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Food rules

Elise L Rice, William M P Klein
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has documented the influence of social norms on health-related behaviors, though social norms may affect behaviors in more complex ways than have conventionally been modeled. The present research evaluates parent norms and teens' own attitudes as moderators of associations between perceived peer norms and diet and physical activity behaviors (both health-promoting and health-impairing) in a national sample of U.S. adolescents. METHODS: Adolescent participants (N = 1,859; ages 12-17) from the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study reported on the extent to which their friends eat fruits and vegetables; eat junk food or drink sugary drinks; exercise; and watch TV, play on the computer, or play electronic games most days of the week...
March 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Julie A Teichroeb, Alexander Q Vining
Humans generally solve multi-destination routes with simple rules-of-thumb. Animals may do the same, but strong evidence is limited to a few species. We examined whether strepsirrhines, who diverged from haplorhines more than 58 mya, would demonstrate the use of three heuristics used by humans and supported in vervets, the nearest neighbor rule, the convex hull, and a cluster strategy, when solving a multi-destination route. We hypothesized that the evolution of these strategies may depend on a species' dietary specialization...
February 13, 2019: Animal Cognition
Cas Eikenaar, Sven Hessler, Sandra Fischer, Franz Bairlein
Wild animals typically suffer from stress when brought into captivity. This stress is characterized by elevated circulating glucocorticoid levels and weight loss. We here describe for the first time a case where a wild animal, the long-distance migrating northern wheatear, does not show signs of stress when caged. We captured these birds on a stopover site during their spring migration and caged them individually with ad libitum access to food and water. The birds were divided into four groups and were blood-sampled immediately in the field, a few hours after caging, one day after caging, or three days after caging, respectively...
February 9, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Vanessa L Kronzer, Cynthia S Crowson, Jeffrey A Sparks, Robert Vassallo, John M Davis
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is postulated to originate at mucosal surfaces, particularly the airway mucosa. To investigate this hypothesis, we determined the association between RA and asthma, passive smoke exposure, and age of starting smoking. METHODS: This case-control study identified 1,023 cases of RA (175 incident) within a single-center biobank population using a rules-based algorithm that combined self-report with two diagnosis codes. Exposures were self-reported on biobank questionnaires...
February 12, 2019: Arthritis & Rheumatology
X M Wang, G X Xiao, J J Liang, L X Guo, Y Liu
Objective: Based on data related to arsenic contents in paddy rice, as part of the food safety monitoring programs in 2017, to discuss and explore the application of spatial analysis used for food safety risk assessment. Methods: One province was chosen to study the spatial visualization, spatial point model estimation, and kernel density estimation. Moran's I statistic of spatial autocorrelation methods was used to analyze the spatial distribution at the county level. Results: Data concerning the spatial point model estimation showed that the spatial distribution of pollution appeared relatively dispersive...
February 10, 2019: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Maryam Garza, Emel Seker, Meredith Zozus
Data standards are now required for many submissions to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The required standard for submission of clinical data is the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Submission Data Tabulation Model (SDTM). Currently, 45 business rules and 115 associated validation rules exist for SDTM data. However, such rules have not yet been developed for therapeutic area data standards developed under the last reauthorization of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA V)...
2019: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Daniela Bulgari, Matteo Montagna, Emanuela Gobbi, Franco Faoro
The recent and massive revival of green strategies to control plant diseases, mainly as a consequence of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) rules issued in 2009 by the European Community and the increased consumer awareness of organic products, poses new challenges for human health and food security that need to be addressed in the near future. One of the most important green technologies is biocontrol. This approach is based on living organisms and how these biocontrol agents (BCAs) directly or indirectly interact as a community to control plant pathogens and pest...
February 6, 2019: Microorganisms
Gabriel Núñez-Nogueira, Alejandra Pérez-López, Juanita María Santos-Córdova
The death of dozens of manatees Trichechus manatus recently in Tabasco, Mexico, has captured international attention. Speculation about possible causes include water and food contamination by metals. Although federal authorities have ruled out water chemical pollution, the cause of these deaths is still awaiting conclusive laboratory results. Present work seeks to summarize information currently available on non-essential metals and those of great toxicological relevance in Sirenia (dugongs and manatees), highlighting its body distribution, presence in blood, and its relationship with their geographical distribution, gender and age, whenever possible...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Pardeepinder K Brar, M D Danyluk
Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) Preventive Control rules require nut processors validate thermal processes to ensure a desirable log reduction of Salmonella is achieved. Due to the complex nature of nut and nut products, processes and equipment, it is difficult to use one validation study for all and may requires individual equipment be validated at the plant level. In plant validation studies, pathogens such as Salmonella cannot be used due to the risk of contamination, thus the suitability of a non-pathogenic organism, Enterococcus faecium as a surrogate for Salmonella was evaluated for peanut and pecan thermal processing...
June 2019: Food Microbiology
Karla D Thrall, S Mahendra, M K Jackson, William Jackson, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie
Radiation-induced lung injury is a characteristic, dose- and time-dependent sequela of potentially lethal, delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. Understanding of these delayed effects to include development of medical countermeasures requires well-characterized and validated animal models that mimic the human response to acute radiation and adhere to the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. The objective herein was to establish a nonhuman primate model of whole-thorax lung irradiation in female rhesus macaques...
March 2019: Health Physics
Simon Coates, Oliver Pohl, Jean-Pierre Gotteland, Jörg Täubel, Ulrike Lorch
BACKGROUND: Adaptive trial designs have the potential to address common challenges in drug development; they decrease timelines and costs of early drug development and efficiently create data that support future trials in target populations. While allowing for flexibility and evolution, adaptive strategies introduce some complexity to the design and implementation of trial protocols. Previously published work by the authors include a retrospective analysis of time savings using adaptive design and a systematic, 3-step methodology for writing early-phase adaptive integrated protocols...
January 27, 2019: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Edward Michelson, J Stephen Huff, John Garrett, Rosanne Naunheim
OBJECTIVE: Drug and alcohol (DA)-related emergency department (ED) visits represent an increasing fraction the head-injured population seen in the ED. Such patients present a challenge to the evaluation of head injury and determination of need for computed tomographic (CT) scan and further clinical path. This effort examined whether an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based biomarker could aid in reducing unnecessary CT scans in the intoxicated ED population. METHOD: This is a retrospective secondary study of an independent prospective US Food and Drug Administration validation trial that demonstrated the efficacy of (1) an automatic Structural Injury Classifier for the likelihood of injury visible on a CT (CT+) and (2) an EEG-based Brain Function Index to assess functional impairment in minimally impaired, head-injured adults presenting within 3 days of injury...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Sasha A Fleary, Reynolette Ettienne
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether parents' and adolescents' dietary behaviors for fruits and vegetables [FV], junk foods, and sugar sweetened beverages [SSBs] align with parents' food parenting practices for these behaviors. DESIGN: Data from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health and Eating (FLASHE), a cross-sectional, internet-based study, were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: Parent and adolescent dyads (n = 1859) representative of the general U...
January 9, 2019: Appetite
David Flannery, Robert Jarrin
The evolution of digital health is entwined with federal regulation and policy. Whether considering what is or is not a medical device, the reimbursement for digital medical technologies, or physician services under Medicare or Medicaid related to remote patient monitoring or telehealth, the rules and policies governing digital health have not been easy to distinguish. In the face of rapid innovation, it has been difficult to fit these products and services into existing regulations of the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, particularly when these frameworks never contemplated what communications technologies can do today...
December 2018: Health Affairs
Thomas J MacVittie, Ann M Farese, George A Parker, William Jackson, Catherine Booth, Gregory L Tudor, Kim G Hankey, Christopher S Potten
Well-characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule. Development of a model for the gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome requires knowledge of the radiation dose-response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the acute and prolonged gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that has been used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality relative to the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome, gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome, and lung injury...
January 7, 2019: Health Physics
P S Rakesh, T T Carmel Regeela Mainu, Arun Raj, Devika Babu, Midhun Rajiv, K Sreelakshmi Mohandas, Amrita Das, Arjun Balasubramanian
Background: There was an outbreak of acute hepatitis in Nellikuzhy panchayat of Kothamangalam taluk, Ernakulam district, Kerala, during November and early December 2016. Objective of this study is to describe the epidemiological features of the outbreak and to identify the probable source. Materials and Methods: The outbreak was defined in terms of time, place, and person. A hypothesis was generated and tested using a case-control study. Cases were selected by simple random sampling from the line list and controls were age-matched neighborhood individuals without any history of jaundice...
November 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ronald Labonté
Trade has long been an axiomatic characteristic of globalization, although international rules governing trade are of more recent vintage. Notably in the post-World War II period, an ever increasing number of countries began negotiating treaties to reduce, first, tariff barriers and, later, non-tariff barriers (government measures of any sort) that could impede the cross-border flow of goods. The rationale, in part, was that countries that became more entwined economically would be less likely to go to war with each other...
January 3, 2019: Globalization and Health
George N Doku, Emmanuel A Bortey
Introduction: The analysis sought to verify the presence or otherwise and the concentration levels of iodine in the claimed iodated salts on the Ghanaian market. Methods: Eleven (11) most patronized brands of salts, including both local and foreign brands and the raw-pellet salt (crystallized directly from sea water), were obtained from popular shops and markets in Accra. These were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively by titrimetry, involving the iodate-iodide reaction in acid medium that generates molecular iodine (IO3 - + I- + 6H+ → I2 + 3H2 O)...
September 2018: Ghana Medical Journal
Florian Hentschel, Stefan Lüth
The global incidence and prevalence of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases is rising. Clinically, acute eosinophilic esophagitis cannot be distinguished from other causes of esophagitis. Endoscopic findings like rings, webs or furrows have a lower sensitivity than previously assumed. An improvement of symptoms by proton-pump inhibitors also doesn't rule out the diagnosis - it has to be confirmed histologically. Early therapy will prevent later complications like strictures and motility disorders. The presentation of eosinophilic gastroenteritris/colitis is even less specific...
January 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Isabel Forner-Piquer, Constantinos C Mylonas, Ioannis Fakriadis, Maria Papadaki, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Josep Calduch-Giner, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez, Oliana Carnevali
Diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a plasticizer used to improve plastic performance in a large variety of items which has been reported as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in several organisms. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a cellular signaling system, whose functionality is tightly involved with reproductive function. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the effects of DiNP on the gonadal ECS and on the reproductive function of male gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, an important marine aquacultured species in Europe, during the reproductive season...
January 2, 2019: Archives of Toxicology
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