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Sulfur Liquid

Amanda L Labrado, Benjamin Brunner, Stefano M Bernasconi, Jörn Peckmann
Large native (i.e., elemental) sulfur deposits can be part of caprock assemblages found on top of or in lateral position to salt diapirs and as stratabound mineralization in gypsum and anhydrite lithologies. Native sulfur is formed when hydrocarbons come in contact with sulfate minerals in presence of liquid water. The prevailing model for native sulfur formation in such settings is that sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria is oxidized to zero-valent sulfur in presence of molecular oxygen (O2 ). Although possible, such a scenario is problematic because: (1) exposure to oxygen would drastically decrease growth of microbial sulfate-reducing organisms, thereby slowing down sulfide production; (2) on geologic timescales, excess supply with oxygen would convert sulfide into sulfate rather than native sulfur; and (3) to produce large native sulfur deposits, enormous amounts of oxygenated water would need to be brought in close proximity to environments in which ample hydrocarbon supply sustains sulfate reduction...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hongjie Dai, Huan Zhang, Liang Ma, Hongyuan Zhou, Yong Yu, Ting Guo, Yuhao Zhang, Huihua Huang
This study develops a green method to fabricate pH/magnetic sensitive hydrogels based on pineapple peel carboxymethyl cellulose (PCMC), regenerated nanocellulose (rPPNc), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), accompanied by in situ incorporation of Fe3 O4 . The rPPNc was obtained through a two-stage method involving ionic liquid swelling followed by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The SEM images revealed the porous structure of the hydrogels. The hydrogels showed a magnetic responsive behavior due to incorporation of Fe3 O4 , and an enhanced thermal stability at high temperature due to incorporations of rPPNc and Fe3 O4 ...
April 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
L Lundehøj, H C Jensen, L Wybrandt, U G Nielsen, M L Christensen, C A Quist-Jensen
Phosphate, which contains the essential element phosphorous (P), is a necessary fertilizer for agriculture, but the current phosphate deposits are running out and alternative sources are needed. Sludge obtained from wastewater treatment plants contains high concentrations of phosphorus and represents an alternative, sustainable source. In this study, sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant with biological and chemical phosphorus removal was acidified (pH = 3, 4, 5 and 6) to release orthophosphate followed by sequestration of the orthophosphate by a zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide (Zn2 Al-LDH)...
January 21, 2019: Water Research
Daniel A Osorio, Bryan E J Lee, Jacek M Kwiecien, Xiaoyue Wang, Iflah Shahid, Ariana L Hurley, Emily D Cranston, Kathryn Grandfield
Chemically cross-linked cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels possess many properties beneficial for bone tissue scaffolding applications. CNCs were extracted using sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid, to produce CNCs with sulfate and phosphate half-ester surface groups, respectively. Hydrazone cross-linked aerogels fabricated from the two types of CNCs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray micro-computed tomography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption isotherms, and compression testing...
January 30, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Ke Huang, Hanyong Peng, Fan Gao, QingQing Liu, Xiufen Lu, Qirong Shen, X Chris Le, Fang-Jie Zhao
Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, ROX) is an arsenic-containing compound widely used as a feed additive in poultry industries. ROX excreted in chicken manure can be transformed by microbes to different arsenic species in the environment. To date, most of the studies on microbial transformation of ROX have focused on anaerobic microorganisms. Here, we isolated a pure cultured aerobic ROX-transforming bacterial strain, CZ-1, from an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain CZ-1 was classified as a member of the genus Enterobacter...
January 24, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Muhua Yuan, Zhigang Yan, Yuan Liu, Dingqiao Chen, Zijiang Yang, Lili He, Zhifeng Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR), known as Tu-fu-ling in the China, Japan and Korea, is an herb that has been used for clearing damp and detoxification in traditional Chinese medicine for many years. The post-harvest drying of SGR has traditionally been done by the sun, but sometimes sulfur fumigation is used instead due to its low cost and high efficiency. Recent reports show that sulfur fumigation can change the chemical constitution of herbal medicines and decrease their biology activity...
January 27, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Haijun Huang, Yan Fu, Xinchao Wang, Yichun Gao, Zhenqiang Wang, Shengtao Zhang, Hongru Li, Fang Gao, Lingyun Chen
This study presents the synthesis of two new bisimidazole-based copoly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) through multi-step preparation routes. It is shown that the target PILs can display orderly molecular stacking, and nano to micro self-aggregates are yielded in aqueous sulfuric acid solution, which are characterized by various technologies including the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the dynamic light scattering (DLS). The studied PILs aggregates show strong chemical adsorption onto the copper surfaces demonstrated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the Raman spectroscopy as well as the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
January 30, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ruize Gong, Yanhua Wang, Yuli Qi, Lixue Chen, Shanshan Li, Yinshi Sun
The water-soluble polysaccharides in antler velvet were extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The content was determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid colorimetry. After hydrolysis and derivatization, the various monosaccharide compositions of water-soluble polysaccharides from different parts of the antler velvet after different processing methods were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharide contents in wax slices, powder slices, gauze slices and bone slices of the boiled antler velvet were 1...
February 8, 2019: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Qiang Xu, Wei Jiang, Jianbai Xiao, Xionghui Wei
A series of tetraglyme⁻sodium salt ionic liquids have been prepared and found to be promising solvents to absorb SO₂. The experiments here show that [Na⁻tetraglyme][SCN] ionic liquid has excellent thermal stability and a 30% increase in SO₂ absorption capacity compared to other sodium salt ionic liquids and the previously studied lithium salt ionic liquids in terms of molar absorption capacity. The interaction between SO₂ and the ionic liquid was concluded to be physical absorption by IR and NMR.
January 26, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Noemi Colozza, Kai Kehe, Giulio Dionisi, Tanja Popp, Amelie Tsoutsoulopoulos, Dirk Steinritz, Danila Moscone, Fabiana Arduini
The synthesis and employment of volatile toxic compounds as chemical weapons with a large-scale destructive power has introduced a new insidious threat over the last century. In this framework, the development of wearable sensing tools represents a critical point within the security field, in order to provide early alarm systems. Herein, a novel wearable electrochemical biosensor was developed for the rapid and on-site detection of mustard agents. Since a chemical attack is typically carried out by spraying these volatile agents into air, the sensor was designed in order to be able to measure mustard agents directly in the aerosol phase, further than in the liquid phase...
January 8, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Qiong Wu, Mingming Gao, Gaoyue Zhang, Yuehong Zhang, Shiwei Liu, Congxia Xie, Hailong Yu, Yue Liu, Lang Huang, Shitao Yu
Nitrogen-doped carbon materials with controllable morphologies were prepared via a soft template method using chitosan as the carbon and nitrogen source and F127 or ionic liquid as the template. The performance of the materials as electrodes and adsorbents for carbon dioxide removal were evaluated. Carbon spheres (CSs) with developed micropore structures were obtained without a template, whereas a tubular structure (CSF) containing mesopores with long-range order was obtained using F127. Layered carbon (CSI) containing micro-/mesopores with short- and long-range order was obtained using an ionic liquid...
January 21, 2019: Nanotechnology
Christian Modrzynski, Peter Burger
The redox flow battery (RFB) is a promising technology for the storage of electric energy. Many commercial RFBs are often based on acidic vanadium electrolyte solutions that have limitations regarding stability and energy density. Here, a new approach is presented that is inspired by nature's electron storage, i.e. iron-sulfur clusters [Fe4S4(SR)4]2-. In combination with imidazolium cations, new ionic liquid electrolyte materials were obtained and characterized with regard to their physico- and electrochemical properties...
January 11, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Johanna Olsson, Vera Novy, Fredrik Nielsen, Ola Wallberg, Mats Galbe
Background: The forest biorefinery plays an important part in the evolving circular bioeconomy due to its capacity to produce a portfolio of bio-based and sustainable fuels, chemicals, and materials. To tap into its true potential, more efficient and environmentally benign methods are needed to fractionate woody biomass into its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) without reducing their potential for valorization. This work presents a sequential fractionation method for hardwood based on steam pretreatment (STEX) and hydrotropic extraction (HEX) with sodium xylene sulfonate...
2019: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Nian Liu, Guangmin Zhou, Ankun Yang, Xiaoyun Yu, Feifei Shi, Jie Sun, Jinsong Zhang, Bofei Liu, Chun-Lan Wu, Xinyong Tao, Yongming Sun, Yi Cui, Steven Chu
Supercooled liquid sulfur microdroplets were directly generated from polysulfide electrochemical oxidation on various metal-containing electrodes. The sulfur droplets remain liquid at 155 °C below sulfur's melting point ( T m = 115 °C), with fractional supercooling change ( T m - T sc )/ T m larger than 0.40. In operando light microscopy captured the rapid merging and shape relaxation of sulfur droplets, indicating their liquid nature. Micropatterned electrode and electrochemical current allow precise control of the location and size of supercooled microdroplets, respectively...
January 2, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elenice Carla Emidio Cunha-Santos, Juliane Viganó, Daniela Andrade Neves, Julian Martínez, Helena Teixeira Godoy
Camu-camu, a typical Amazonian fruit, is known for the high vitamin C content of the peel and pulp. As vitamin C is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries, it is of interest to study new sources, extraction techniques, and analytical methods for the identification and quantification of this compound. Here, evaluation was made of extraction and quantification methods, as well as the differences in vitamin C content according to the origin and part of the camu-camu fruit. The extraction techniques studied were pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), acid extraction, and maceration...
January 2019: Food Research International
Tingting Zhu, Hao-Yi Cheng, Lihui Yang, Shigang Su, Hongcheng Wang, Shusen Wang, Ai-Jie Wang
Sulfur-based denitrification process has attracted increasing attentions because it does not rely on the external addition of organics and avoids the risk of COD exceeding the limit. Traditionally, limestone is commonly employed to maintain a neutral condition (SLAD process), but it may reduce the efficiency as the occupied zone by limestone cannot directly contribute to the denitrification. In this study, we propose a novel sulfur-based denitrification process by coupling with iron(II) carbonate ore (SICAD system)...
December 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaoyun Yu, Guangmin Zhou, Yi Cui
Lithium-sulfur batteries are promising for low-cost and high energy storage, but their applications are still limited by poor cycling stability owing to soluble lithium polysulfide shuttling during battery operation. Avoiding shuttle effect is challenging but essential to avoid active material loss and prevent performance decay. Here we use an ultrathin layer of MoS2 with thickness of 10-40 nm, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude thinner than conventional interlayers, for Li-S batteries to mitigate polysulfide shuttling...
December 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gaurav Bhardwaj, Paul P Connell, William G Campbell
PURPOSE: To determine the results of pars plana vitrectomy for giant retinal tear detachments using transscleral diode laser retinopexy and short-term postoperative tamponade with perfluoro-n-octane (PFnO). METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with fresh giant retinal tears were enrolled in a single-arm prospective study. One case was withdrawn for technical reasons. The remainder all underwent pars plana vitrectomy, PFnO injection, transscleral diode laser retinopexy to the edge of the giant retinal tear, and short-term postoperative heavy liquid tamponade...
December 18, 2018: Retina
Haobo Guo, Hairui Hao, Qiuping Zhang, Juan Wang, Jianguo Liu
The rapid development of large-scale livestock husbandry has caused serious air pollution problems. Understanding the composition and dispersion characteristics of odorous gases can help control air pollution. In this study, the gases in typical areas of a large-scale dairy farm were sampled and measured for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia concentrations. Fifty-two species of VOCs were identified. The VOCs emitted from the cowshed mainly consisted of halogenated hydrocarbons (16960 µg/m3 ), ketones (15700 µg/m3 ), esters (9889 µg/m3 ), and sulfur compounds (3677 µg/m3 )...
December 21, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Maria Assunta Navarra, Lucia Lombardo, Pantaleone Bruni, Leonardo Morelli, Akiko Tsurumaki, Stefania Panero, Fausto Croce
Solid polymer electrolytes, in the form of membranes, offering high chemical and mechanical stability, while maintaining good ionic conductivity, are envisaged as a possible solution to improve performances and safety in different lithium cell configurations. In this work, we designed and prepared systems formed using innovative nanocomposite polymer membranes, based on high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and silica nanopowders, produced by the electrospinning technique. These membranes were subsequently gelled with solutions based on aprotic ionic liquid, carbonate solvents, and lithium salt...
December 5, 2018: Membranes
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