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Michael W Best, Melissa Milanovic, Amanda L Shamblaw, Abi Muere, Laura J Lambe, Irene K Hong, Mashal K Haque, Christopher R Bowie
BACKGROUND: Impairments in neurocognition and community functioning are core features of schizophrenia and cognitive training techniques have been developed with the aim of improving these impairments. While cognitive training has produced reliable improvements in neurocognition and functioning, little is known about factors that moderate treatment response. Electroencephalographic (EEG) measures provide a neurophysiological indicator of cognitive functions that may moderate treatment outcomes from cognitive training...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Kelli Glaser
Reliance on the apprenticeship model of education in the clerkship years of medical education persists despite concerns with variability in educational delivery and outcomes. Although many institutions are addressing this variability, there needs to be a clear and objective method to assess what is working. Evaluating these educational experiences is an essential component to ensure that students graduate prepared to enter residency. In 2014, A.T. Still University's School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU-SOMA) introduced a curricular change to address clerkship variability by implementing an online curricular component for the core clerkship courses in the third and fourth years of medical student education...
January 2019: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
Susan Nicole Hastings, Ashley L Choate, Elizabeth P Mahanna, Theresa A Floegel, Kelli D Allen, Courtney H Van Houtven, Virginia Wang
Immobility during hospitalization is widely recognized as a contributor to deconditioning, functional loss, and increased need for institutional post-acute care. Several studies have demonstrated that inpatient walking programs can mitigate some of these negative outcomes, yet hospital mobility programs are not widely available in U.S. hospitals. STRIDE (assiSTed eaRly mobIlity for hospitalizeD older vEterans) is a supervised walking program for hospitalized older adults that fills this important gap in clinical care...
December 2018: Geriatrics
Azza E Ahmed, Ayah A Awadallah, Mawada Tagelsir, Maram A Suliman, Atheer Eltigani, Hassan Elsafi, Basil D Hamdelnile, Mohamed A Mukhtar, Faisal M Fadlelmola
MOTIVATION: Delivering high-quality distance-based courses in resource-limited settings is a challenging task. Besides the needed infrastructure and expertise, effective delivery of a bioinformatics course could benefit from hands-on sessions, interactivity and problem-based learning approaches. RESULTS: In this article, we discuss the challenges and best practices in delivering bioinformatics training in resource-limited settings taking the example of hosting and running a multiple-delivery online course, Introduction to Bioinformatics, that was developed by the H3ABioNet Education and Training working group and delivered in 27 remote classrooms across Africa in 2017...
February 15, 2019: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Xi Zhu, Amit Lazarov, J John Mann, Franklin Schneier, Andrew Gerber, Jacques P Barber, Dianne L Chambless, Yuval Neria, Barbara Milrod, John C Markowitz
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus plays an important role in psychopathology and treatment outcome. While posterior hippocampus (PH) may be crucial for the learning process that exposure-based treatments require, affect-focused treatments might preferentially engage anterior hippocampus (AH). Previous studies have distinguished the different functions of these hippocampal sub-regions in memory, learning, and emotional processes, but not in treatment outcome. Examining two independent clinical trials, we hypothesized that anterior hippocampal volume would predict outcome of affect-focused treatment outcome [Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT); Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP)], whereas posterior hippocampal volume would predict exposure-based treatment outcome [Prolonged Exposure (PE); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT); Applied Relaxation Training (ART)]...
February 18, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Rainer Haseneder, Matthias Skrzypczak, Bernhard Haller, Stefan K Beckers, Julia Holch, Christina Wank, Eberhard Kochs, Christian M Schulz
INTRODUCTION: To increase the rate of bystander resuscitation, basic life support (BLS) training for schoolchildren is now recommended on a broad level. However, debate continues about the optimal teaching methods. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 90 min BLS training on female pupils' BLS knowledge and self-confidence and whether learning outcomes were influenced by the instructors' professional backgrounds or test-enhanced learning. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomised, longitudinal trial in a girls' grammar school in Germany from 2013 to 2014...
February 16, 2019: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Turki Turki, Jason T L Wang
Predicting the response, or sensitivity, of a clinical drug to a specific cancer type is an important research problem. By predicting the clinical drug response correctly, clinicians are able to understand patient-to-patient differences in drug sensitivity outcomes, which in turn results in lesser time spent and lower cost associated with identifying effective drug candidates. Although technological advances in high-throughput drug screening in cells led to the generation of a substantial amount of relevant data, the analysis of such data would be a challenging task...
January 3, 2019: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jonas Zaman, Eva Ceulemans, Dirk Hermans, Tom Beckers
For more than a century, researchers have attempted to understand why organisms behave similarly across situations. Despite the robust character of generalization, considerable variation in conditioned responding both between and within humans remains a challenge for contemporary generalization models. The current study aims to investigate the extent to which variation in behavior in a context of generalization can be attributed to differences in perception. We combined a fear conditioning and generalization procedure with a perceptual decision task in humans...
January 18, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Arunaz Kumar, Tarundeep Singh, Utkarsh Bansal, Jaivir Singh, Stacey Davie, Atul Malhotra
BACKGROUND: The developing world has a significantly high risk of women and babies dying during childbirth. Interprofessional simulation training has improved birth practices and outcomes by impacting clinical and non-technical skills like communication, teamwork, leadership and effective use of resources. While these programs have become a training requirement in many high-income countries, they have not been widely introduced in the low-income, low-resource settings. QUESTION: To explore the use of a structured obstetric and neonatal emergency simulation training program in India...
February 7, 2019: Midwifery
Gil Issachar, Tami Bar-Shalita, Yair Baruch, Bar Horing, Sigal Portnoy
Electroencephalography (EEG)-based neurofeedback (NF) is a safe, non-invasive, non-painful method for treating various conditions. Current NF systems enable the selection of only one NF parameter, so that two parameters cannot be feedback simultaneously. Consequently, the ability to individually-tailor the treatment to a patient is limited, and treatment efficiency may therefore be compromised. We aimed to design, implement and test an all-in-one, novel, computerized platform for closed-loop NF treatment, based on principles from learning theories...
February 15, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Salvador Morales-Conde, Andrea Peeters, Yannick M Meyer, Stavros A Antoniou, Isaías Alarcón Del Agua, Alberto Arezzo, Simone Arolfo, Amir Ben Yehuda, Luigi Boni, Elisa Cassinotti, Giovanni Dapri, Tao Yang, Sofie Fransen, Antonello Forgione, Shahab Hajibandeh, Shahin Hajibandeh, Michele Mazzola, Marco Migliore, Christof Mittermair, Doris Mittermair, Antonio Morandeira-Rivas, Carlos Moreno-Sanz, Andrea Morlacchi, Eran Nizri, Myrthe Nuijts, Jonas Raakow, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A Sánchez-Margallo, Amir Szold, Helmut Weiss, Michael Weiss, Ricardo Zorron, Nicole D Bouvy
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery changed the management of numerous surgical conditions. It was associated with many advantages over open surgery, such as decreased postoperative pain, faster recovery, shorter hospital stay and excellent cosmesis. Since two decades single-incision endoscopic surgery (SIES) was introduced to the surgical community. SIES could possibly result in even better postoperative outcomes than multi-port laparoscopic surgery, especially concerning cosmetic outcomes and pain...
February 15, 2019: Surgical Endoscopy
Mateo Leganes-Fonteneau, Kyriaki Nikolaou, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Stimuli conditioned with a substance can generate drug-approach behaviors due to their acquired motivational properties. According to implicit theories of addiction, these stimuli can decrease cognitive control automatically. The present study ( n = 49) examined whether reward-associated stimuli can interfere with cognitive processes in the absence of knowledge about stimulus-outcome contingencies. Conditioned stimuli (CS) were paired with high-reward (HR) or low-reward (LR) probabilities of monetary reward using a Pavlovian learning task...
March 2019: Learning & Memory
Yasser Medlej, Houssein Salah, Lara Wadi, Sarah Saad, Bashir Bashir, Jad Allam, Zahraa Atoui, Nora Darwish, Nabil Karnib, Hala Darwish, Firas Kobeissy, Kevin K W Wang, Eva Hamade, Makram Obeid
Hypoxic encephalopathy of the newborn is a major cause of long-term neurological sequelae. We have previously shown that CEP-701 (lestaurtinib), a drug with an established safety profile in children, attenuates short-term hyperexcitability and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation in a well-established rat model of early life hypoxic seizures (HS). Here, we investigated the potential long-term neuroprotective effects of a post-HS transient CEP-701 treatment. Following exposure to global hypoxia, 10 day old male Sprague-Dawley pups received CEP-701 or its vehicle and were sequentially subjected to the light-dark box test (LDT), forced swim test (FST), open field test (OFT), Morris water maze (MWM), and the modified active avoidance (MAAV) test between postnatal days 24 and 44 (P24-44)...
February 12, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Bart Doyen, Peter Vlerick, Heidi Maertens, Frank Vermassen, Isabelle Van Herzeele
BACKGROUND: This monocentric study aimed to explore whether key non-technical attributes can be reliably measured in a mixed population of candidates applying for surgical training, surgical trainees and staff and to identify any differences between these groups. MATERIALS & METHODS: Candidates applying for surgical training, surgical trainees and staff from four surgical specialties (general surgery, orthopedics, plastic surgery or urology) at a tertiary academic teaching hospital were all sent an online self-report questionnaire...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Surgery
Alan M Kalet, Samuel M H Luk, Mark H Phillips
The recent explosion in machine learning efforts in the quality assurance (QA) space has produced a variety of proofs-of-concept many with promising results. Expected outcomes of model implementation include improvements in planning time, plan quality, advanced dosimetric QA, predictive machine maintenance, increased safety checks,and developments key for new QA paradigms driven by adaptive planning. In this article, we outline several areas of research and discuss some of the unique challenges each area presents...
February 15, 2019: Medical Physics
Celeste Nicholas, Heather Eastman-Mueller, Natalie Barbich
In addition to social action campaigns, some youth organizing groups provide formative learning experiences which engage youth in relevant sociopolitical issues through critical approaches. These groups support sociopolitical development (SPD), a self and socially-oriented process which influences youth personally, politically, and professionally into adulthood. This study explored how youth organizing experiences influenced SPD in the professional domain, applying an empowerment lens. Phenomenologically-based interviews were conducted with former sexual health education youth organizers and adult program staff...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Community Psychology
Maartje Luijten, Claire M Gillan, Sanne De Wit, Ingmar H A Franken, Trevor W Robbins, Karen D Ersche
INTRODUCTION: Harmful behavior such as smoking may reflect a disturbance in the balance of goal-directed and habitual control. Animal models suggest that habitual control develops after prolonged substance use. In this study, we investigated whether smokers (N = 49) differ from controls (N = 46) in the regulation of goal-directed and habitual behavior. It was also investigated whether individual differences in nicotine dependence levels were associated with habitual responding. METHODS: We used two different multistage instrumental learning tasks that consist of an instrumental learning phase, subsequent outcome devaluation, and a testing phase to measure the balance between goal-directed and habitual responding...
February 15, 2019: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Brandon B Carlson, Todd J Albert
INTRODUCTION: Intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) can cause back pain and/or radiculopathy and accounts for a significant portion of patients having spinal surgery in the USA. One of the most impactful and well-executed randomized trials to study diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes in patients with three commonly treated spinal conditions was the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). This study and the subsequent data analyses have resulted in numerous publications related to IDH...
February 15, 2019: International Orthopaedics
S P Somashekhar, K R Ashwin, C Rohit Kumar, Amit Rauthan, Sushmita H Rakshit
Background: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a common evolution of abdominal cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. A few selected patients have option of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, but majority who are not eligible for curative approach can undergo pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC). It is an emerging field of research with major therapeutic potential. It is a safe and innovative approach, which enhances the effect of chemotherapy without major toxicity...
January 2019: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Amaël Arguel, Lori Lockyer, Kevin Chai, Mariya Pachman, Ottmar V Lipp
When students perform complex cognitive activities, such as solving a problem, epistemic emotions can occur and influence the completion of the task. Confusion is one of these emotions and it can produce either negative or positive outcomes, according to the situation. For this reason, considering confusion can be an important factor for educators to evaluate students' progression in cognitive activities. However, in digital learning environments, observing students' confusion, as well as other epistemic emotions, can be problematic because of the remoteness of students...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
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