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Immune CRISPR Screening

Hao Wang, Xixi Wang, Xueru Li, Qianwen Wang, Suzhu Qing, Yong Zhang, Ming-Qing Gao
The Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to transcriptionally regulate a wide spectrum of diseases. Here, we screened for potentially functional lncRNAs in a mammary epithelial cell model of bovine mastitis by using RNA-Seq technology and identified a class of previously undetected mastitis-related lncRNAs. A novel lncRNA was widely expressed in a variety of bovine tissues with diverse relative abundance and had a relatively low expression in mammary tissue. Given its predicted target gene is TUBAIC, we name it lncRNA-TUB...
February 16, 2019: FEBS Journal
Yucheng Guo, Chen Bao, Dacheng Ma, Yubing Cao, Yanda Li, Zhen Xie, Shao Li
Tumorigenesis is a complex process that is driven by a combination of the networks of genes and environmental factors; however, efficient approaches for identifying functional networks that are perturbed by the process of tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Then, the identification of functional synergistic modules and pathways is often limited by computational method and experiment measures. Here, we propose an integrated network-based approach for the systematic discovery of functional synergistic modules that are causal determinants of inflammation-induced tumorigenesis, by prioritizing candidate genes of integrating clinical-based and network-based genome-wide gene prediction methods and identify functional synergistic modules based on combinatorial CRISPR-Cas9 screens...
February 14, 2019: ACS Synthetic Biology
Irina Alimov, Suchithra Menon, Nadire Cochran, Rob Maher, Qiong Wang, John Alford, John B Concannon, Zinger Yang, Edmund Harrington, Luis Llamas, Alicia Lindeman, Gregory Hoffman, Tim Schuhmann, Carsten Russ, John Reece-Hoyes, Stephen M Canham, Xinming Cai
Bile acids are critical metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract which contribute to maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis through crosstalk with the gut microbiota. The conversion of bile acids by the gut microbiome is now recognized as a factor affecting both host metabolism and immune responses, but its physiological roles remain unclear. We conducted a screen for microbiome metabolites that would function as inflammasome activators and herein report the identification of 12-oxo-lithocholic acid, (BAA485), a potential microbiome-derived bile acid metabolite...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Johan Henriksson, Xi Chen, Tomás Gomes, Ubaid Ullah, Kerstin B Meyer, Ricardo Miragaia, Graham Duddy, Jhuma Pramanik, Kosuke Yusa, Riitta Lahesmaa, Sarah A Teichmann
T helper type 2 (Th2) cells are important regulators of mammalian adaptive immunity and have relevance for infection, autoimmunity, and tumor immunology. Using a newly developed, genome-wide retroviral CRISPR knockout (KO) library, combined with RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and ChIP-seq, we have dissected the regulatory circuitry governing activation and differentiation of these cells. Our experiments distinguish cell activation versus differentiation in a quantitative framework. We demonstrate that these two processes are tightly coupled and are jointly controlled by many transcription factors, metabolic genes, and cytokine/receptor pairs...
January 7, 2019: Cell
Debarati Ghosh, Prabhadevi Venkataramani, Saikat Nandi, Sonali Bhattacharjee
Genome editing allows for the precise manipulation of DNA sequences in a cell making this technology essential for understanding gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 is a targeted genome-editing platform derived from bacterial adaptive immune system and has been repurposed into a genome-editing tool. The RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9 can be easily programmed to target new sites by altering its guide RNA sequence, making this technology easier, more efficient, scalable and an indispensable tool in biological research...
2019: Cancer Cell International
Julian A Schuster, Rudi F Vogel, Matthias A Ehrmann
Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) structures, known as prokaryotes 'immune system', have been successfully applied for genetic engineering and genotyping purposes for a variety of microorganisms. Here we investigated 50 Lactobacillus (L.) sakei genomes and found 13 of them as CRISPR-Cas positive. The majority of positive genomes contain type II-A system, which appears to be widespread across food born lactic acid bacteria. However, a type II-C system with low similarity in Cas protein sequence to related II-C structures is rarely present in the genomes...
January 11, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Banpu Ruan, Zhihua Hua, Juan Zhao, Bin Zhang, Deyong Ren, Chaolei Liu, Shenglong Yang, Anpeng Zhang, Hongzhen Jiang, Haiping Yu, Jiang Hu, Li Zhu, Guang Chen, Lan Shen, Guojun Dong, Guangheng Zhang, Dali Zeng, Longbiao Guo, Qian Qian, Zhenyu Gao
ATP-citrate lyases (ACL) play critical roles in tumor cell propagation, fetal development and growth, and histone acetylation in human and animals. Here, we report a novel function of ACL in cell death-mediated pathogen defense responses in rice. Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and map-based cloning, we identified an Oryza sativa ACL-A2 mutant allele, termed spotted leaf 30-1 (spl30-1), in which an A-to-T transversion converts an Asn at position 343 to a Tyr (N343Y), causing a recessive mutation that led to a lesion mimic phenotype...
December 24, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Nidheesh Dadheech, A M James Shapiro
The successful landmark discovery of mouse and human inducible pluripotential stem cells (iPSC's) by Takahashi and Yamanaka in 2006 and 2007 has triggered a revolution in the potential generation of self-compatible cells for regenerative medicine, and further opened up a new avenue for "disease in dish" drug screening of self-target cells (Neofytou et al. 2015). The introduction of four 'Yamanaka' transcription factors through viral or other transfection of mature cells can induce pluripotency and acquired plasticity...
December 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Huayang Liu, Javad Golji, Lauren K Brodeur, Franklin S Chung, Julie T Chen, Rosalie S deBeaumont, Caroline P Bullock, Michael D Jones, Grainne Kerr, Li Li, Daniel P Rakiec, Michael R Schlabach, Sosathya Sovath, Joseph D Growney, Raymond A Pagliarini, David A Ruddy, Kenzie D MacIsaac, Joshua M Korn, E Robert McDonald
Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that play a critical role in limiting infectious and malignant diseases 1-4 . Emerging data suggest that the strength and duration of IFN signaling can differentially impact cancer therapies, including immune checkpoint blockade 5-7 . Here, we characterize the output of IFN signaling, specifically IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) signatures, in primary tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. While immune infiltration correlates with the ISG signature in some primary tumors, the existence of ISG signature-positive tumors without evident infiltration of IFN-producing immune cells suggests that cancer cells per se can be a source of IFN production...
January 2019: Nature Medicine
Andrew D Graustein, Elizabeth A Misch, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, Javeed A Shah, Chetan Seshadri, Augustine Aguoju, Kathryn Bowman, Humphrey Mulenga, Ashley Veldsman, Willem A Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: HSP90B1, also known as gp96, is a chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is necessary for TLR-mediated inflammatory responses in murine myeloid cells. The molecule is also expressed in T-cells though its specific role is unknown. We hypothesized that human HSP90B1 regulates monocyte and T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and that its variants are associated with susceptibility to TB disease. METHODS: We screened 17 haplotype-tagging SNPs in the HSP90B1 gene region for association with BCG-induced T-cell cytokine responses using both an ex-vivo whole blood assay (N = 295) and an intracellular cytokine staining assay (N = 180) on samples collected 10 weeks after birth...
2018: PloS One
Katerina Hatzi, Huimin Geng, Ashley S Doane, Cem Meydan, Reed LaRiviere, Mariano Cardenas, Cihangir Duy, Hao Shen, Maria Nieves Calvo Vidal, Timour Baslan, Helai P Mohammad, Ryan G Kruger, Rita Shaknovich, Ann M Haberman, Giorgio Inghirami, Scott W Lowe, Ari M Melnick
Germinal center (GC) B cells feature repression of many gene enhancers to establish their characteristic transcriptome. Here we show that conditional deletion of Lsd1 in GCs significantly impaired GC formation, associated with failure to repress immune synapse genes linked to GC exit, which are also direct targets of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. We found that BCL6 directly binds LSD1 and recruits it primarily to intergenic and intronic enhancers. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 suppressed GC hyperplasia caused by constitutive expression of BCL6 and significantly delayed BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis...
January 2019: Nature Immunology
Yiping Zhu, Gary Z Wang, Oya Cingöz, Stephen P Goff
The entry of foreign DNA into many mammalian cell types triggers the innate immune system, a complex set of responses to prevent infection by pathogens. One aspect of the response is the potent epigenetic silencing of incoming viral DNAs1 , including the extrachromosomal DNAs that are formed immediately after infection by retroviruses. These unintegrated viral DNAs are very poorly transcribed in all cells, even in permissive cells, in contrast to the robust expression that is observed after viral integration2-5 ...
November 28, 2018: Nature
Li Xue, Bin Tang, Wei Chen, Jiesi Luo
The CRISPR-Cas9 system derived from adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea has been developed into a powerful tool for genome engineering with wide-ranging applications. Optimizing single guide RNA (sgRNA) design to improve efficiency of target cleavage is a key step for successful gene editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Because not all sgRNAs that cognate to a given target gene are equally effective, computational tools have been developed based on experimental data to increase the likelihood of selecting effective sgRNAs...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Eric Shifrut, Julia Carnevale, Victoria Tobin, Theodore L Roth, Jonathan M Woo, Christina T Bui, P Jonathan Li, Morgan E Diolaiti, Alan Ashworth, Alexander Marson
Human T cells are central effectors of immunity and cancer immunotherapy. CRISPR-based functional studies in T cells could prioritize novel targets for drug development and improve the design of genetically reprogrammed cell-based therapies. However, large-scale CRISPR screens have been challenging in primary human cells. We developed a new method, single guide RNA (sgRNA) lentiviral infection with Cas9 protein electroporation (SLICE), to identify regulators of stimulation responses in primary human T cells...
November 13, 2018: Cell
Derek J Theisen, Jesse T Davidson, Carlos G Briseño, Marco Gargaro, Elvin J Lauron, Qiuling Wang, Pritesh Desai, Vivek Durai, Prachi Bagadia, Joshua R Brickner, Wandy L Beatty, Herbert W Virgin, William E Gillanders, Nima Mosammaparast, Michael S Diamond, L David Sibley, Wayne Yokoyama, Robert D Schreiber, Theresa L Murphy, Kenneth M Murphy
During the process of cross-presentation, viral or tumor-derived antigens are presented to CD8+ T cells by Batf3- dependent CD8α+ /XCR1+ classical dendritic cells (cDC1s). We designed a functional CRISPR screen for previously unknown regulators of cross-presentation, and identified the BEACH domain-containing protein WDFY4 as essential for cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens by cDC1s in mice. However, WDFY4 was not required for major histocompatibility complex class II presentation, nor for cross-presentation by monocyte-derived dendritic cells...
November 9, 2018: Science
Aleksandra Wroblewska, Maxime Dhainaut, Benjamin Ben-Zvi, Samuel A Rose, Eun Sook Park, El-Ad David Amir, Anela Bektesevic, Alessia Baccarini, Miriam Merad, Adeeb H Rahman, Brian D Brown
CRISPR pools are being widely employed to identify gene functions. However, current technology, which utilizes DNA as barcodes, permits limited phenotyping and bulk-cell resolution. To enable novel screening capabilities, we developed a barcoding system operating at the protein level. We synthesized modules encoding triplet combinations of linear epitopes to generate >100 unique protein barcodes (Pro-Codes). Pro-Code-expressing vectors were introduced into cells and analyzed by CyTOF mass cytometry. Using just 14 antibodies, we detected 364 Pro-Code populations; establishing the largest set of protein-based reporters...
November 1, 2018: Cell
Robert C Orchard, Meagan E Sullender, Bria F Dunlap, Dale R Balce, John G Doench, Herbert W Virgin
Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, yet host factors that restrict NoV replication are not well understood. Here, we use a CRISPR activation genome-wide screening to identify host genes that can inhibit murine norovirus (MNoV) replication in human cells. Our screens identified with high confidence 49 genes that can inhibit MNoV infection when overexpressed. A significant number of these genes are in interferon and immune regulation signaling networks, but surprisingly, the majority of the genes identified are neither associated with innate or adaptive immunity nor associated with any antiviral activity...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Virology
Patrick H Lizotte, Ruey-Long Hong, Troy A Luster, Megan E Cavanaugh, Luke J Taus, Stephen Wang, Abha Dhaneshwar, Naomi Mayman, Aaron Yang, Meghana Kulkarni, Lauren Badalucco, Erica Fitzpatrick, Hsiang-Fong Kao, Mari Kuraguchi, Mark Bittinger, Paul T Kirschmeier, Nathanael S Gray, David A Barbie, Pasi A Jänne
We developed a screening assay in which luciferized ID8 expressing OVA was cocultured with transgenic CD8+ T cells specifically recognizing the model antigen in an H-2b-restricted manner. The assay was screened with a small-molecule library to identify compounds that inhibit or enhance T cell-mediated killing of tumor cells. Erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor, was the top compound that enhanced T-cell killing of tumor cells. Subsequent experiments with erlotinib and additional EGFR inhibitors validated the screen results...
September 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Kyle E Watters, Christof Fellmann, Hua B Bai, Shawn M Ren, Jennifer A Doudna
Cas12a (Cpf1) is a CRISPR-associated nuclease with broad utility for synthetic genome engineering, agricultural genomics, and biomedical applications. Although bacteria harboring CRISPR-Cas9 or CRISPR-Cas3 adaptive immune systems sometimes acquire mobile genetic elements encoding anti-CRISPR proteins that inhibit Cas9, Cas3, or the DNA-binding Cascade complex, no such inhibitors have been found for CRISPR-Cas12a. Here we use a comprehensive bioinformatic and experimental screening approach to identify three different inhibitors that block or diminish CRISPR-Cas12a-mediated genome editing in human cells...
October 12, 2018: Science
Ping Zhou, Yang She, Na Dong, Peng Li, Huabin He, Alessio Borio, Qingcui Wu, Shan Lu, Xiaojun Ding, Yong Cao, Yue Xu, Wenqing Gao, Mengqiu Dong, Jingjin Ding, Da-Cheng Wang, Alla Zamyatina, Feng Shao
Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors often activates proinflammatory NF-κB signalling1 . Recent studies indicate that the bacterial metabolite D-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate (HBP) can activate NF-κB signalling in host cytosol2-4 , but it is unclear whether HBP is a genuine PAMP and the cognate pattern recognition receptor has not been identified. Here we combined a transposon screen in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with biochemical analyses and identified ADP-β-D-manno-heptose (ADP-Hep), which mediates type III secretion system-dependent NF-κB activation and cytokine expression...
September 2018: Nature
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