burk, Yu Tian Wang, Andre Fischer, Camin Dean
Forgetting is important. Without it, the relative importance of acquired memories in a changing environment is lost. We discovered that Synaptotagmin-3 (Syt3) localizes to post-synaptic endocytic zones and removes AMPA receptors from synaptic plasma membranes in response to stimulation. AMPA receptor internalization, long-term-depression (LTD), and decay of long-term-potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength required calcium-sensing by Syt3, and were abolished by Syt3 knockout. In spatial memory tasks Syt3 knockout mice learned normally, but exhibited a lack of forgetting...
December 13, 2018: Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30540489/histamine-causes-influx-via-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-an-enterochromaffin-tumor-cell-line-potential-therapeutic-target-in-adverse-food-reactions
#12
Beatrix Pfanzagl, Victor F Zevallos, Detlef Schuppan, Roswitha Pfragner, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
The P-STS human ileal neuroendocrine tumor cells, as a model for gut enterochromaffin cells, are strongly and synergistically activated by histamine plus acetylcholine (ACh), presumably via histamine 4 receptors, and weakly activated by histamine alone. Sensing these signals, enterochromaffin cells could participate in intestinal intolerance or allergic reactions to food constituents associated with elevated histamine levels. In this study we aimed to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms. Inhibition by mepyramine and mibefradil indicated that histamine alone caused a rise in [Ca2+ ]i via histamine 1 receptors involving T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs)...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536424/evolution-of-our-understanding-of-the-hyperparathyroid-syndromes-a-historical-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Stephen J Marx, David Goltzman
We review advancing and overlapping stages for our understanding of the expressions of six hyperparathyroid (HPT) syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or type 4, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, and familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. During stage 1 (1903 to 1967), the introduction of robust measurement of serum calcium was a milestone that uncovered hypercalcemia as the first sign of dysfunction in many HPT subjects, and inheritability was reported in each syndrome...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30525213/calcium-sensing-receptor-mediates-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-collagen-expression-in-mouse-collecting-duct-cells
#14
Min Wu, Si-Si Wang, Jing-Yuan Cao, Tao-Tao Tang, Min Gao, Kun-Ling Ma, Bi-Cheng Liu
The mechanisms that underlie the profibrotic effect of interleukin (IL)-1β are complicated and not fully understood. Recent evidence has suggested the involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in tubular injury. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate whether CaSR mediates IL-1β-induced collagen expression in cultured mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD3) and to determine the possible downstream signaling effector. The results showed that IL-1β significantly upregulated the expression of type I and III collagens in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30517735/increases-in-absolute-temperature-stimulate-free-calcium-concentration-elevations-in-the-chloroplast
#15
Gioia Lenzoni, Marc R Knight
Plants need to sense increases in temperature to be able to adapt their physiology and development to survive; however, the mechanisms of heat perception are currently relatively poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that in response to elevated temperature the free calcium concentration of the stroma of chloroplasts increases. This response is specific to the chloroplast, as no corresponding increase in calcium is seen in the cytosol. The chloroplast calcium response is dose-dependent above a threshold. The magnitude of this calcium response is dependent upon absolute temperature, not rate of heating...
December 4, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30508138/effect-of-early-neonatal-development-and-delayed-feeding-post-hatch-on-jejunal-and-ileal-calcium-and-phosphorus-transporter-genes-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#16
Monika Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Lori L Schreier, Katarzyna B Miska, Roselina Angel, Stanislaw Kahl, Beverly Russell
Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Post-hatch (PH) feed delay results in lower body and organ weight, higher feed conversion ratio and mortality, and delayed PH growth and GIT development...
December 3, 2018: Poultry Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496623/prevention-of-injury-induced-osteoarthritis-in-rodent-temporomandibular-joint-by-targeting-chondrocyte-casr
#17
Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Xianghong Wan, Lei Lu, Jing Zhang, Hongyun Zhang, Tao Ye, Qian Liu, Mianjiao Xie, Shibin Yu, Shaoxiong Guo, Wenhan Chang, Meiqing Wang
Traumatic joint injuries produce osteoarthritic cartilage manifesting accelerated chondrocyte terminal differentiation and matrix degradation via unknown cellular and molecular mechanisms. Here we report the ability of biomechanical stress to increase expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a pivotal driver of chondrocyte terminal differentiation, in cultured chondrogenic cells subjected to fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) and in chondrocytes of rodent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) cartilage subjected to unilateral anterior cross-bite (UAC)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496603/bone-matrix-mineralization-in-patients-with-gain-of-function-calcium-sensing-receptor-mutations-is-distinctly-different-from-that-in-postsurgical-hypoparathyroidism
#18
Diana Ovejero, Barbara M Misof, Rachel I Gafni, David Dempster, Hua Zhou, Klaus Klaushofer, Michael T Collins, Paul Roschger
The role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) as a regulator of parathyroid hormone secretion is well established, but its function in bone is less well defined. In an effort to elucidate the CaSR's skeletal role, bone tissue and material characteristics from patients with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH), a genetic form of primary hypoparathyroidism caused by CASR gain-of-function mutations, were compared to patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism (PSH). Bone structure and formation/resorption indices and mineralization density distribution (BMDD), were examined in transiliac biopsy samples from PSH (n = 13) and ADH (n = 6) patients by histomorphometry and quantitative backscatter electron imaging, respectively...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30483049/human-calmodulin-mutations
#19
Helene H Jensen, Malene Brohus, Mette Nyegaard, Michael T Overgaard
Fluxes of calcium (Ca2+ ) across cell membranes enable fast cellular responses. Calmodulin (CaM) senses local changes in Ca2+ concentration and relays the information to numerous interaction partners. The critical role of accurate Ca2+ signaling on cellular function is underscored by the fact that there are three independent CaM genes ( CALM1-3 ) in the human genome. All three genes are functional and encode the exact same CaM protein. Moreover, CaM has a completely conserved amino acid sequence across all vertebrates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30478254/calcimimetic-restores-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-by-ameliorating-apoptosis-and-improving-autophagy
#20
You Chul Chung, Ji Hee Lim, Hyun Mi Oh, Hyung Wook Kim, Min Young Kim, Eun Nim Kim, Yaeni Kim, Yoon Sik Chang, Hye Won Kim, Cheol Whee Park
Decreased AMPK-eNOS bioavailability mediates the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) through increased apoptosis and decreased autophagy activity in relation to oxidative stress. Schwann cells are responsible for maintaining structural and functional integrity of neurons and for repairing damaged nerves. We evaluated the neuro-protective effect of cinacalcet on DPN by activating the AMPK-eNOS pathway using db/db mice and human Schwann cells (HSCs). Sciatic nerve of db/db mice was characterized by disorganized myelin, axonal shrinkage, and degeneration that were accompanied by marked fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis...
November 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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