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Obesity, mice

Rafael Calais Gaspar, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Mariana Pereira Bessi, Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Gustavo Aparecido Santos, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Song Zhang, Shun Guo, Xiao-Bo Gao, An Liu, Wei Jiang, Xi Chen, Peng Yang, Lin-Na Liu, Lei Shi, Yan Zhang
Lipid metabolism disorders lead to vascular endothelial injury. Matrine is an alkaloid that has been used to improve obesity and diabetes and for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, its effect on lipid metabolism disorders and vascular injury is unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of matrine on high-fat diet fed mice and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Computational virtual docking analyses, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C-α (PKCα) inhibitors were used to localize matrine in vascular injuries...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Naomi A Yudanin, Frederike Schmitz, Anne-Laure Flamar, Joseph J C Thome, Elia Tait Wojno, Jesper B Moeller, Melanie Schirmer, Isabel J Latorre, Ramnik J Xavier, Donna L Farber, Laurel A Monticelli, David Artis
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play critical roles in regulating immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis in mice. However, limited access to non-diseased human tissues has hindered efforts to profile anatomically-distinct ILCs in humans. Through flow cytometric and transcriptional analyses of lymphoid, mucosal, and metabolic tissues from previously healthy human organ donors, here we have provided a map of human ILC heterogeneity across multiple anatomical sites. In contrast to mice, human ILCs are less strictly compartmentalized and tissue localization selectively impacts ILC distribution in a subset-dependent manner...
February 11, 2019: Immunity
Nicholas K H Khoo, Marco Fazzari, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Lihua Li, Danielle Aparecida Guimaraes, Gavin E Arteel, Sruti Shiva, Bruce A Freeman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. During the development of obesity and NAFLD, mitochondria adapt to the increased lipid load in hepatocytes by increasing the rate of fatty acid oxidation. In concert with this, reactive species (RS) generation is increased, damaging hepatocytes and inducing inflammation. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of NAFLD via undefined mechanisms. There are no FDA approved treatments for NAFLD other than weight loss and management of glucose tolerance...
February 1, 2019: Redox Biology
Harish S Appiakannan, Daniel R Kestyus, E Todd Weber
Both high-fat diet and chronic circadian disruption have been associated with increased incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Chronically elevated glucocorticoids, which have considerable impacts on physiological processes such as intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and fat metabolism, have also been implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and diabetes. In this study, the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) or chronic circadian challenge in C57BL/6J mice on basal and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose levels were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Maryam Hussain, Germán Bonilla-Rosso, Cheong Kc Kwong Chung, Lukas Bäriswyl, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Brian S Kim, Philipp Engel, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced obesity and food allergies rise in tandem, but a potential cause-and-effect relationship between these diseases of affluence remains to be tested. OBJECTIVE: To test the role of high dietary fat intake, diet-induced obesity and associated changes in gut microbial community structure on food allergy pathogenesis. METHODS: Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks prior to food allergen sensitization on an atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion followed by intra-gastric allergen challenge to induce experimental food allergy...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ashley Mulcahy Toney, Rong Fan, Yibo Xian, Virginia Chaidez, Amanda E Ramer-Tait, Soonkyu Chung
OBJECTIVE: Urolithin A (UroA) is a major metabolite of ellagic acid produced following microbial catabolism in the gut. Emerging evidence has suggested that UroA modulates energy metabolism in various cells. However, UroA's physiological functions related to obesity and insulin resistance remain unclear. METHODS: Male mice were intraperitoneally administrated either UroA or dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle) along with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated via glucose and insulin tolerance tests and acute insulin signaling...
February 15, 2019: Obesity
Marah C Runtsch, Morgan C Nelson, Soh-Hyun Lee, Warren Voth, Margaret Alexander, Ruozhen Hu, Jared Wallace, Charisse Petersen, Vanja Panic, Claudio J Villanueva, Kimberley J Evason, Kaylyn M Bauer, Timothy Mosbruger, Sihem Boudina, Mary Bronner, June L Round, Micah J Drummond, Ryan M O'Connell
Identifying regulatory mechanisms that influence inflammation in metabolic tissues is critical for developing novel metabolic disease treatments. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) during diet-induced obesity in mice. miR-146a is reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic patients and our results reveal that miR-146a-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) have exaggerated weight gain, increased adiposity, hepatosteatosis, and dysregulated blood glucose levels compared to wild-type controls. Pro-inflammatory genes and NF-κB activation increase in miR-146a-/- mice, indicating a role for this miRNA in regulating inflammatory pathways...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Lisa Katharina Maresch, Pia Benedikt, Ursula Feiler, Sandra Eder, Kathrin A Zierler, Ulrike Taschler, Stephanie Kolleritsch, Thomas O Eichmann, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Christina Leopold, Beatrix I Wieser, Caroline Lackner, Thomas Rülicke, Jan van Klinken, Dagmar Kratky, Tarek Moustafa, Gerald Hoefler, Guenter Haemmerle
Murine hepatic carboxylesterase 2c ( Ces2c ) and the presumed human ortholog carboxylesterase 2 ( CES2 ) have been implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice and obese humans. These studies demonstrated that Ces2c hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. Interestingly, Ces2c / CES2 is most abundantly expressed in the intestine, indicating a role of Ces2c / CES2 in intestinal TG metabolism. Here we show that Ces2c is an important enzyme in intestinal lipid metabolism in mice...
February 2019: Hepatology Communications
Guihong Qi, Yue Zhou, Xiaopo Zhang, Jiaqi Yu, Xin Li, Xiaoxue Cao, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. Promoting browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to increased energy expenditure and hence counteracts obesity. Here we show that cordycepin (Cpn), a natural derivative of adenosine, increases energy expenditure, inhibits weight gain, improves metabolic profile and glucose tolerance, decreases WAT mass and adipocyte size, and enhances cold tolerance in normal and high-fat diet-fed mice. Cpn markedly increases the surface temperature around the inguinal WAT and turns the inguinal fat browner...
January 2019: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Adam M Sandor, Robin S Lindsay, Nathan Dyjack, Jennifer C Whitesell, Cydney Rios, Brenda J Bradley, Kathryn Haskins, David V Serreze, Aron M Geurts, Yi-Guang Chen, Max A Seibold, Jordan Jacobelli, Rachel S Friedman
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease that affects more than 19 million people with incidence increasing rapidly worldwide. For T cells to effectively drive T1D, they must first traffic to the islets and extravasate through the islet vasculature. Understanding the cues that lead to T cell entry into inflamed islets is important because diagnosed T1D patients already have established immune infiltration of their islets. Here we show that CD11c+ cells are a key mediator of T cell trafficking to infiltrated islets in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Ariadna Lafourcade Prada, Hady Keita, Tatiane Pereira de Souza, Emerson Silva Lima, Leonard Domingo Rosales Acho, Márcia de Jesus Amazonas da Silva, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho, Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect, antioxidant, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activity, and the cytotoxicity of the Cassia grandis nanodispersion (CgND). Methods: The hypoglycemic effect was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The particle size, polydispersion index, ζ-potential, and conductivity, as well as the drug-loaded content, were monitored in shelf-live, along a year. The delivery profile was evaluated in simulated intestinal fluids at pH 6...
February 2019: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Megha Singhal, Benjamin A Turturice, Christopher R Manzella, Ravi Ranjan, Ahmed A Metwally, Juliana Theorell, Yue Huang, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins, Ravinder K Gill
Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the gut and brain. Mice with deletion of SERT develop metabolic syndrome as they age. Changes in the gut microbiota are being increasingly implicated in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes. To investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and SERT, this study assessed the fecal and cecal microbiome profile of 11 to 12 week-old SERT+/+ and SERT-/- mice. Microbial DNA was isolated, processed for metagenomics shotgun sequencing, and taxonomic and functional profiles were assessed...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Qing Zhu, Yong-Yi Zhu, Wei-Ning Wang
High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and other chronic, diet associated illnesses, including neuroinflammation and brain injury. However, the involvement of inflammatory response in HFD-elicited central nerve injury has yet to be fully determined. Recent studies have indicated that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ubiquitous scaffolding and signaling protein (TRUSS), also known as TRPC4AP, plays an essential role in regulating inflammation via the meditation of NF-κB signaling...
February 11, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yen-Ting Chen, Ping-Huei Tseng, Fen-Yu Tseng, Yu-Chiao Chi, Der-Sheng Han, Wei-Shiung Yang
Spot 14 (S14) protein is primarily expressed in adipogenic tissues. Compared to wild type, S14 knockout mice had better resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose tolerance. However, the association between serum S14 level and metabolic variables in humans has never been investigated. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the associations between serum S14 concentrations with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 327 subjects were recruited in this cross-sectional study and categorized by presence of MetS...
2019: PloS One
Jialin Xu, Tingting Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Liu, Zhanjun Ding, Hang Ma, Navindra P Seeram, Yu Mu, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
SCOPE: Published data support that gut microbiota play an important role in the pathological process of obesity and related metabolic disorders. In the current study, we investigated whether a standardized extract from Jamun (Eugenia jambolana), a widely consumed tropical fruit, could alleviate obesity and alter gut microbial community in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) or HFD with or without Jamun fruit extract (JFE; 100 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Barbara Toffoli, Stella Bernardi, Carine Winkler, Coralie Carrascosa, Federica Gilardi, Béatrice Desvergne
Obesity is a condition characterized by adipose tissue hypertrophy; it is estimated that the obesity epidemic accounted for 4 million deaths in 2015 and that 70% of these were due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the mechanisms linking obesity to CVD is the ability of adipose tissue to secrete circulating factors. We hypothesized that adipose tissue and its secretory products may influence mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression. Here, we showed that expression of MR and its downstream targets ( Cnksr3 , Scnn1b , and Sgk1 ) were significantly reduced in the kidneys of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ null ( Pparg Δ/Δ ) and A-ZIP/F-1 (AZIPtg/+ ) lipoatrophic mice with respect to their controls...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Jerrold J Heindel
The Obesogen field developed from two separate scientific research areas, endocrine disruptors and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that interfere with the action of hormones. Exposure to EDCs during early development (DOHaD) has been shown to increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases including infertility, asthma, breast and prostate cancer, early puberty, susceptibility to infections, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/learning disability...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ko Fujimori, Kosuke Aritake, Yo Oishi, Nanae Nagata, Toko Maehara, Michael Lazarus, Yoshihiro Urade
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD2 in adipocytes and is selectively induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the effects of HFD on obesity and insulin resistance in two distinct types of adipose-specific L-PGDS gene knockout (KO) mice: fatty acid binding protein 4 (fabp4, aP2)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox and adiponectin (AdipoQ)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. The L-PGDS gene was deleted in adipocytes in the premature stage of the former strain and after maturation of the latter strain...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Wei Shuai, Bin Kong, Hui Fu, Caijie Shen, Xiaobo Jiang, He Huang
BACKGROUND: Myeloid differentiation protein 1 (MD1) is expressed in various tissues, including the heart. However, the role of MD1 in obesity-related atrial remodelling remains incompletely understood. Here, this study intends to determine the regulatory role and underlying mechanisms of MD1 in obesity-related atrial remodelling. METHODS: A high-fat diet (HFD) feeding was performed in 6-week-old MD1-knockout (MD1-KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates for 20 weeks...
February 2019: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
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