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Is Ulcerative colitis reversible

Jiali Chen, Muthukumaran Jayachandran, Baojun Xu, Zhiling Yu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) has been used for dietary therapy practice for wound healing of puerperal or surgery patients in China. Traditional Chinese medicinal books also documented that sea bass can be used to manage inflammation-associated conditions such as wound, miscarriage and cough. Some studies also proved that dietary supplement with fish benefited for treating many inflammatory - associated conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, ulcerative colitis and hyperlipidemia...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Santanu Mondal, Paul R Thompson
Proteins are well-known to undergo a variety of post-translational modifications (PTMs). One such PTM is citrullination, an arginine modification that is catalyzed by a group of hydrolases called protein arginine deiminases (PADs). Hundreds of proteins are known to be citrullinated and hypercitrullination is associated with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, ulcerative colitis (UC), Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), and certain cancers. In this Account, we summarize our efforts to understand the structure and mechanism of the PADs and to develop small molecule chemical probes of protein citrullination...
March 7, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lucrecia Bandeo, Astrid Rausch, Miguel Saucedo, Anibal Chertcoff, Luciana Leon Cejas, Claudia Uribe Roca, Sol Pacha, Manuel Fernandez Pardal, Ricardo Reisin, Pablo Bonardo
The TNF-α antagonists are the drugs used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Nontraumatic convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage is an infrequent nonaneurysmal subtype of subarachnoid bleeding caused mainly by reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We present a 26-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of UC taking Adalimumab. She received her last doses the same day she was admitted to our hospital for an acute severe UC exacerbation...
November 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Leonard T Walsh, Ravi Patel, Justin Loloi, Kirk Jones, Julie Caler, Zain Ayaz, Rohit Jain
Adalimumab is a recombinant monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including ulcerative colitis (UC). Adverse side effects include infection and injection-site cutaneous reactions; however, rare adverse events such as pancytopenia have been recorded. Here we describe a case of pancytopenia and reversible lymphadenopathy related to adalimumab administration in a patient with UC.
October 22, 2018: Curēus
Akos Ilias, Kata Szanto, Lorant Gonczi, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Petra Anna Golovics, Klaudia Farkas, Eszter Schafer, Zoltan Szepes, Balázs Szalay, Aron Vincze, Tamas Szamosi, Tamas Molnar, Peter Laszlo Lakatos
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is evidence that it is safe and effective for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) to switch from maintenance therapy with an original infliximab drug to a biosimilar, but little is known about outcomes of reverse switches and/or multiple switches. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a reverse switch (from a biosimilar to Remicade) in a real-life cohort. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 174 unselected and consecutive patients with IBD (136 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 38 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) who received maintenance therapy with the biosimilar in Hungary...
January 7, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Wen-Juan Tang, Kai-Yue Peng, Zi-Fei Tang, Yu-Huan Wang, Ai-Juan Xue, Ying Huang
AIM: To determine whether cell division cycle (Cdc)42 is regulated by microRNA (miR)-15a in the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We cultured 293T cells, used plasmids and performed dual-luciferase assay to determine whether Cdc42 is a miR-15a target gene. We cultured Caco-2 cells, and stimulated them with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then employed lentiviruses to alter the expression of miR-15a and Cdc42. We performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence to determine whether Cdc42 is regulated by miR-15a in Caco-2 cells...
December 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Philip H Sossenheimer, Laura R Glick, Abraham Dachman, Kinga B Skowron, Michele Rubin, Konstantin Umanskiy, Radhika Smith, Lisa Cannon, Roger D Hurst, Russell D Cohen, Neil H Hyman, David T Rubin
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic complications after restorative total proctocolectomy with IPAA for ulcerative colitis alter functional outcomes and quality of life and may lead to pouch failure. Routine contrast enema of the pouch assesses anastomotic integrity before ileostomy reversal, but its clinical use is challenged. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship among preoperative clinical characteristics, abnormal pouchography, and long-term pouch complications...
November 28, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Ahmed E Khodir, Eman Said, Hoda Atif, Hassan A ElKashef, Hatem A Salem
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is usually a mildly active disease; however, it can be associated with serious systemic complications. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic and coloprotective properties of crocin; the major biologically active ingredient of saffron against experimentally-induced UC, by intracolonic instillation of AA (AA). Rats received either felodipine (3 mg/kg) or crocin (20 mg/kg) orally for 8 successive days as protective and curative therapies. Either as a protective or as a curative remedy, crocin significantly reversed AA-induced colonic damage...
December 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Huixia Zhang, Wei Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of miR-15 in ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear. In this study, we found that miR-15 downregulated the expression of adenosine A2a receptor (A2aAR) in the colonic tissues of patients with UC and in HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells. METHODS: The study population comprised patients with UC (n=23), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n=22), and healthy subjects (n = 20). The levels of miR-15, A2aAR, and protein in colon tissue biopsies were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blotting...
December 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Georgios Exarchos, Linda Metaxa, Antonios Gklavas, Vassilis Koutoulidis, Ioannis Papaconstantinou
OBJECTIVES: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the "gold standard" procedure for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) requiring surgical intervention. A de-functioning ileostomy is usually performed, as a step for the IPAA procedure. The aim of this study is to present the methodology and results of the routine double assessment of IPAA integrity in asymptomatic patients prior to the ileostomy reversal and evaluate its necessity. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 61 UC patients, who underwent IPAA construction, in 2010-2016...
October 15, 2018: European Radiology
Bastian Schirmer, Luisa Bringmann, Roland Seifert, Detlef Neumann
Our previous in vitro studies revealed that histamine via histamine the H4 -receptors (H4 R), as compared to other stimuli, such as eotaxin or formylpeptides, rather partially activates eosinophilic granulocytes (eosinophils). In order to evaluate the H4 R-mediated activation of eosinophils in vivo , we employed dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, closely resembling human ulcerative colitis (UC), which is largely characterized by a local eosinophilic infiltration of the colon. IL-5-deficient BALB/c mice served as a model with reduced endogenous numbers of eosinophils, in which wild-type (H4 R+/+ ) or H4 R-deficient (H4 R-/- ) eosinophils were adoptively transferred during the course of DSS-induced colitis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hazel Tye, Chien-Hsiung Yu, Lisa A Simms, Marcel R de Zoete, Man Lyang Kim, Martha Zakrzewski, Jocelyn S Penington, Cassandra R Harapas, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Leesa F Wockner, Adele Preaudet, Lisa A Mielke, Stephen A Wilcox, Yasunori Ogura, Sinead C Corr, Komal Kanojia, Konstantinos A Kouremenos, David P De Souza, Malcolm J McConville, Richard A Flavell, Motti Gerlic, Benjamin T Kile, Anthony T Papenfuss, Tracy L Putoczki, Graham L Radford-Smith, Seth L Masters
Anti-microbial signaling pathways are normally triggered by innate immune receptors when detecting pathogenic microbes to provide protective immunity. Here we show that the inflammasome sensor Nlrp1 aggravates DSS-induced experimental mouse colitis by limiting beneficial, butyrate-producing Clostridiales in the gut. The colitis-protective effects of Nlrp1 deficiency are thus reversed by vancomycin treatment, but recapitulated with butyrate supplementation in wild-type mice. Moreover, an activating mutation in Nlrp1a increases IL-18 and IFNγ production, and decreases colonic butyrate to exacerbate colitis...
September 13, 2018: Nature Communications
C-X Qiao, S Xu, D-D Wang, S-Y Gao, S-F Zhao, M-L Zhang, B Yu, Q Yin, G Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an unexplained inflammatory disease in bowel. Some studies reported that microRNA-19b (miR-19b) was closely related to cell inflammatory response. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of miR-19b on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human intestinal cell inflammatory injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Caco2 cells were treated with 10 ng/ml LPS to induce inflammatory injury. The expression of miR-19b and runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) was changed in Caco2 cells by cell transfection...
August 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Forouzan Amerizadeh, Nastaran Rezaei, Farzad Rahmani, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reyhaneh Moradi-Marjaneh, Hamid Fiuji, Nadia Boroumand, Abolfazl Nosrati-Tirkani, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Khazaei, Amir Avan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death, and hence there is a need for the identification of novel-agents to improve the efficacy of existing therapies. There is growing evidence for the antitumor activity of crocin, although its activity and molecular mechanisms in CRC remains to be elucidated. Here we explored the therapeutic application of crocin or its combination with 5-flurouracil in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer. The antiproliferative activity of crocin was assessed in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell-culture models...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yan Zhou, Hanyang Liu, Jun Song, Liang Cao, Liming Tang, Chunjian Qi
Sinomenine (SIN), a pure alkaloid isolated from Sinomenium acutum, has been widely used in arthritis for its anti‑inflammatory effect, but little is known about the effect of SIN on human ulcerative colitis (UC). In the present study, the effect and mechanism of SIN was examined in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‑induced murine colitis model, which mimics human UC. Oral administration of SIN significantly suppressed the elevated disease activity index and ameliorated colonic histological damage in a DSS‑induced colitis model...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kai Zhou, Rui Cheng, Bei Liu, Lei Wang, Haifeng Xie, Chaofeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Despite the higher morbidity of ulcerative colitis (UC), available treatments remain unsatisfactory in recent years. A natural flavone eupatilin (Eup) is known to inhibit the intestinal contraction. PURPOSE: The protective role of Eup in intestinal inflammation remains unclear. This study attempted to determine the bioactivity of Eup against colitis and clarify the mechanism of action. STUDY DESIGN: The in vitro effects of Eup on lipopolysaccharide-induced human THP-M macrophage activation and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-damaged intestinal epithelial (NCM460) cells were explored to clarify its potential protective effects...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Nao Kakizawa, Shingo Tsujinaka, Yasuyuki Miyakura, Rina Kikugawa, Fumi Hasegawa, Hideki Ishikawa, Sawako Tamaki, Jun Takahashi, Toshiki Rikiyama
BACKGROUND: Diversion colitis (DC) is characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the remaining colon or rectum, and loss of the fecal stream plays a major role in the disease's development. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, medical and/or surgical treatment is required for those who are symptomatic. There is a particular interest on how to manage patients with acute and severe clinical presentations, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We report the rare case of a man with acute and severe DC mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) with extra-intestinal manifestations that was successfully managed with surgical treatment...
August 2, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Akos Ilias, Lorant Gonczi, Zuszsanna Kurti, Peter L Lakatos
The introduction of biological agents has revolutionized the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). Biosimilars are considered to be equivalent to the reference biologic products in terms of pharmacokinetic properties, clinical effectiveness and safety and have now been approved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CT-P13 was the first biosimilar to infliximab that obtained regulatory approval by the EMA and US FDA. Accumulating data on biosimilars led to an increased acceptance amongst practicing gastroenterologists and their use can be associated with a potential reduction in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Francesco Colombo, Gianluca Pellino, Francesco Selvaggi, Fabio Corsi, Guido Sciaudone, Gianluca M Sampietro, Diego Foschi
BACKGROUND: Although the creation of a stoma reduces the risk of septic pouch complications following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), the stoma itself and its reversal can give rise to substantial morbidity during the two- or three-stage concept. Aim of study is to compare stoma-related complications in Ulcerative Colitis patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open IPAA. METHODS: We collected data on 250 IPAA patients from two Italian Centres between 2005 and 2015...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Emilien Billon, Anne-Marie Stoppa, Lena Mescam, Massimo Bocci, Audrey Monneur, Delphine Perrot, François Bertucci
Background: Kaposi's sarcoma is a low-grade mesenchymal angioproliferative tumor, most commonly observed in immunocompromised individuals, such as HIV-infected patients. Iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma occurs in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapies. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted against the pan B cell marker CD20. Because of its immunosuppressive effects through reduction of mature B-cells, it may exacerbate Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-positive patients. Rituximab-related Kaposi's sarcomas have been previously reported in only two HIV-negative patients and were treated surgically...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
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