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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30780009/african-american-perspectives-on-racial-disparities-in-child-removals
#1
Effrosyni D Kokaliari, Ann W Roy, Joyce Taylor
BACKGROUND: African American children are overrepresented in foster care at twice to three times the rate of white children. Scholars argue that racism and oppression underlie disproportionality (Križ & Skivenes, 2011). OBJECTIVE: This study explored disproportionality as seen through the eyes of African American parents in the child welfare system. The aim was to understand why African American families are over-represented in child custody statistics and to improve family and parenting support for African American communities...
February 16, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774292/impact-of-passive-leg-cycling-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#2
Chetan P Phadke, Luciana Vierira, Sunita Mathur, Gerson Cipriano, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias
Background: Passive leg cycling is an important clinical tool available for rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Passive cycling can be used to derive exercise-related benefits in patients with poor motor control. There have been a number of studies examining the effects of passive cycling on a variety of outcomes. There is need for a systematic assessment of the cycling parameters and the associated clinical changes in cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal outcomes after passive cycling...
2019: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772997/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-effects-of-various-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-methods-on-climacteric-symptoms-a-systematic-review-study
#3
Leila Mollaahmadi, Afsaneh Keramat, Nasrin Changizi, Mansooreh Yazdckusti, Bahar Afshar
Objective: The climacteric syndrome related to many symptoms often causes discomfort in women. Nonpharmacological treatment is one of the treatment options for these individuals, and this syndrome can be cured with psychological treatments such as CBT. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of various CBT methods on the improvement of climacteric symptoms. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched for the relevant articles published within January 1990 and August 2018...
February 18, 2019: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771269/zika-transmission-patterns-a-meta-review
#4
REVIEW
S Runge-Ranzinger, A C Morrison, P Manrique-Saide, O Horstick
OBJECTIVE: To assesses what is known and identify knowledge gaps for Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission patterns. METHODS: Meta-review searching the databases BioSys; Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialised Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; EMBASE; Google Scholar; LILACS; MEDLINE (PubMed); Web of Science; and WHOLIS with the term "ZIKA". Systematic reviews and reviews specifying the search methods and describing potential modes of transmission were eligible for analysis...
February 16, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765409/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-reach-compliance-and-effectiveness-of-lifestyle-interventions-among-workers-protocol-for-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis-and-equity-specific-reanalysis
#5
Karen M Oude Hengel, Pieter Coenen, Suzan J W Robroek, Cecile R L Boot, Allard J van der Beek, Frank J Van Lenthe, Alex Burdorf
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and unhealthy behaviour are more prevalent among workers with a low compared with a high socioeconomic position (SEP), and thus contribute to socioeconomic health inequalities. The occupational setting is considered an important setting to address unhealthy behaviours due to the possibility to efficiently reach a large group of adults through worksite health promotion. This paper describes the rationale and design for an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis and a socioeconomic equity-specific reanalysis aiming to: (1) investigate socioeconomic differences in the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting healthy behaviour and preventing obesity, (2) examine socioeconomic differences in reach and compliance and (3) to investigate underlying factors affecting possible socioeconomic differences...
February 13, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761025/structural-and-functional-alterations-in-betel-quid-chewers-a-systematic-review-of-neuroimaging-findings
#6
Adellah Sariah, Zhening Liu, Weidan Pu, Haihong Liu, Zhimin Xue, Xiaojun Huang
Background: A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated structural, metabolic, and functional connectivity changes in betel quid (BQ) chewers. We present a systematic review of neuroimaging studies with emphasis on key brain systems affected by BQ chewing to bring a better understanding on the neuro mechanisms involved in BQD. Methods: All BQ neuroimaging studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Google scholar for English articles published until March 2018 using the key words: Betel-quid, resting state, functional MRI, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and betel quid dependence basing on the PRISMA criteria...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760787/changes-in-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-during-remediation-of-heavy-metal-accumulating-plants-around-the-xikuangshan-mine-in-southern-china
#7
Dongchu Guo, Zhouzhou Fan, Shuyu Lu, Yongjiao Ma, Xiaohong Nie, Fangping Tong, Xiawei Peng
Mining and smelting activities are the major sources of antimony (Sb) contamination. The soil around Xikuangshan (XKS), one of the largest Sb mines in the world, has been contaminated with high concentrations of Sb and other associated metals, and has attracted extensive scholarly attention. Phytoremediation is considered a promising method for removing heavy metals, and the diversity and structure of rhizosphere microorganisms may change during the phytoremediation process. The rhizosphere microbiome is involved in soil energy transfer, nutrient cycling, and resistance and detoxification of metal elements...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756469/la-grippe-or-russian-influenza-mortality-statistics-during-the-1890-epidemic-in-indiana
#8
E Thomas Ewing
BACKGROUND: The Russian influenza, which began in late 1889, has long been recognized as a major global epidemic yet available statistical evidence for morbidity and mortality has not been fully examined using historical and epidemiological tools. This study of cases and deaths in Indiana during the extended time period associated with the Russian influenza is the first scholarly effort to determine the number of victims from this influenza outbreak across a broad regional case study in the US...
February 12, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756163/revisiting-laparoscopic-reconstruction-for-billroth-1-versus-billroth-2-versus-roux-en-y-after-distal-gastrectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-in-the-modern-era
#9
REVIEW
Min Seo Kim, Yeongkeun Kwon, Eun Pyung Park, Liang An, Haeyeon Park, Sungsoo Park
BACKGROUND: In this modern era, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) has largely replaced open distal gastrectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer; however, a quantitative review of reconstruction methods applied exclusively using LDG has not yet been published. Thereafter, we compared three reconstruction methods (Billroth I, Billroth II, and Roux-en Y) using the data derived solely from LDG patients. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using electronic bibliographic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase), for articles that compared reconstruction methods in LDG, published within the last decade...
February 12, 2019: World Journal of Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755703/animal-species-identification-in-parchments-by-light
#10
Angel Martin Fernandez Alvarez, Julie Bouhy, Marc Dieu, Catherine Charles, Olivier Deparis
Recently, historical and conservation studies have attached an increasing importance to investigating the materials used in historic documents. In particular, the identification of the animal species from which parchments are made is of high importance and is currently performed by either genetic or proteomic methods. Here, we introduce an innovative, non-invasive optical method for identifying animal species based on light-parchment interaction. The method relies on conservation of light energy through reflection, transmission and absorption from the sample, as well as on statistical processing of the collected optical data...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753550/diagnosis-and-management-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use
#11
Bradley D Anawalt
Context: The lifetime prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is estimated at 1-5% worldwide. AAS use occurs primarily male elite athletes and men who want a muscular appearance. The evidence for effective, safe management of AAS cessation and withdrawal is weak. Evidence Acquisition: Key studies were extracted from Pubmed (1990-2018) and Google Scholar with reference searches from relevant retrieved articles. Evidence synthesis: The proven adverse effects of AAS include suppression of the gonadal axis and infertility, hirsutism and defeminization in women, and erythrocytosis...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739174/ruptured-renal-artery-aneurysm-in-pregnancy-and-puerperium-literature-review-of-53-cases
#12
REVIEW
Goran Augustin, Tomislav Kulis, Nina Kello, Vanja Ivkovic
PURPOSE: To summarize and define the most appropriate diagnostic methods and therapeutic options for ruptured renal artery aneurysms in pregnancy based on rarely published data. METHODS: Literature searches of English-, German-, Spanish-, and Italian-language articles were performed in PubMed (1946-2018), PubMed Central (1900-2018) and Google Scholar. The search terms included renal artery aneurysm, renal artery rupture, pregnancy, puerperium, nierenarterienaneurysma, schwangerschaft, wochenbett, aneurisma de la arteria renal, el embarazo, puerperio, aneurisma dell'arteria renale and gravidanza...
February 9, 2019: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738766/protective-effect-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-pvuii-transition-against-idiopathic-male-infertility-a-case-control-study-and-meta-analysis
#13
Narges Mobasseri, Hossein Nikzad, Mohammad Karimian
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there any genetic association between estrogen receptor alpha [ERα]-PvuII polymorphism and idiopathic male infertility? DESIGN: A total of 226 infertile and 213 fertile men participated in the present case-control study. ERα-PvuII genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism [PCR-RFLP] method. Meta-analysis was also performed by pooling data collected from seven other eligible studies identified by searches of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases...
January 23, 2019: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738601/-bibliometric-analysis-of-neurosurgery-publications-in-france
#14
E Emery
Bibliometrics are methods used to quantitatively analyze the scientific literature. The application of bibliometrics in neurosurgery is emerging and has not yet been studied in the French neurosurgical community. In France, the most used statistical method is named SIGAPS; the scores are based on the position of the author and the impact factor of the journal. The SIGAPS score, which can be calculated for a research team or an individual, impacts the public financial support of university hospitals in France...
February 6, 2019: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736035/the-scholarly-output-of-faculty-in-family-medicine-departments
#15
Winston Liaw, Stephen Petterson, Vivian Jiang, Andrew Bazemore, James Pecsok, Daniel McCorry, Bernard Ewigman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While prior efforts have assessed the scope of family medicine research, the methods have differed, and the efforts have not been routinely repeated. The purpose of this analysis was to quantify publications, journals, citations, and funding of US family medicine faculty and identify factors associated with these outcomes. METHODS: We identified faculty in US departments of family medicine through website searches and performed a cross-sectional study...
February 2019: Family Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733833/the-impact-of-diagnostic-criteria-for-gestational-diabetes-on-its-prevalence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Samira Behboudi-Gandevani, Mina Amiri, Razieh Bidhendi Yarandi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
Background: The absence of universal gold standards for screening of gestational diabetes (GDM) has led to heterogeneity in the identification of GDM, thereby impacting the accurate estimation of the prevalence of GDM. We aimed to evaluate the effect of different diagnostic criteria for GDM on its prevalence among general populations of pregnant women worldwide, and also to investigate the prevalence of GDM based on various geographic regions. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus and Google-scholar databases for retrieving articles in English investigating the prevalence of GDM...
2019: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732869/association-between-methylmercury-environmental-exposure-and-neurological-disorders-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Bruna Puty, Luana Ketlen Reis Leão, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Anna Paula Costa Ponte Sousa Carvalho Almeida, Nathália Carolina Fernandes Fagundes, Lucianne Cople Maia, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
The mercury-related central nervous system disorders have been extensively studied on animal models and human beings. However, clinical evidences of which neurological changes are in fact associated with mercury exposure remains controversial. This systematic review (Prospero registration under the number CRD42016041760) aimed to elucidate the association of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure with neurological alteration in populations living in MeHg-endemic risk area. A systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis criteria using available databases PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, OpenGrey and Google Scholar...
March 2019: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724679/what-makes-team-communication-effective-a-qualitative-analysis-of-interprofessional-primary-care-team-members-perspectives
#18
Linda Y Kim, Karleen F Giannitrapani, Alexis K Huynh, David A Ganz, Alison B Hamilton, Elizabeth M Yano, Lisa V Rubenstein, Susan E Stockdale
Although numerous scholars have emphasized the need for effective communication between members of interprofessional teams, few studies provide a clear understanding of what constitutes effective team communication in primary care settings, specifically where patient-centered medical home (PCMH) teams have been implemented. This paper describes the elements of effective communication as perceived by members of interprofessional PCMH primary care teams, and identifies elements of effective communication that have persisted over time...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723855/factors-associated-with-smoking-cessation-and-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries
#19
Sarah S Monshi, Michael T Halpern
To examined published literature describing the predictors of  smoking cessation (SC)  and cessation interventions in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Methods: Systematic literature review using PubMed, Google Scholar, and grey literature. The study was conducted between October and December of 2017. Inclusion criteria were studies reporting factors associated with SC or studies of utilization or delivery of SC medications in GCC countries. Results: Twenty-one articles met the study criteria. Thematic analysis revealed factors associated with SC that were classified as individual or clinician level...
February 2019: Saudi Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723448/management-of-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
Marta Bellofatto, Giovanna De Michele, Aniello Iovino, Alessandro Filla, Filippo M Santorelli
The term hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) embraces a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. There currently exist no specific therapies for HSP, and treatment is exclusively symptomatic, aimed at reducing muscle spasticity, and improving strength and gait. The authors set out to perform a comprehensive systematic review of the available scientific literature on the treatment of HSP, applying Cochrane Collaboration methods...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
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