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Cholinergic reserve

Jeann L Sabino-Carvalho, Milena Samora, André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Lauro C Vianna
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The initial circulatory response to isometric exercise in young healthy subjects is thought to be cholinergic-mediated. Do patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), a specific population known to present cholinergic dysfunction, present impairment in these initial circulatory responses? What is the main finding and its importance? The initial fall in total peripheral resistance was absent in patients with PD, as well as in older subjects, which augmented the pressor response at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise...
March 12, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Bülent Cengiz, Halit Fidancı, Yeliz Kıyak Keçeli, Hande Baltacı, Reha KuruoĞlu
INTRODUCTION: To test the hypothesis of impaired cholinergic activity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied short and long latency afferent inhibition (SAI, LAI). METHODS: The ulnar nerve was stimulated at the wrist preceding transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 21 ms for SAI and 200 ms for LAI, in 21 patients and 17 controls. Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and cognitive function was assessed in ALS patients using automatic threshold tracking and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
March 7, 2019: Muscle & Nerve
Giampiero Giovacchini, Elisabetta Giovannini, Elisa Borsò, Patrizia Lazzeri, Mattia Riondato, Rossella Leoncini, Valerio Duce, Luigi Mansi, Andrea Ciarmiello
Neuropathological and clinical evidence indicates that the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) occurs as neuropathology exceeds the brain reserve capacity. The brain or cognitive reserve (BCR) hypothesis states that high premorbid intelligence, education, and an active and stimulating lifestyle provide reserve capacity, which acts as a buffer against the cognitive deficits due to accumulating neuropathology. Neuroimaging studies that assessed the BCR hypothesis are critically reviewed with emphasis on study design and statistical analysis...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ida Luisa Boccalaro, Leonardo Cristiá-Lara, Cornelia Schwerdel, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Lena Rubi
The striatum is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, mediating motor and cognitive functions. Striatal projection neurons are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSN), expressing either the dopamine receptor type 1 (D1 -R MSN) and forming the direct, movement-promoting pathway, or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2 -R MSN), forming the indirect movement-suppressing pathway. Locally, activity and synchronization of MSN are modulated by several subtypes of GABAergic and cholinergic interneurons. Overall, GABAergic circuits in the striatum remain poorly characterized, and little is known about the intrastriatal connectivity of interneurons and the distribution of GABAA receptor (GABAA R) subtypes, distinguished by their subunit composition, in striatal synapses...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Janayna D Lima, Cleyton R Sobrinho, Barbara Falquetto, Leonardo K Santos, Ana C Takakura, Daniel K Mulkey, Thiago S Moreira
KEY POINTS: Cholinergic projections from the PPTg to the RTN are thought to be important for sleep-wake state dependent control of breathing. The RTN also receives cholinergic input from the postinspiratory complex. Stimulation of the PPTg increases respiratory output under control conditions, but not when muscarinic receptors in the RTN are blocked. Our data support the possibility that arousal-dependent modulation of breathing involves recruitment of cholinergic projections from the PPTg to the RTN...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Nicolaas I Bohnen, Prabesh Kanel, Zhi Zhou, Robert A Koeppe, Kirk A Frey, William T Dauer, Roger L Albin, Martijn L T M Müller
OBJECTIVE: Postural instability and gait difficulties (PIGD) represent debilitating disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior acetylcholinesterase PET imaging studies implicate cholinergic changes as significant contributors to PIGD features. These studies were limited in quantification of striatal cholinergic synapse integrity. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) PET ligands are better suited for evaluation of high binding areas. We examined associations between regional VAChT expression and freezing of gait (FoG) and falls...
February 5, 2019: Annals of Neurology
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is the only extant species of the order Ceratodontiformes, which retained most of the primitive features of ancient lobe finned-fishes. Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates and their study is important for deducing the neural traits that were conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. We have investigated the nitrergic system with neural nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunohistochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, which yielded almost identical results except for the primary olfactory projections and the terminal and preoptic nerve fibers labeled only for NADPH-d...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mark F Mehler, Jenna R Petronglo, Eduardo E Arteaga-Bracho, Maria Gulinello, Michael L Winchester, Nandini Pichamoorthy, Stephen K Young, Christopher D DeJesus, Hifza Ishtiaq, Solen Gokhan, Aldrin E Molero
Emerging studies are providing compelling evidence that the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder with frequent midlife onset, encompasses developmental components. Moreover, our previous studies using a hypomorphic model targeting huntingtin during the neurodevelopmental period indicated that loss-of-function mechanisms account for this pathogenic developmental component (Arteaga-Bracho et al., 2016). In the present study, we specifically ascertained the roles of subpallial lineage species in eliciting the previously observed HD-like phenotypes...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rubina Aktar, Madusha Peiris, Asma Fikree, Simon Eaton, Stamatiki Kritas, Stephen J Kentish, Eduardo J A Araujo, Cristiano Bacarin, Amanda J Page, Nicol C Voermans, Qasim Aziz, L Ashley Blackshaw
KEY POINTS: Tenascin X (TNX) functions in the extracellular matrix of skin and joints to maintain correct intercellular connections and tissue architecture TNX is associated exclusively with vagal-afferent endings and some myenteric neurones in mouse and human stomach respectively. TNX-deficient mice have accelerated gastric emptying and hypersensitivity of gastric vagal mechanoreceptors that can be normalised by an inhibitor of vagal-afferent sensitivity. Cultured nodose ganglion neurones showed no changes in response to capsaicin, cholecystokinin and potassium chloride in TNX-deficient mice...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Aminu Imam, Adhil Bhagwandin, Moyosore S Ajao, Paul R Manger
The diencephalon (dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus and epithalamus) and the hypothalamus, plays central roles in the processing of the majority of neural information within the central nervous system. Given the interactions of the diencephalon and hypothalamus with virtually all portions of the central nervous system, the comparative analysis of these regions lend key insights into potential neural, evolutionary and behavioural specializations in different species. Here we continue our analysis of the brain of the tree pangolin by providing a comprehensive description of the organization of the diencephalon and hypothalamus using a range of standard and immunohistochemical staining methods...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Justin R Yates
Because risky choice is associated with several psychiatric conditions, recent research has focused on examining the underlying neurochemical processes that control risk-based decision-making. Not surprisingly, several tasks have been developed to study the neural mechanisms involved in risky choice. The current review will briefly discuss the major tasks used to measure risky choice and will summarize the contribution of several major neurotransmitter systems to this behavior. To date, the most common measures of risky choice are the probability discounting task, the risky decision task, and the rat gambling task...
December 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
M Montero-Odasso, M Speechley, H Chertkow, Y Sarquis-Adamson, J Wells, M Borrie, L Vanderhaeghe, G Y Zou, S Fraser, L Bherer, S W Muir-Hunter
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive enhancers are commonly prescribed to people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias to improve cognition and function. However, their effectiveness for individuals in the pre-stages of dementia, particularly in functional motor outcomes, remains unknown. We aimed to determine the efficacy of donepezil, a cognitive enhancer that improves cholinergic neurotransmission, on gait performance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including 60 older adults with MCI, randomized to receive donepezil (10 mg/daily, maximal dose) or placebo...
April 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nina Mansouri-Guilani, Véronique Bernard, Erika Vigneault, Vincent Vialou, Stéphanie Daumas, Salah El Mestikawy, Giuseppe Gangarossa
Several subtypes of modulatory neurons co-express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) in addition to their cognate vesicular transporters. These neurons are believed to establish new forms of neuronal communication. The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) is of particular interest since in the striatum this subtype is found in tonically active cholinergic interneurons (TANs) and in a subset of 5-HT fibers. The striatum plays a major role in psychomotor effects induced by amphetamine. Whether and how VGLUT3-operated glutamate/ACh or glutamate/5HT co-transmissions modulates psychostimulants-induced maladaptive behaviors is still unknown...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yu-Ting Hu, Xin-Lu Chen, Shu-Han Huang, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Si-Yang Yu, Yi Shen, Arja Sluiter, Joost Verhaagen, Juan Zhao, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
Our previous studies showed that the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR1) may play a role in keeping the brain cholinergic function intact in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, we first performed data mining on our previous microarray study on postmortem human prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the changes in the expression of EGR1 and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the relationship between them during the course of AD. The study contained 49 patients, ranging from non-demented controls (Braak stage 0) to late AD patients (Braak stage VI)...
December 3, 2018: Brain Pathology
C González-Salazar, K A G Takazaki, A R M Martinez, L R Pimentel-Silva, L A Jacinto-Scudeiro, É Y Nakagawa, C E Fujiwara Murakami, J A M Saute, J L Pedroso, O G P Barsottini, H A G Teive, M C França
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SPAST mutations are the most common cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4-HSP), which is characterized by progressive lower limb weakness, spasticity and hyperreflexia. There are few studies about non-motor manifestations in this disease and none about autonomic involvement. Therefore, the aim was to determine the frequency and pattern of autonomic complaints in patients with SPG4-HSP, as well as to determine the clinical relevance and the possible factors associated with these manifestations...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Shin J Oh, Dushin Jeong, Ikjae Lee, Mohammad Alsharabati
INTRODUCTION: We are reporting our experience with the repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test in myasthenia gravis (MG) crisis. METHODS: The various parameters of the RNS tests in 26 patients with MG crisis were analyzed. RESULTS: In 18 (69%) patients, MG crisis is the first manifestation of MG. The RNS tests were abnormal in 24 (92%) patients by decrement at low-rate stimulation in any of four tested muscles. Three patterns of abnormality were found: MG pattern (decrement at low-rate stimulation) in 23 patients, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome pattern in one patient, and cholinergic crisis pattern in one patient...
November 29, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Liqin Zhang, Calvin Wu, David T Martel, Michael West, Michael A Sutton, Susan E Shore
Here, we investigate remodeling of hippocampal cholinergic inputs after noise exposure and determine the relevance of these changes to tinnitus. To assess the effects of noise exposure on the hippocampus, guinea pigs were exposed to unilateral noise for 2 hr and 2 weeks later, immunohistochemistry was performed on hippocampal sections to examine vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression. To evaluate whether the changes in VAChT were relevant to tinnitus, another group of animals was exposed to the same noise band twice to induce tinnitus, which was assessed using gap-prepulse Inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) 12 weeks after the first noise exposure, followed by immunohistochemistry...
November 24, 2018: Hippocampus
E Sherwood Brown, Erin Van Enkevort, Alexandra Kulikova, Chastity Escalante, Alyson Nakamura, Elena I Ivleva, Traci Holmes
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is a major societal and individual burden that exacerbates health outcomes, decreases quality of life, and negatively affects U.S. healthcare spending. Although pharmacological treatments are available for alcohol use disorder, many of them are limited by small effect sizes and used infrequently. Citicoline is a widely available over-the-counter supplement with a favorable side effect profile. It acts through cholinergic pathways and phospholipid metabolism...
November 20, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Gail D Tillman, Jeffrey S Spence, Richard W Briggs, Robert W Haley, John Hart, Michael A Kraut
Our team previously reported event-related potential (ERP) and hyperarousal patterns from a study of one construction battalion of the U.S. Naval Reserve who served during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. We sought to replicate these findings in a sample that was more representative of the entire Gulf War-era veteran population, including male and female participants from four branches of the military. We collected ERP data from 40 veterans meeting Haley criteria for Gulf War syndromes 1-3 and from 22 matched Gulf War veteran controls while they performed an auditory oddball task...
November 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research. Neuroimaging
Yuri Aono, Yuriko Watanabe, Manabu Ishikawa, Noboru Kuboyama, John L Waddington, Tadashi Saigusa
Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens contain GABAA and GABAB receptors that are thought to inhibit neural activity. We analyzed the roles of GABAA and GABAB receptors in regulating accumbal acetylcholine efflux of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. The effects of GABA receptor ligands on the accumbal dopamine efflux were also analyzed because accumbal cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons could mutually interact. Drugs were applied intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 30-60 min infusions...
November 18, 2018: Synapse
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