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neutrophil, thrombosis

Jenny K McDaniel, Mohammad S Abdelgawwad, Audra Hargett, Matthew B Renfrow, Khalil Bdeir, Wenjing Cao, Douglas B Cines, X Long Zheng
BACKGROUND: Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs), also known as α-defensins, are released from degranulated neutrophils and play an important role in innate immunity. However, their biological roles in hemostasis under flow are not fully explored. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the role of HNP-1 on platelet adhesion and aggregation on a collagen surface or ultra large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) on endothelium under flow and elucidate the structural elements required for its activity...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Xinren Yu, Scott L Diamond
Neutrophils can release extracellular traps (NETs) in infectious, inflammatory and thrombotic diseases. NETs have been detected in deep vein thrombosis, atherothrombosis, stroke, disseminated intravascular coagulation and trauma. We have previously shown that haemodynamic forces trigger rapid NETosis within sterile occlusive thrombi in vitro. Here, we tested the effects of thrombin, fibrin and fibrinolysis on shear-induced NETosis by imaging NETs with Sytox Green during microfluidic perfusion of factor XIIa-inhibited or thrombin-inhibited human whole blood over fibrillar collagen (±tissue factor)...
February 5, 2019: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Xueying Zhao, Ji Li, Yonghai Meng, Mingming Cao, Jianwei Wang
Jinlingzi powder comprises Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc . and Corydalis yanhusuo (Y.H. Chou & Chun C.Hsu) W.T. Wang ex Z.Y. Su & C.Y. Wu and is usually applied in clinic as traditional Chinese medicine for pain. The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic actions of Jinlingzi powder and its extracted components and theirs treatment mechanism on the acetic acid induced-gastric ulcer in rats. The gastric ulcer model was induced by the administration of acetic acid in rats (84 male). Jinlingzi powder water decoction, its polysaccharide, and nonalkaloid and alkaloid components were used to investigate the therapeutic actions on the acetic acid induced-gastric ulcer by measuring the related pharmacy and pharmacodynamic factors, including ulcer index, ulcer area, ulcer healing rate, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), neurotensin (NT), platelet activating factor (PAF), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat serum, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain tissue, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in gastric tissue...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jason P Cooper, Rafic J Farah, Philip A Stevenson, Ted A Gooley, Rainer Storb, Bart L Scott
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired clonal hematopoietic cell disease characterized by destruction of hematopoietic cells through the activation of the complement system with manifestations that can be life threatening including hemolysis, thrombosis, and marrow failure. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only cure for PNH, but eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor of C5, has been used to prevent complement mediated hemolysis in PNH since its FDA approval in 2007...
January 31, 2019: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Hendra Setiadi, Tadayuki Yago, Zhenghui Liu, Rodger P McEver
In the earliest phase of inflammation, histamine and other agonists rapidly mobilize P-selectin to the apical membranes of endothelial cells, where it initiates rolling adhesion of flowing neutrophils. Clustering of P-selectin in clathrin-coated pits facilitates rolling. Inflammatory cytokines typically signal by regulating gene transcription over a period of hours. We found that neutrophils rolling on P-selectin secreted the cytokine oncostatin M (OSM). The released OSM triggered signals through glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-containing receptors on endothelial cells that, within minutes, further clustered P-selectin and markedly enhanced its adhesive function...
January 22, 2019: Blood Advances
Aslı Suner, Brian I Carr, Hikmet Akkiz, Oguz Uskudar, Sedef Kuran, Yaman Tokat, Salih Tokmak, Tugsan Ballı, Abdulalh Ulku, Tolga AkCam, Anıl Delik, Burcu Arslan, Figen Doran, Kendal YalCın, Nazım Ekinci, Sezai Yilmaz, Ayşegul Ozakyol, Mehmet Yücesoy, Halil Ibrahim BahCeci, Kamil Yalcın Polat, Halis Şimsek, Necati Ormeci, Abdulalh Sonsuz, Mehmet Demir, Murat KılıC, Ahmet Uygun, Ali Demir, Engin Altıntas, Gokhan Karakulah, Tuncer Temel, Ahmet Bektas
Introduction: Several markers of systemic inflammation, including blood C-reactive protein, platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been identified as independent prognosticators for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: To attempt to understand the significance of these markers, they were examined in relation to 4 tumour parameters, namely maximum tumour diameter (MTD), tumour multifocality, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and blood alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels...
June 2019: Journal of Translational Science
Francisco Molina, María Luisa Del Moral, Mercedes La Rubia, Santos Blanco, Ramón Carmona, Alma Rus
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate thrombosis-related parameters (blood coagulation parameters, platelet indices, red blood cell [RBC] count, and inflammatory markers) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). METHOD: We carried out a case-control study with 35 women with FM and 12 age-matched healthy volunteers to analyze fibrinogen levels, prothrombin time, cephaline time, platelet count, platelet distribution width (PDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), RBC count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)...
March 2019: Biological Research for Nursing
Pierre Cunin, Peter A Nigrovic
Platelets play well-recognized roles in inflammation, but their cell of origin-the megakaryocyte-is not typically considered an immune lineage. Megakaryocytes are large polyploid cells most commonly identified in bone marrow. Egress via sinusoids enables migration to the pulmonary capillary bed, where elaboration of platelets can continue. Beyond receptors involved in hemostasis and thrombosis, megakaryocytes express receptors that confer immune sensing capacity, including TLRs and Fc-γ receptors. They control the proliferation of hematopoietic cells, facilitate neutrophil egress from marrow, possess the capacity to cross-present antigen, and can promote systemic inflammation through microparticles rich in IL-1...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Mona Saffarzadeh
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), extruded decondensated chromatin entangled with neutrophil proteases, have been first identified in neutrophils stimulated with bacteria or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) via activation of NADPH oxidase and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Although the first findings demonstrated the beneficial role of NET formation by trapping the bacteria and limiting their dissemination, numerous studies in the recent decade revealed the multifunctional aspects of NET formation which manifests itself not only in the context of anti-microbial effect but also as a pathological trigger...
January 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Elodie Laridan, Kimberly Martinod, Simon F De Meyer
Thrombotic complications are still a major health risk worldwide. Our view on the pathophysiology of thrombosis has significantly changed since the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and their prothrombotic characteristics. Generated by neutrophils that release their decondensed chromatin as a network of extracellular fibers, NETs promote thrombus formation by serving as a scaffold that activates platelets and coagulation. The thrombogenic involvement of NETs has been described in various settings of thrombosis, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and deep vein thrombosis...
February 2019: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Peter Libby, Gerard Pasterkamp, Filippo Crea, Ik-Kyung Jang
The mechanisms that underlie superficial erosion, a cause of coronary thrombosis distinct from plaque rupture, have garnered recent interest. In an era of improved control of traditional risk factors, such as LDL (low-density lipoprotein), plaque erosion may assume greater clinical importance. Plaques complicated by erosion tend to be matrix-rich, lipid-poor, and usually lack prominent macrophage collections, unlike plaques that rupture, which characteristically have thin fibrous caps, large lipid pools, and abundant foam cells...
January 4, 2019: Circulation Research
Younes Jahangiri, Masayuki Endo, Ramsey Al-Hakim, John A Kaufman, Khashayar Farsad
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and platelet activation have been shown to be involved in acute thromobogenicity following venous occlusive conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the association of baseline platelet count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with venous stent failure. Methods and Results: Patients who underwent technically successful iliocaval venous stent placement with available baseline complete blood count and follow-up stent patency data were selected (n=50)...
December 14, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Ronald H L Li, Fern Tablin
Sepsis is the leading cause of critical illness and mortality in human beings and animals. Neutrophils are the primary effector cells of innate immunity during sepsis. Besides degranulation and phagocytosis, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), composed of cell-free DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins. Although NETs have protective roles in the initial stages of sepsis, excessive NET formation has been found to induce thrombosis and multiple organ failure in murine sepsis models...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Shikai Wang, Tian Xie, Shilong Sun, Kai Wang, Baochen Liu, Xingjiang Wu, Weiwei Ding
A growing number of studies have recently revealed a potential role for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the development of inflammation, coagulation and cell death. Deleterious consequences of NETs have been identified in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced organ damage, thrombosis and sepsis. And exogenous DNase-I has been suggested as a therapeutic strategy to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries in the kidney, brain and myocardium. Herein, we designed a study to investigate whether NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of intestinal I/R injury and evaluated the therapeutic value of DNase-1 in a rat model of intestinal I/R injury...
December 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yan Gao, Nanette H Bishopric, Hong-Wei Chen, Jiang-Tao Li, Yu-Lang Huang, He-Xun Huang
BACKGROUND: In the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the incidence of post-cardiac injury syndrome (PCIS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following PPCI has become less common. However, the intrinsic pathogenesis of this medical condition remains largely uncertain. Unlike the prior reports, the present paper provides new mechanistic clues concerning the pathogenesis of PCI-related PCIS. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old male with AMI had developed an early onset of PCIS at 3 h after PPCI...
December 12, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Gemma Radley, Ina Laura Pieper, Bethan R Thomas, Karl Hawkins, Catherine A Thornton
Medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices (VADs), introduce both foreign materials and artificial shear stress to the circulatory system. The effects these have on leukocytes and the immune response are not well understood. Understanding how these two elements combine to affect leukocytes may reveal why some patients are susceptible to recurrent device-related infections and provide insight into the development of pump thrombosis. Biomaterials - DLC: diamond-like carbon coated stainless steel; Sap: single-crystal sapphire; and Ti: titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) were attached to the parallel plates of a rheometer...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Mirta Schattner
Platelet TLR-4 activation by pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules triggers pro-thrombotic, proinflammatory, and pro-coagulant effector responses. Moreover, platelet TLR4 has a prominent role as a sensor of high lipopolysaccharide circulating levels during sepsis and in the clearance of pathogens mediated by neutrophils. This review presents evidence pointing to TLR4 as a bridge connecting thrombosis and innate immunity.
December 4, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kartika R Pertiwi, Onno J de Boer, Claire Mackaaij, Dara R Pabittei, Robbert J de Winter, Xiaofei Li, Allard C van der Wal
Extracellular traps generated by neutrophils contribute to thrombus progression in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. It is not known whether other inflammatory cell types in coronary atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus also release extracellular traps. We investigated their formation by macrophages, mast cells and eosinophils in human coronary atherosclerosis, and in relation to the age of thrombus of myocardial infarction patients. Coronary arteries with thrombosed or intact plaques were retrieved from patients who died from myocardial infarction...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Giacomo Emmi, Alessandra Bettiol, Elena Silvestri, Gerardo Di Scala, Matteo Becatti, Claudia Fiorillo, Domenico Prisco
Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a complex vasculitis, characterised by peculiar histological, pathogenetic and clinical features. Superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are the most frequent vascular involvements, affecting altogether 15-40% of BS patients. Atypical thrombosis is also an important clinical feature of BS, involving the vascular districts of the inferior and superior vena cava, suprahepatic veins with Budd-Chiari syndrome, portal vein, cerebral sinuses and right ventricle...
November 29, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Liyan Wang, Jiangang Duan, Tingting Bian, Ran Meng, Longfei Wu, Zhen Zhang, Xuxiang Zhang, Chunxiu Wang, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND: Few studies have suggested a relationship between inflammation and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). This retrospective study aimed to explore the changes in inflammation in different CVT stages and the correlation between inflammation and severity and outcome of CVT. METHODS: In total, 95 suitable patients with CVT and 41 controls were compared. Patients with CVT were divided into three groups. The inflammatory factors studied included hypersensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the peripheral blood and immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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