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Elisabete Pereira Silva, Ana Bernarda Ludermir, Marília de Carvalho Lima, Sophie Helena Eickmann, Alan Emond
BACKGROUND: Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important adverse childhood experience, but there are few longitudinal studies in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consequences of exposure to IPV for a child's mental health. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 614 mother-child pairs were evaluated in a poor urban district in Recife, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Women were interviewed in pregnancy, postpartum and six to nine years after delivery, and asked about their experience of IPV, and the exposure of their child to violence...
March 19, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michael Fischlschweiger, Sabine Enders
Polymers play an essential role in drug formulation and production of medical devices, implants, and diagnostics. Following drug discovery, an appropriate formulation is selected to enable drug delivery. This task can be exceedingly challenging owing to the large number of potential delivery methods and formulation and process variables that can interact in complex ways. This evolving solubility challenge has inspired an increasing emphasis on the developability of drug candidates in early discovery as well as various advanced drug solubilization strategies...
March 22, 2019: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Courtney Premer, Anthony J Kanelidis, Joshua M Hare, Ivonne Hernandez Schulman
Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by nitric oxide dysregulation and an altered redox state. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers prevail, thus promoting atherogenesis and hypertension, important risk factors for the development and progression of heart failure. There has been a reemerging interest in the role that endothelial dysfunction plays in the failing circulation. Accordingly, patients with heart failure are being clinically assessed for endothelial dysfunction via various methods, including flow-mediated vasodilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, quantification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and early and late endothelial progenitor cell outgrowth measurements...
March 2019: Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Innovations, Quality & Outcomes
Bridget H Lyons, Mikel L Walters, Shane P D Jack, Emiko Petrosky, Janet M Blair, Asha Z Ivey-Stephenson
INTRODUCTION: Information regarding the epidemiology of suicide among lesbian and gay male individuals is limited, and comprehensive information is needed. This study seeks to describe the characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide among lesbian and gay male decedents when compared with non-lesbian and non-gay male decedents. METHODS: An analysis was conducted of National Violent Death Reporting System data from 18 U.S. states for the years 2003-2014...
April 2019: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
David Katerndahl, Sandra Burge, Robert Ferrer, Johanna Becho, Robert Wood, Maria D M Villacampa
The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model of mutual partner violence and assess impact of her controllable behaviors on reducing violence. An agent-based model was created of couples with history of violence based upon results of two multiple time series studies of partner violence. To explore factors that may alter model results, eight continuous variable parameters were created based upon significant (p=.05) but discrepant (opposite directions) results from previous studies. To assess the potential impact that random stress and her behavior (arguments, forgiveness, alcohol use, violence) could have on violence and stalking, the impact of variable parameter settings of these factors were also assessed...
April 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Elizabeth Simmons, Nafisa Halim, Maria Servidone, Ester Steven, Naomi Reich, Lilian Badi, Nelson Holmes, Philbert Kawemama, Lisa J Messersmith
Intimate-partner violence (IPV) is a major public health issue that disproportionately affects women, especially in Tanzania where 40% of women report experiencing IPV. While IPV research has focused on IPV victims and perpetrators, community leaders can provide valuable insight on IPV at the community level. We conducted 50 key informant interviews with community leaders in nine villages in the Karatu district. These leaders identified common themes regarding IPV causes and consequences, reporting methods, and future recommendations...
March 21, 2019: Violence Against Women
Rita Žukauskienė, Goda Kaniušonytė, Lars R Bergman, Aistė Bakaitytė, Inga Truskauskaitė-Kunevičienė
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support for posttraumatic growth (PTG) and identity processes in a sample of 217 women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), recruited from women shelters, social support centers, and through counseling psychologists. The results of the study highlight the important role of social support in seeking positive personal resolutions after experiencing traumatic events of IPV. It indicates that social support, but not social nonsupport, predicts higher levels of PTG and the development of new positive identities...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Karin Wachter, Laurie Cook Heffron, Jessica Dalpe
Gaps in knowledge remain regarding how and from whom women resettling to the United States as refugees seek help for intimate partner violence (IPV), and what happens when they do. This study examined ways in which women seek help for IPV across varied contexts and at different times both pre- and postresettlement. Researchers used a purposive sampling approach to recruit women who resettled to the United States as refugees ( n = 35). An inductive approach to thematic analysis led to an examination of the role of family in seeking help for IPV and seeking help in the absence of family...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Patrick T Davies, Morgan J Thompson, Jesse L Coe, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Meredith J Martin
Guided primarily by life history theory, this study was designed to identify how and why early exposure to caregiver intimate relationship instability uniquely predicts children's externalizing symptoms in the context of other dimensions of unpredictability characterized by residential and parental job transitions. Participants included 243 preschool children ( M age = 4.60 years) and their mothers who participated in 3 annual measurement occasions (i.e., preschool, kindergarten, first grade). Supporting the first link in the hypothesized mediational chain, the results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that caregiver intimate relationship instability uniquely predicted a pattern of response processes over a 1-year period characterized by negative family representations, dominant interpersonal strategies for regulating resources, and diminished task persistence...
March 21, 2019: Developmental Psychology
Ritu Jaiswal, Lisa M Sedger
Intercellular communication is a normal feature of most physiological interactions between cells in healthy organisms. While cells communicate directly through intimate physiology contact, other mechanisms of communication exist, such as through the influence of soluble mediators such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. There is, however, yet another mechanism of intercellular communication that permits the exchange of information between cells through extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are microscopic (50 nm-10 μM) phospholipid bilayer enclosed entities produced by virtually all eukaryotic cells...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Vincent A Ricigliano, Brendon M Mott, Patrick W Maes, Amy S Floyd, William Fitz, Duan C Copeland, William G Meikle, Kirk E Anderson
Honey bee colony performance and health are intimately linked to the foraging environment. Recent evidence suggests that the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has a positive impact on environmental suitability for supporting honey bee apiaries. However, relatively little is known about the influence of habitat conservation efforts on honey bee colony health. Identifying specific factors that influence bee health at the colony level incorporates longitudinal monitoring of physiology across diverse environments...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Anthony Piscitelli, Sean Doherty, Stephanie Francis
The concept of place can be used to address intimate partner violence (IPV). Place, to geographers, is a concept that helps explain how human experiences shape a sense of meaning surrounding locations. Using a grounded theory approach and qualitative interviews with service providers, we present a case study exploring how Brantford social service agencies apply placemaking strategies and take advantage of the elements of place to reduce the harm associated with IPV. Six themes arose in the interviews. Home, the women's shelter, courts, and schools were found to represent unique areas where placemaking strategies help to reduce harm...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nicki A Dowling, Erin Oldenhof, Sue Cockman, Aino Suomi, Stephanie S Merkouris, Alun C Jackson
Although problem gambling and family violence are related, there is little available research exploring the factors associated with this relationship. The primary aim was to predict family violence (victimization and perpetration) in a sample of treatment-seeking gamblers by gambling indices (gambling symptom severity, gambling time spent, gambling frequency, gambling expenditure), psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, gambling coping motives, alcohol and drug use, gambling-related legal consequences, work and social adjustment, impulsivity, and gender...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Monica Centa, Hong Jin, Lisa Hofste, Sanna Hellberg, Albert Busch, Roland Baumgartner, Nienke J Verzaal, Sara Lind Enoksson, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Sanjay V Boddul, Dorothee Atzler, Daniel Y Li, Changyan Sun, Göran K Hansson, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Ulf Hedin, Fredrik Wermeling, Esther Lutgens, Christoph J Binder, Lars Maegdefessel, Stephen G Malin
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis progression is modulated by interactions with the adaptive immune system. Humoral immunity can help protect against atherosclerosis formation, however the existence, origin and function of putative atherogenic-antibodies is controversial. How such atherosclerosis-promoting antibodies could affect the specific composition and stability of plaques, as well as the vasculature generally, remains unknown. METHODS: We addressed the overall contribution of antibodies to atherosclerosis plaque formation, composition and stability in vivo with mice that 1) displayed a general loss of antibodies, 2) that had selectively ablated germinal center-derived IgG production or 3) through interruption of T-B cell interactions, and further studied the effects of antibody deficiency on the aorta by transcriptomics...
March 21, 2019: Circulation
Erik J Behringer, Md A Hakim
Effective delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients to vital organs and tissues throughout the body requires adequate blood flow supplied through resistance vessels. The intimate relationship between intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) and regulation of membrane potential (Vm ) is indispensable for maintaining blood flow regulation. In particular, Ca2+ -activated K⁺ (KCa ) channels were ascertained as transducers of elevated [Ca2+ ]i signals into hyperpolarization of Vm as a pathway for decreasing vascular resistance, thereby enhancing blood flow...
March 19, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Shanmugasundar, N Kannan, E Sundaravadivel, Sarang Zsolt, K S Mukunthan, J Manokaran, J Narendranath, V P Kamalakannan, P Kavitha, V Prabhu, N Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: The application of polymeric materials in medical industry has grown drastically in the last two decades due to their various advantages compared to existing materials. The present research work emphases on the sol-gel technique to formulate the polymethyl methyl acrylate/polystyrene/silica composite membrane. METHODS: The characteristic of the composite was investigated through modern state art of instrumentation. RESULTS: The functional groups attached to the polymer was absorbed by FTIR...
2019: PloS One
Andrew Gibbs, Abigail Hatcher, Rachel Jewkes, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Laura Washington, Kristin Dunkle, Sarah Magni, Dean Peacock, Mzwakhe Khumalo, Nicola Christofides
BACKGROUND: Qualitative research emphasizes men's experiences of trauma increase HIV-risk. We seek to understand associations between experience of traumatic events and HIV-risk behaviours amongst heterosexual men in two trials in urban informal settlements in South Africa. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys among men in Johannesburg and Durban, South Africa, enrolled in intervention trials. Adjusted logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM) assessed associations between men's experiences of poverty and traumatic events, and HIV-risk behaviours (inconsistent condom use, transactional sex, number of sex partners)...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Allison Carter, Saara Greene, Deborah Money, Margarite Sanchez, Kath Webster, Valerie Nicholson, Lori A Brotto, Catherine Hankins, Mary Kestler, Neora Pick, Kate Salters, Karène Proulx-Boucher, Nadia O'Brien, Sophie Patterson, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy, Angela Kaida
Love remains hidden in HIV research in favor of a focus on risk. Among 1424 women living with HIV in Canada, we explored (1) whether eight facets of sex and intimacy (marital status, sexual activity, physical intimacy, emotional closeness, power equity, sexual exclusivity, relationship duration, and couple HIV serostatus) may coalesce into distinct relationship types, and (2) how these relationship types may be linked to love as well as various social, psychological, and structural factors. Five latent classes were identified: no relationship (46...
March 19, 2019: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Muhammad Salman Haider, Nadeem Khan, Tariq Pervaiz, Liu Zhogjie, Maazullah Nasim, Sudisha Jogaiah, Naveed Mushtaq, Songtao Jiu, Fang Jinggui
The protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene family is one of the momentous and conserved plant-specific gene families, known to participate in cellular processes via reversible protein phosphorylation and regulates signal transduction in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, PP2Cs were identified in Arabidopsis and maize, however, the whole-genome analysis of PP2C in strawberry has not yet been reported. In the current research, we found 62 PP2C-encoding genes in total from the strawberry genome. Further, the phylogenetic analysis categorized FvPP2C genes into twelve subgroups with significant structural conservation based on conserved domain and amino acid sequence...
March 16, 2019: Gene
Zhiguang Qiu, Eleonora Egidi, Hongwei Liu, Simranjit Kaur, Brajesh K Singh
Increasing agricultural productivity is critical to feed the ever-growing human population. Being linked intimately to plant health, growth and productivity, harnessing the plant microbiome is considered a potentially viable approach for the next green revolution, in an environmentally sustainable way. In recent years, our understanding of drivers, roles, mechanisms, along with knowledge to manipulate the plant microbiome, have significantly advanced. Yet, translating this knowledge to expand farm productivity and sustainability requires the development of solutions for a number of technological and logistic challenges...
March 16, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
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