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nerve barrier

Francisco Javier Carreras
Glaucoma has been recently characterized as a member of the group of anoikis-related diseases. Anoikis, a form of apoptosis, can be triggered by the unfastening of adherent junctions present in astrocytes. In those areas of the central nervous system in which the soma of the neurons or their axons and dendrites are metabolically dependent on the activity of astrocytes, a derangement of the lactate shuttle caused by a separation between the plasma membranes of neurons and astrocytes would result in metabolic impairment of the neurons themselves...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Jiali Wang, Tongli Ren, Wenfang Sun, Qiong Liang, Wuqing Wang
PURPOSE: Our study investigated correlations between clinical characteristics, particularly hearing recovery, interval time between onset and three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D-FLAIR MRI), and the signal intensity of post-contrast 3D-FLAIR MRI in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). METHODS: The study enrolled 100 SSNHL patients. The signal intensities and asymmetry ratios of the inner ear structures, including the cochleae, vestibules and vestibulocochlear nerve, were evaluated and calculated...
February 12, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Mercé Albert-Bayo, Irene Paracuellos, Ana M González-Castro, Amanda Rodríguez-Urrutia, María J Rodríguez-Lagunas, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Javier Santos, María Vicario
The gastrointestinal tract harbours the largest population of mast cells in the body; this highly specialised leukocyte cell type is able to adapt its phenotype and function to the microenvironment in which it resides. Mast cells react to external and internal stimuli thanks to the variety of receptors they express, and carry out effector and regulatory tasks by means of the mediators of different natures they produce. Mast cells are fundamental elements of the intestinal barrier as they regulate epithelial function and integrity, modulate both innate and adaptive mucosal immunity, and maintain neuro-immune interactions, which are key to functioning of the gut...
February 8, 2019: Cells
Maryam Akbari, Michael Miloro
PURPOSE: To determine contemporary surgical decision-making processes regarding the use of a nerve graft with ablative mandibular resection and to identify utilization barriers among head and neck surgeons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online electronic survey that queried practice patterns and subjective opinions regarding inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) grafting at the time of mandibular resection was distributed to head and neck surgeons and oral and maxillofacial surgery residency program directors (N = 249) by use of REDCap...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Michal Rosenberg, Neta Zilony, Orit Shefi, Ester Segal
Despite the great potential of NGF for treating neurodegenerative diseases, its therapeutic administration represents a significant challenge as the protein does not cross the blood-brain barrier, owing to its chemical properties, and thus requires long-term delivery to the brain to have a biological effect. This work describes fabrication of nanostructured PSi films as degradable carriers of NGF for sustained delivery of this sensitive protein. The PSi carriers are specifically tailored to obtain high loading efficacy and continuous release of NGF for a period of four weeks, while preserving its biological activity...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Per M Roos
The causes of neurodegenerative disorders are largely unknown. Environmental factors seem to contribute to neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible individuals. Increasing evidence point towards a key role for environmental exposure in the causation of neurodegenerative disorders and specifically for metal exposure. Alterations of metalloproteins seem to be a common motif in neurodegeneration and enough evidence has now accumulated to designate these disorders as metallopathies. Paired sampling refers to the simultaneous sampling of CSF and blood and by comparing metal concentrations between CSF and blood conclusions about exposure and barrier properties can be drawn...
March 2019: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yung-Chih Kuo, Chang-Li Chen, Rajendiran Rajesh
Liposomes (lip) carrying pharmaceuticals have shown promise in their ability to advance the therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low nerve-targeting capacity and poor penetration rate of lip through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are major hurdles to achieving successful treatment. Herein, we developed lip incorporating cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidic acid (PA) to promote their capability against hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and a transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide to permeate the BBB for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF), rosmarinic acid (RA), curcumin (CURC) and quercetin (QU)...
February 1, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Jianyu Ye, Ziyu Sun, Weiwei Hu
Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system and play significant roles in normal brain. With cerebral infarction, astrocytes are activated as reactive astrocytes and form glial scars, which play an essential part in brain injury. According to their roles in neuroprotection after cerebral infarction, regulation of scar formation, nerve regeneration, maintenance of blood-brain barrier, promotion of angiogenesis and immune response, scholars have proposed a variety of therapeutic strategies based on targeting astrocytes...
May 25, 2018: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Laura Tiozzo Fasiolo, Michele Dario Manniello, Fabrizio Bortolotti, Francesca Buttini, Alessandra Rossi, Fabio Sonvico, Paolo Colombo, Georgia Valsami, Gaia Colombo, Paola Russo
Neuroinflammation occurs in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, anti-inflammatory drugs in this asymptomatic initial phase could slow down AD progression, provided they enter the brain. Direct nose-to-brain drug transport occurs along olfactory or trigeminal nerves, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Nasal administration may enable the drug to access the brain. Here, flurbiprofen powders for nose-to-brain drug transport in early AD-related neuroinflammation were studied. Their target product profile contemplates drug powder deposition in the nasal cavity, prompt dissolution in the mucosal fluid and attainment of saturation concentration to maximise diffusion in the tissue...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Drug Targeting
Wen-Hui Wang, Long Zhang, Guo-Xiang Dong, Jun Zhao, Xuan Li
Chemical lumbar sympathectomy (CLS) is a commonly used, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of conditions including ischemic diseases of the lower extremities, hyperhidrosis, etc. It is commonly practiced to position the puncture needle tip in front of the anterior fascia of the psoas major muscle and inject the inactivating agent around the sympathetic trunk, which is defined as conventional CLS. Although relatively rare, ureteropelvic damage is the most frequently reported complication of conventional CLS and can cause serious harm to patients...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shaker A Mousa, Bassam M Ayoub
Repositioning of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists is a breakthrough in the field of neural regeneration research increasing glucagon like peptide-1 bioavailability, hence its neuroprotective activities. In this article, the authors suggest not only crossing blood-brain barrier and neurodegenerative disease as off target for dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists, but also for ophthalmic preparations for diabetic retinopathy, which may be the latest breakthrough in the field if prepared and used in an appropriate nano-formulation to target the retinal nerves...
May 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Fenny H F Tang, Fernanda I Staquicini, André A R Teixeira, Jussara S Michaloski, Gislene M Namiyama, Noemi N Taniwaki, João C Setubal, Aline M da Silva, Richard L Sidman, Renata Pasqualini, Wadih Arap, Ricardo J Giordano
Endothelial heterogeneity has important implications in health and disease. Molecular markers selectively expressed in the vasculature of different organs and tissues are currently being explored in targeted therapies with promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. Noteworthy is the role that combinatorial approaches such as phage display have had in identifying such markers by using phage as nanoparticles and surrogates for billions of different peptides, screening noninvasively the vascular lumen for binding sites...
January 22, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pete A Williams, Catherine E Braine, Krishnakumar Kizhatil, Nicole E Foxworth, Nicholas G Tolman, Jeffrey M Harder, Rebecca A Scott, Gregory L Sousa, Alyssa Panitch, Gareth R Howell, Simon W M John
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is characterized by the progressive dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells. Recent work in animal models suggests that a critical neuroinflammatory event damages retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve head during ocular hypertensive injury. We previously demonstrated that monocyte-like cells enter the optic nerve head in an ocular hypertensive mouse model of glaucoma (DBA/2 J), but their roles, if any, in mediating axon damage remain unclear. METHODS: To understand the function of these infiltrating monocyte-like cells, we used RNA-sequencing to profile their transcriptomes...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Erika M Walsh, Denzel Cole, Kiranya E Tipirneni, Kirby I Bland, Neha Udayakumar, Benjamin B Kasten, Stephanie L Bevans, Benjamin M McGrew, Joshua J Kain, Quyen T Nguyen, Eben L Rosenthal, Jason M Warram
MINI: Fluorescence-based nerve enhancement has advanced rapidly with potential for continued utilization and progression in translational research, though the ideal agent remains elusive. This review details the agents for fluorescence-guided nerve imaging in both preclinical and clinical use to identify factors important in selecting nerve-specific fluorescent agents for surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: This review details the agents for fluorescence-guided nerve imaging in both preclinical and clinical use to identify factors important in selecting nerve-specific fluorescent agents for surgical procedures...
January 10, 2019: Annals of Surgery
Jing Sun, Chunfang Wei, Yanan Liu, Wenjie Xie, Mengmeng Xu, Hui Zhou, Jie Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a complex pathogenesis. Controlled release, target ability, and multi-channel synergistic treatment are key factors associated with the success of AD drugs. Herein, we report a novel mesoporous nano-selenium (MSe) release delivery system (MSe-Res/Fc-β-CD/Bor) based on the borneol (Bor) target, β-cyclodextrin nanovalves (Fc-β-CD) with loaded resveratrol (Res). Previous experiments have shown that MSe-Res/Fc-β-CD/Bor first releases Bor by interacting with blood or intracellular esterases, allowing the nanosystem to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
December 24, 2018: Biomaterials
K L O'Flynn O'Brien, A Y Akers, L K Perriera, C A Schreiber, J F Garcia-Espana, S Sonalkar
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine device (IUD) utilization in the United States is low among adolescent and young adult women. Longer procedure duration has been proposed as one potential barrier to IUD insertion in this population. We hypothesized that procedure duration would be longer in adolescents compared to young adult women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of a lidocaine versus sham paracervical nerve block for pain control during levonorgestrel 13...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Ann-Kristin Reinhold, Shaobing Yang, Jeremy Tsung-Chieh Chen, Liu Hu, Reine-Solange Sauer, Susanne M Krug, Egle M Mambretti, Michael Fromm, Alexander Brack, Heike L Rittner
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) consisting of the perineurium and endoneurial vessels is sealed by tight junction proteins. BNB alterations are a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies. However, barrier opening, e.g. by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), can also facilitate topical application of analgesics. Here, we examined tPA both in the pathophysiology of neuropathy-induced BNB opening or via exogenous application and its effect on the cytoplasmatic tight junction protein anchoring protein, zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), the adherens molecule JAM-C and microRNA(miR)-155-5p...
January 5, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Noreen F Rossi, Zachary Zenner, Arun K Rishi, Edi Levi, Maria Maliszewska-Scislo
The subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ that lies outside the blood brain barrier, has been implicated in arterial pressure and baroreflex responses to angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested whether pharmacologic inhibition or selective silencing of SFO AT1 receptors (AT1 R) of two-kidney one-clip rats with elevated plasma Ang II decreases resting arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and/or modulates arterial baroreflex responses of heart rate and RSNA. Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent renal artery clipping (2K-1C) or sham-clipping (Sham)...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Vamshi K Rao, Daniel Kapp, Mary Schroth
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease that, in most cases, involves homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. This causes a deficiency in survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays a critical role in motor neuron development. SMA has a range of phenotype expression resulting in variable age of symptom onset, maximum motor strength achieved, and survival. Without intervention, infants with a more severe form of the disease (type 1 SMA) die before 2 years of age...
December 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Thompson Zhuang, Sara L Eppler, Robin N Kamal
PURPOSE: To evaluate the null hypothesis that Medicaid patients receive carpal tunnel release (CTR) at the same time interval from diagnosis as do patients with Medicare Advantage or private insurance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review using a database containing claims records from 2007 to 2016. The cohort consisted of patient records with a diagnosis code of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and a procedural code for CTR within 3 years of diagnosis. We stratified patients into 3 groups by insurance type (Medicaid managed care, Medicare Advantage, and private) for an analysis of the time from diagnosis until surgery and use of preoperative electrodiagnostic testing...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
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