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Is Inflammatory bowel disease reversible

Nasser Abdulatif Al-Shabib, Javed Masood Khan, Ajamaluddin Malik, Priyankar Sen, Mohammad A Alsenaidy, Fohad Mabood Husain, Abdulrahman M Alsenaidy, Rizwan Hasan Khan, Hani Choudhry, Mazin A Zamzami, Mohmmad Imran Khan, Syed Ali Shahzad
β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is a well characterized milk protein and a model for folding and aggregation studies. Rutin is a quercetin based-flavanoid and a famous dietary supplement. It is a potential protector from coronary heart disease, cancers, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, amyloid fibrillation is reported in BLG at pH 2.0 and temperature 358 K. It is inhibited to some extent by rutin with a rate of 99.3 h-1  M-1 . Amyloid fibrillation started taking place after 10 h of incubation and completed near 40 h at a rate of 16...
February 5, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Caimei He, Jun Deng, Xin Hu, Sichun Zhou, Jingtao Wu, Di Xiao, Kwame Oteng Darko, Yanjun Huang, Ting Tao, Mei Peng, Zhiren Wang, Xiaoping Yang
Inflammation caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic toxins results in intestinal barrier dysfunction, contributing to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other diseases. Vitamin A is a widely used food supplement although its mechanistic effect on intestinal structures is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the mechanism by investigating the influence of vitamin A on the intestinal barrier function, represented by tight junctions. IPEC-J2 cells were differentiated on transwell inserts and used as a model of intestinal barrier permeability...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
Juan-Min Zha, Hua-Shan Li, Qian Lin, Wei-Ting Kuo, Zhi-Hui Jiang, Pei-Yun Tsai, Ning Ding, Jia Wu, Shao-Fang Xu, Yi-Tang Wang, Jian Pan, Xiu-Min Zhou, Kai Chen, Min Tao, Matthew A Odenwald, Atsushi Tamura, Sachiko Tsukita, Jerrold R Turner, Wei-Qi He
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epithelial regeneration is essential for homeostasis and repair of the mucosal barrier. In the context of infectious and immune-mediated intestinal disease, interleukin (IL) 22 is thought to augment these processes. We sought to define the mechanisms by which IL22 promotes mucosal healing. METHODS: Intestinal stem cell cultures and mice were treated with recombinant IL22. Cell proliferation, death, and differentiation were assessed in vitro and in vivo by morphometric analysis, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry...
September 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Marie Shella De Robles, Arsalan Bakhtiar, Christopher J Young
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia following ileostomy reversal can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, and burden on the healthcare system. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ileostomy site incisional hernia following reversal and to identify possible risk factors for its development. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving consecutive patients who underwent ileostomy reversal between November 1999 to February 2015 by a single surgeon...
January 26, 2019: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Vanessa Beatriz Freitas Alves, Beatriz Coutinho de Sousa, Monique Thaís Costa Fonseca, Haline Ogata, Carolina Caliári-Oliveira, Juliana Navarro Ueda Yaochite, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Javier Emílio Lazo Chica, João Santana da Silva, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro Malmegrim, Larissa Pernomian, Cristina Ribeiro Cardoso
Current therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are aimed at controlling the exacerbated response in the gut, but no treatment is fully effective for several refractory patients. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells with regulatory immunosuppressive activity that may control inflammatory diseases. Then, here we investigated the short and specially the long-term protective effects of MSC on experimental colitis. We showed that MSC elicited protection to acute intestinal inflammation with gain of weight, improvement in the clinical disease score and expressive reduction in the mortality rate of treated mice...
January 21, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Linglin Tian, Yuan Li, Ruqi Chang, Peng Zhang, Jian Zhang, Lijuan Huo
Colorectal cancer caused by inflammatory bowel disease is referred as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). The mechanism underling CAC is not fully understood. In the present study, the role of interleukin-9 (IL-9) in CAC was examined. The current study included 12 colorectal tissue specimens and matched adjacent tissues from CAC. The expression of IL-9 protein was examined using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of IL-9 in cancer tissues was markedly higher compared with that in adjacent tissues. Furthermore, IL-9 gene overexpression lentiviral vectors were constructed to overexpress IL-9 in RKO and Caco-2 cell lines...
January 2019: Oncology Letters
Akos Ilias, Kata Szanto, Lorant Gonczi, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Petra Anna Golovics, Klaudia Farkas, Eszter Schafer, Zoltan Szepes, Balázs Szalay, Aron Vincze, Tamas Szamosi, Tamas Molnar, Peter Laszlo Lakatos
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is evidence that it is safe and effective for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) to switch from maintenance therapy with an original infliximab drug to a biosimilar, but little is known about outcomes of reverse switches and/or multiple switches. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a reverse switch (from a biosimilar to Remicade) in a real-life cohort. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 174 unselected and consecutive patients with IBD (136 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 38 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) who received maintenance therapy with the biosimilar in Hungary...
January 7, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Robert Liptak, Barbora Gromova, Martin Maronek, Roman Gardlik
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a disbalance in the composition of intestinal microbiota. It is not clear whether such dysbiosis is a cause or a consequence of a disease state. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor to a patient or diseased animal is a valuable tool for targeted modification of microbiome leading to therapeutic response. Positive effect has been shown in therapy of a number of gastrointestinal as well as non-gastrointestinal diseases. In addition, FMT has been successfully used to transfer the diseased phenotype form a donor with the disease to a healthy recipient...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Wen-Juan Tang, Kai-Yue Peng, Zi-Fei Tang, Yu-Huan Wang, Ai-Juan Xue, Ying Huang
AIM: To determine whether cell division cycle (Cdc)42 is regulated by microRNA (miR)-15a in the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We cultured 293T cells, used plasmids and performed dual-luciferase assay to determine whether Cdc42 is a miR-15a target gene. We cultured Caco-2 cells, and stimulated them with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then employed lentiviruses to alter the expression of miR-15a and Cdc42. We performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence to determine whether Cdc42 is regulated by miR-15a in Caco-2 cells...
December 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Naga K R Ghattamaneni, Sunil K Panchal, Lindsay Brown
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an important cause of chronic disability in humans. METHODS: We characterized a model of chronic IBD in young male Wistar rats by administering dextran sodium sulfate (DSS: 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1% in drinking water) for six weeks, with 0.5% DSS for twelve weeks, following DSS cessation or together with treatment with sulfasalazine for the last 6 weeks. We measured gastrointestinal characteristics including stool consistency, blood in stools, small intestine and colon length, intestinal transit and permeability, and gut microbiota, as well as extra-intestinal parameters including oral glucose tolerance, systolic blood pressure, fat and lean mass, and left ventricular stiffness...
October 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Zhen Zhang, Kyaw Min Aung, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Sun Nyunt Wai
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), a protein toxin produced by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, activates the Rho-family small GTPases in eukaryotic cell, thereby perturbing multiple cellular functions. Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests a link between CNF1 and human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. At the cellular level, CNF1 has been hypothesized to reprogram cell fate towards survival due to the role in perturbing cell cycle and apoptosis. However, it remains undetermined how cells survive from CNF1 intoxication...
December 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaodong Zhu, Ye Zhu, Caijuan Li, Jianbo Yu, DanDan Ren, Shou Qiu, Ying Nie, Xin Yu, Xiaoyan Xu, Wei Zhu
Macrophages are highly plastic cells. Depending on stimulation, macrophages rapidly polarize to functionally distinct phenotypes that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 1,25‑Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) has immunomodulatory activity, and 1,25(OH)2 D3 deficiency is correlated with autoimmune diseases, especially IBD. This study aimed to explore whether 1,25(OH)2 D3 modulates macrophage polarization in inflammation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and colitis mice were treated with 1,25(OH)2 D3 ...
December 9, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Daniel A Giles, Sonja Zahner, Petra Krause, Esmé Van Der Gracht, Thomas Riffelmacher, Venetia Morris, Alexei Tumanov, Mitchell Kronenberg
Over 1.5 million individuals in the United States are afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the progression of IBD is multifactorial, chronic, unresolved inflammation certainly plays a key role. Additionally, while multiple immune mediators have been shown to affect pathogenesis, a comprehensive understanding of disease progression is lacking. Previous work has demonstrated that a member of the TNF superfamily, TNFSF14 (LIGHT), which is pro-inflammatory in several contexts, surprisingly plays an important role in protection from inflammation in mouse models of colitis, with LIGHT deficient mice having more severe disease pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Takafumi Kawamura, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Katsunori Suzuki, Yuhi Suzuki, Megumu Kamishima, Mayu Sakata, Kiyotaka Kurachi, Mitsutoshi Setoh, Hiroyuki Konno, Hiroya Takeuchi
Background: Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is one of the prognostic factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and prevention of CAC is a critical concern for patients with IBD. Component cells of the microenvironment, especially myofibroblasts, are known to affect tumor development, but the role of intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) in CAC has not been clarified. Here, we explored the role of IMFs in CAC and sought to identify candidate genes as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of CAC...
December 4, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Adebowale O Bamidele, Phyllis A Svingen, Mary R Sagstetter, Olga F Sarmento, Michelle Gonzalez, Manuel B Braga Neto, Subra Kugathasan, Gwen Lomberk, Raul A Urrutia, William A Faubion
Background & Aims: Forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)+ regulatory T cell (Treg) dysfunction is associated with autoimmune diseases; however, the mechanisms responsible for inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology are poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a physical interaction between transcription factor FOXP3 and the epigenetic enzyme enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is essential for gene co-repressive function. Methods: Human FOXP3 mutations clinically relevant to intestinal inflammation were generated by site-directed mutagenesis...
2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sharmistha Banerjee, Sumit Ghosh, Krishnendu Sinha, Sayantani Chowdhury, Parames C Sil
Colitis is an inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death constitute the backbone of colitis. Most of the drugs prescribed for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have various side effects. In this scenario, we would like to determine the therapeutic role sulphur dioxide, a gaso-transmitter produced through the metabolism of cysteine in colitis. Colitis was induced through intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in male Wistar rats...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology
Jingru Zhang, Bo Lian, Yan Shang, Chun Li, Qingkai Meng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: miR-135a is reduced in several cancers and has been suggested to mediate immune and inflammatory responses. However, the effect of miR-135a on inflammatory bowel diseases was obscure. This study firstly attempted to investigate the hypothesis that miR-135a alleviates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced inflammation in colonic cells and potential mechanisms are also studied. METHODS: Caco-2 and HT-29 cells in this study were treated with DSS, miR-135a mimic, and S3I-201, and then CKK-8 assay was used to test cell viability...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaoming Hu, Jiali Deng, Tianming Yu, Shanghai Chen, Yadong Ge, Ziheng Zhou, Yajie Guo, Hao Ying, Qiwei Zhai, Yan Chen, Feixiang Yuan, Yuguo Niu, Weigang Shu, Huimin Chen, Caiyun Ma, Zhanju Liu, Feifan Guo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) regulates genes involved in the inflammatory response, amino acid metabolism, autophagy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. We investigated whether its activity is altered in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and mice with enterocolitis. METHODS: We obtained biopsy samples during endoscopy from inflamed and/or uninflamed regions of colon from 21 patients with active CD, 22 patients with active UC, and 38 individuals without IBD (controls), and of ileum from 19 patients with active CD and 8 individuals without IBD in China...
November 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
Huan Zhou, Hui-Jing Zhang, Lin Guan, Yi-Ning Zhang, Yue Li, Ming-Jun Sun
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a type of chronic inflammatory disturbance that affects a number of individuals worldwide; the precise mechanism is unclear and treatment is frequently insufficient to maintain patients in remission. Saccharomyces boulardii is a thermophilic, non‑pathogenic yeast that may be administered for prophylaxis and treatment of a variety of diarrheal diseases. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that it may have a role in IBD; however, the mechanism of action is unclear...
December 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rui-Gang Hou, Lei Fan, Jun-Jin Liu, Yao Cheng, Zhuang-Peng Chang, Bei Wu, Yun-Yun Shao
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs) critically depends on BA transporters and enzymes, which can be affected by inflammatory bowel disease. Diarrhea in colitis is believed to result in part from BA malabsorption. The work aimed to investigate whether diarrhea in colitis was associated with the expression of BA transporters, enzymes, and nuclear receptors. RT-qPCR and Western blot techniques were used to evaluate the gene and protein levels of Cyp7a1, Asbt, SHP, FXR, Ostβ in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid-induced rat model of colitis...
November 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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