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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867291/estimating-average-single-neuron-visual-receptive-field-sizes-by-fmri
#1
Georgios A Keliris, Qinglin Li, Amalia Papanikolaou, Nikos K Logothetis, Stelios M Smirnakis
The noninvasive estimation of neuronal receptive field (RF) properties in vivo allows a detailed understanding of brain organization as well as its plasticity by longitudinal following of potential changes. Visual RFs measured invasively by electrophysiology in animal models have traditionally provided a great extent of our current knowledge about the visual brain and its disorders. Voxel-based estimates of population RF (pRF) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans revolutionized the field and have been used extensively in numerous studies...
March 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862524/unexplored-territory-beneficial-effects-of-novelty-on-memory
#2
REVIEW
J Schomaker
Exploring novel environments enhances learning in animals. Due to differing traditions, research into the effects of spatial novelty on learning in humans is scarce. Recent developments of affordable and fMRI-compatible virtual reality (VR) and mobile EEG systems can help bridge the gap between the two literatures. One promising study showed that spatial novelty also promotes learning in humans. It still remains largely unknown, however, which aspect of novelty underlies the beneficial effect on memory, as novelty, expectations, and volition are often confounded in animal studies...
March 9, 2019: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858117/cortical-distance-not-cancellation-dominates-inter-subject-eeg-gamma-rhythm-amplitude
#3
Russell Butler, Pierre-Michel Bernier, Gregory W Mierzwinski, Maxime Descoteaux, Guillaume Gilbert, Kevin Whittingstall
The neurophysiological response to visual stimulation in both humans and animals is characterized by an increase in high frequency amplitude peaking in the gamma range (40-100Hz) and a suppression of low frequency amplitude peaking in the alpha range (10-16Hz). Due to the large number of studies linking amplitude and peak frequency to perception and neurological disorders, there is great interest in understanding the basis of inter-subject variability in gamma and alpha responses. To address this, we measured gamma and alpha amplitude and peak frequency of response to visual stimulation in 42 healthy humans...
March 8, 2019: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846689/mesoscopic-and-microscopic-imaging-of-sensory-responses-in-the-same-animal
#4
Davide Boido, Ravi L Rungta, Bruno-Félix Osmanski, Morgane Roche, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Denis Le Bihan, Luisa Ciobanu, Serge Charpak
Imaging based on blood flow dynamics is widely used to study sensory processing. Here we investigated the extent to which local neuronal and capillary responses (two-photon microscopy) are correlated to mesoscopic responses detected with fast ultrasound (fUS) and BOLD-fMRI. Using a specialized chronic olfactory bulb preparation, we report that sequential imaging of the same mouse allows quantitative comparison of odour responses, imaged at both microscopic and mesoscopic scales. Under these conditions, functional hyperaemia occurred at the threshold of neuronal activation and fUS-CBV signals could be detected at the level of single voxels with activation maps varying according to blood velocity...
March 7, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30838323/sleep-state-dependent-alterations-in-brain-functional-connectivity-under-urethane-anesthesia-in-a-rat-model-of-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Ekaterina Zhurakovskaya, Juuso Leikas, Tiina Pirttimäki, Francesc Casas Mon, Mikko Gynther, Rubin Aliev, Tomi Rantamäki, Heikki Tanila, Markus M Forsberg, Olli Gröhn, Jaakko Paasonen, Aaro J Jalkanen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the gradual degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to striatal dopamine depletion. A partial unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion causes 40-60% dopamine depletion in the lesioned rat striatum, modeling the early stage of PD. In this study, we explored the connectivity between the brain regions in partially 6-OHDA lesioned male Wistar rats under urethane anesthesia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 5 weeks after the 6-OHDA infusion...
January 2019: ENeuro
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30807820/inhibiting-mglur5-activity-by-afq056-mavoglurant-rescues-circuit-specific-functional-connectivity-in-fmr1-knockout-mice
#6
Valerio Zerbi, Marija Markicevic, Fabrizio Gasparini, Aileen Schroeter, Markus Rudin, Nicole Wenderoth
Previous work has demonstrated that neuroimaging biomarkers which capture functional connectivity of the brain can be used to define a specific and robust endophenotype in Fmr1-/y mice, a well-established animal model of human Fragile-X Syndrome (FXS). However, it is currently unknown whether this macroscopic measure of brain connectivity is sufficiently sensitive to reliably detect changes caused by pharmacological interventions. Here we inhibited the activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) using AFQ056/Mavoglurant, a drug that is assumed to normalize excitatory/inhibitory neural signaling imbalances in FXS...
February 23, 2019: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30807809/hypersynchronicity-in-the-default-mode-like-network-in-a-neurodevelopmental-animal-model-with-relevance-for-schizophrenia
#7
Stephan Missault, Cynthia Anckaerts, Soumaya Ahmadoun, Ines Blockx, Michaël Barbier, Kenny Bielen, Disha Shah, Samir Kumar-Singh, Winnok H De Vos, Annemie Van der Linden, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Marleen Verhoye
BACKGROUND: Immune activation during pregnancy is an important risk factor for schizophrenia. Brain dysconnectivity and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction have been postulated to be central to schizophrenia pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity (resting-state functional MRI-rsfMRI), microstructure (diffusion tension imaging-DTI) and response to NMDAR antagonist (pharmacological fMRI-phMRI) using multimodal MRI in offspring of pregnant dams exposed to immune challenge (maternal immune activation-MIA model), and determine whether these neuroimaging readouts correlate with schizophrenia-related behaviour...
February 23, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804096/a-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-and-spectroscopy-study-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-the-chronic-unpredictable-stress-rat-model
#8
Ricardo Magalhães, Ashley Novais, David A Barrière, Paulo Marques, Fernanda Marques, Joao C Sousa, Joao Cerqueira, Arnaud Cachia, Therese M Jay, Michel Bottlaender, Nuno Sousa, Sébastien Mériaux, Fawzi Boumezbeur
Exposure to chronic stress leads to an array of anatomical, functional and metabolic changes in the brain that play a key role in triggering psychiatric disorders such as depression. The hippocampus is particularly well known as a target of maladaptive responses to stress. To capture stress-induced changes in metabolic and functional connectivity in the hippocampus, stress-resistant (Low-responders) or -susceptible (High-responders) rats exposed to a Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) paradigm (categorized according to their hormonal and behavioral responses) were assessed by multimodal neuroimaging; the latter was achieved by using localized 1 H MR spectroscopy (MRS) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) at 11,7T data from stressed (n=25) but also control (n=15) male Wistar rats...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30797072/decoding-the-meaning-of-unconsciously-processed-words-using-fmri-based-mvpa
#9
Usman Ayub Sheikh, Manuel Carreiras, David Soto
Does the human brain elicit patterns of activity associated with the meaning of words in the absence of conscious awareness? Do such non-conscious semantic representations generalize across languages? This study aimed to address these questions using fMRI-based multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) in a masked word paradigm. Animal and non-animal words were visually presented in two different languages (i.e. Spanish and Basque). Words were presented very briefly and were masked. On each trial, participants identified the semantic category and provided a visibility rating of the word...
February 20, 2019: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753925/left-perirhinal-cortex-codes-for-semantic-similarity-between-written-words-defined-from-cued-word-association
#10
Antonietta Gabriella Liuzzi, Patrick Dupont, Ronald Peeters, Rose Bruffaerts, Simon De Deyne, Gert Storms, Rik Vandenberghe
Knowledge of visual and nonvisual attributes of concrete entities is distributed over neocortical uni- and polymodal association cortex. Here we investigated the role of left perirhinal cortex in explicit knowledge retrieval from written words. We examined whether it extended across visual and nonvisual properties, animate and inanimate entities, how this differed from picture input and how specific it was for perirhinal cortex compared to surrounding structures. The semantic similarity between stimuli was determined on the basis of a word association-based model...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747588/processing-of-prediction-errors-in-mentalizing-areas
#11
Lieke Heil, Olympia Colizoli, Egbert Hartstra, Johan Kwisthout, Stan van Pelt, Iris van Rooij, Harold Bekkering
When seeing people perform actions, we are able to quickly predict the action's outcomes. These predictions are not solely based on the observed actions themselves but utilize our prior knowledge of others. It has been suggested that observed outcomes that are not in line with these predictions result in prediction errors, which require additional processing to be integrated or updated. However, there is no consensus on whether this is indeed the case for the kind of high-level social-cognitive processes involved in action observation...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737392/oxytocin-pathway-gene-networks-in-the-human-brain
#12
Daniel S Quintana, Jaroslav Rokicki, Dennis van der Meer, Dag Alnæs, Tobias Kaufmann, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Ingrid Dieset, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in animal and human reproductive and social behavior. Three oxytocin signaling genes have been frequently implicated in human social behavior: OXT (structural gene for oxytocin), OXTR (oxytocin receptor), and CD38 (oxytocin secretion). Here, we characterized the distribution of OXT, OXTR, and CD38 mRNA across the human brain by creating voxel-by-voxel volumetric expression maps, and identified putative gene pathway interactions by comparing gene expression patterns across 20,737 genes...
February 8, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721729/circadian-modulation-of-human-reward-function-is-there-an-evidentiary-signal-in-existing-neuroimaging-studies
#13
REVIEW
Jamie E M Byrne, Hailey Tremain, Nuwan D Leitan, Charlotte Keating, Sheri L Johnson, Greg Murray
Reward functioning in animals is modulated by the circadian system, but such effects are poorly understood in the human case. The aim of this study was to address this deficit via a systematic review of human fMRI studies measuring one or more proxies for circadian function and a neural reward outcome. A narrative synthesis of 15 studies meeting inclusion criteria identified 13 studies that show a circadian impact on the human reward system, with four types of proxy (circadian system biology, downstream circadian rhythms, circadian challenge, and time of day) associated with neural reward activation...
February 2, 2019: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716350/monitoring-deep-brain-stimulation-by-measuring-regional-brain-oxygen-responses-in-freely-moving-mice
#14
G Bazzu, P A Serra, R Hamelink, M G P Feenstra, I Willuhn, D Denys
BACKGROUND: Translational studies investigating the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on brain function up to now mainly relied on BOLD responses measured with fMRI. However, fMRI studies in rodents face technical and practical limitations (e.g., immobilization, sedation or anesthesia, spatial and temporal resolution of data). Direct measurement of oxygen concentration in the brain using electrochemical sensors is a promising alternative to the use of fMRI. Here, we tested for the first time if such measurements can be combined with DBS...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703517/the-human-habenula-is-responsive-to-changes-in-luminance-and-circadian-rhythm
#15
Christian Kaiser, Christian Kaufmann, Tobias Leutritz, Yan Luis Arnold, Oliver Speck, Markus Ullsperger
The habenula is a pivotal structure in the neural network that implements various forms of cognitive and motivational functions and behaviors. Moreover, it has been suggested to be part of the brain's circadian system, not at least because habenular neurons are responsive to retinal illumination and exhibit circadian modulations of their firing patterns in animal research. However, no study has directly investigated the human habenula in this regard. We developed a paradigm in which alternating phases of high and low luminance are used to study human habenular functioning...
January 28, 2019: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30692553/retrieval-of-retrained-and-reconsolidated-memories-are-associated-with-a-distinct-neural-network
#16
Luz Bavassi, Cecilia Forcato, Rodrigo S Fernández, Gabriela De Pino, María E Pedreira, Mirta F Villarreal
Consolidated memories can persist from a single day to years, and persistence is improved by retraining or retrieval-mediated plasticity. One retrieval-based way to strengthen memory is the reconsolidation process. Strengthening occurs simply by the presentation of specific cues associated with the original learning. This enhancement function has a fundamental role in the maintenance of memory relevance in animals everyday life. In the present study, we made a step forward in the identification of brain correlates imprinted by the reconsolidation process studying the long-term neural consequences when the strengthened memory is stable again...
January 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691968/awake-mouse-imaging-from-two-photon-microscopy-to-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Michèle Desjardins, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Martin Thunemann, Celine Mateo, Dominic Holland, Christopher G L Ferri, Jonathan A Cremonesi, Baoqiang Li, Qun Cheng, Kimberly L Weldy, Payam A Saisan, David Kleinfeld, Takaki Komiyama, Thomas T Liu, Robert Bussell, Eric C Wong, Miriam Scadeng, Andrew K Dunn, David A Boas, Sava Sakadžić, Joseph B Mandeville, Richard B Buxton, Anders M Dale, Anna Devor
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake behaving mice is well positioned to bridge the detailed cellular-level view of brain activity, which has become available owing to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics, to the macroscopic scale of human noninvasive observables. However, though microscopic (e.g., two-photon imaging) studies in behaving mice have become a reality in many laboratories, awake mouse fMRI remains a challenge. Owing to variability in behavior among animals, performing all types of measurements within the same subject is highly desirable and can lead to higher scientific rigor...
December 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683546/a-network-for-computing-value-equilibrium-in-the-human-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Keno Juechems, Jan Balaguer, Santiago Herce Castañón, María Ruz, Jill X O'Reilly, Christopher Summerfield
Humans and other animals make decisions in order to satisfy their goals. However, it remains unknown how neural circuits compute which of multiple possible goals should be pursued (e.g., when balancing hunger and thirst) and how to combine these signals with estimates of available reward alternatives. Here, humans undergoing fMRI accumulated two distinct assets over a sequence of trials. Financial outcomes depended on the minimum cumulate of either asset, creating a need to maintain "value equilibrium" by redressing any imbalance among the assets...
January 10, 2019: Neuron
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660705/thermouseduino-an-affordable-open-source-temperature-control-system-for-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-experimentation-with-mice
#19
Darío R Quiñones, Luis Miguel Fernández-Mollá, Jesús Pacheco-Torres, José M Caramés, Santiago Canals, David Moratal
INTRODUCTION: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most highly regarded techniques in the neuroimaging field. This technique is based on vascular responses to neuronal activation and is extensively used in clinical and animal research studies. In preclinical settings, fMRI is usually applied to anesthetized animals. However, anesthetics cause alterations, e.g. hypothermia, in the physiology of the animals and this has the potential to disrupt fMRI signals. The current temperature control method involves a technician, as well as monitoring the acquisition MRI sequences, also controlling the temperature of the animal; this is inefficient...
January 17, 2019: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639923/neural-systems-underlying-reward-cue-processing-in-early-adolescence-the-role-of-puberty-and-pubertal-hormones
#20
Cecile D Ladouceur, Rebecca Kerestes, Michael W Schlund, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff, Yoojin Lee, Ronald E Dahl
Affective neuroscience research suggests that maturational changes in reward circuitry during adolescence present opportunities for new learning, but likely also contribute to increases in vulnerability for psychiatric disorders such as depression and substance abuse. Basic research in animal models and human neuroimaging has made progress in understanding the normal development of reward circuitry in adolescence, yet, few functional neuroimaging studies have examined puberty-related influences on the functioning of this circuitry...
December 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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