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Definition of therapeutic effect

Ricky McCullough
BACKGROUND: -Due largely to the lack of effective therapeutic options, between 1973-2013, chemoradiation toxic mucositis (CRTM) has remained an uncapped expenditure for 40 years, with incremental costs of $17,000-$40,000 per patient per episode. Costs in patient morbidity and mortality have continued as well. A recent therapeutic option associated with complete prevention and/or rapid sustained elimination (high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate, HPPCLS) delivers value by eliminating downstream costs CRTM experienced in the first 12 months...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Insurance Medicine
Liang Dong, Richard C Zieren, Wei Xue, Theo M de Reijke, Kenneth J Pienta
Metastatic prostate cancer patients present in two ways-with already disseminated disease at the time of presentation or with disease recurrence after definitive local therapy. Androgen deprivation therapy is given as the most effective initial treatment to patients. However, after the initial response, almost all patients will eventually progress despite the low levels of testosterone. Disease at this stage is termed castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Before 2010, the taxane docetaxel was the first and only life prolonging agent for metastatic CRPC (mCRPC)...
January 2019: Asian Journal of Urology
Marziyeh Hajialyani, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Javier Echeverría, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Eugenio Uriarte, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez
Neuroprotection is the preservation of function and networks of neural tissues from damages caused by various agents, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's diseases, and multiple sclerosis. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside, is a natural phenolic compound with a wide range of biological effects. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that hesperidin possesses inhibitory effect against development of neurodegenerative diseases. Our review discusses neuropharmacological mechanisms for preventive and therapeutic effects of hesperidin in neurodegenerative diseases...
February 12, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yueqing Han, Lin Zhang, Wei Li, Xinran Liu, Jiao Xiao, Gang Chen, Ning Li
Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is one of the most serious complications of inflammatory bowel disease. The pathogenesis of CAC is complicated and so far elusive, and the anti-inflammatory effect does not assure CAC preventive activity, making it difficult to discover CAC preventive drugs. In this study, we report the CAC preventive effect of the ethyl acetate (EIR) of Ilex rotunda Thunb., a traditional Chinese herbal medicine being clinically used to treat intestinal disease. We also report the results of screening for CAC preventive agents from EIR via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) translocation model in Caco2 cells, since activated NF-κB can be used by tumor cells at the early stage of tumorigenesis...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Natural Medicines
Prarthana Kharod, Devendra Mishra, Monica Juneja
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), a condition in which seizures persist and seizure freedom is unlikely to be attained with further manipulation of anti-epileptic drugs, occurs in around 20% of children with epilepsy. This study was conducted with the aim to study the profile of Indian children with resistant epilepsy, using the new consensus definition of DRE. METHODS: All children who had been attending the Pediatric Neurology Clinic regularly for at least 6 months were reviewed between April and September 2015...
February 13, 2019: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Ismail Hadisoebroto Dilogo, Phedy Phedy, Erica Kholinne, Yoshi Pratama Djaja, Jessica Fiolin, Yuyus Kusnadi, Nyimas Diana Yulisa
INTRODUCTION: Critical-sized defect (CSD) is one of the most challenging cases for orthopaedic surgeons. We aim to explore the therapeutic potential of the combination of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), hydroxyapatite (HA) granules, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and internal fixation for treating CSDs. METHODS: This was a translational study performed during the period of January 2012 to 2016. Subjects were patients diagnosed with CSDs who had previously failed surgical attempts...
February 12, 2019: International Orthopaedics
Hyesung Lee, Inmyung Song, Sun Mi Shin, Han Eol Jeong, Eui-Kyung Lee, Ju-Young Shin
Duplicative drug use increases the risk of adverse drug reactions and expends healthcare resources unnecessarily. No epidemiological evidence of the prevalence of therapeutic duplication (TD) involving respiratory system drugs exists. Therefore, we describe the prescription patterns of these drugs and estimate changes in TD rates following implementation of a new regulation in 2013. A time-series analysis using national healthcare data was conducted, involving eight classes, and patients prescribed any of these drugs between 2012 and 2015...
February 8, 2019: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Byron Brook, Nelly Amenyogbe, Rym Ben-Othman, Bing Cai, Danny Harbeson, Freddy Francis, Aaron C Liu, Natallia Varankovich, James Wynn, Tobias R Kollmann
Neonatal sepsis remains a global burden. A preclinical model to screen effective prophylactic or therapeutic interventions is needed. Neonatal mouse polymicrobial sepsis can be induced by injecting cecal slurry intraperitoneally into day of life 7 mice and monitoring them for the following week. Presented here are the detailed steps necessary for the implementation of this neonatal sepsis model. This includes making a homogeneous cecal slurry stock, diluting it to a weight- and litter-adjusted dose, an outline of the monitoring schedule, and a definition of observed health categories used to define humane endpoints...
January 27, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Stephanie S Buss, Peter J Fried, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective pharmacological treatment. Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), are increasingly being investigated for their potential to ameliorate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). RECENT FINDINGS: A comprehensive literature review for primary research reports that investigated the ability of TMS/tES to improve cognition in ADRD patients yielded a total of 20 reports since 2016...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ashley D Radomski, Lori Wozney, Patrick McGrath, Anna Huguet, Lisa Hartling, Michele P Dyson, Kathryn Bennett, Amanda S Newton
BACKGROUND: Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) is a persuasive system as its design combines therapeutic content, technological features, and interactions between the user and the program to reduce anxiety for children and adolescents. How iCBT is designed and delivered differs across programs. Although iCBT is considered an effective approach for treating child and adolescent anxiety, rates of program use (eg, module completion) are highly variable for reasons that are not clear...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Vennila Ponnusamy, Ping K Yip
Neonates can develop hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to lack of blood supply or oxygen, resulting in a major cause of death and disability among term newborns. However, current definitive treatment of therapeutic hypothermia, will only benefit one out of nine babies. Furthermore, the mechanisms of HIE and therapeutic hypothermia are not fully understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have become of interest to many researchers due to their important role in post-transcriptional control and deep evolutionary history...
February 1, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Gilad Allon, Yinon Shapira, Itzchak Beiran, Eytan Z Blumenthal
PURPOSE: To describe a new technique for sealing small corneal perforations after penetrating trauma. METHODS: Corneal perforations in six eyes were sealed using a stromal cefuroxime hydration technique. This technique is identical to the current method used to seal leaking incisions upon completion of cataract surgery except for the use of cefuroxime instead of balanced salt solution. Additionally, cefuroxime was intentionally injected into the anterior chamber...
February 1, 2019: International Ophthalmology
Alvisa Palese, Lucia Cadorin, Marco Testa, Tommaso Geri, Luana Colloca, Giacomo Rossettini
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe contextual factors (CFs) used by nurses to increase placebo and to prevent nocebo effects. BACKGROUND: Placebo effects have been studied in the nursing discipline, but nocebo effects still remain unexplored. Recently, a set of CFs functioning as triggers of placebo/nocebo effects has been described; however, its use in daily care has never been documented to date. DESIGN: A national cross-sectional survey, according to the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys guidelines and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE), was performed in 2016...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Paul S Whiting, Daniel D Galat, Lewis G Zirkle, Michael K Shaw, Jeremiah D Galat
OBJECTIVES: 1) To determine the infection rate following fixation of open tibial shaft fractures using the Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) intramedullary nail in low- and middle-income countries; and 2) to identify risk factors for infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study using an international online database. SETTING: Multiple hospitals in low- and middle-income countries worldwide. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1061 open tibia fractures treated with the SIGN nail in low- and middle-income countries between March 2000 and February 2013...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
John Strang, Michael Kelleher, Soraya Mayet, Ed Day, Jennifer Hellier, Sarah Byford, Caroline Murphy, Blair McLennan, James Shearer, Elizabeth Ryan, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: People recovering from heroin addiction need better treatments than are currently offered. The chronic relapsing nature of drug dependence means that helping a patient to achieve abstinence is often difficult. Naltrexone blocks the effects of ingested heroin; however, evidence is conflicting regarding the best delivery method. OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of the trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone versus standard oral naltrexone versus relapse prevention therapy without medication for opioid use disorder (OUD)...
January 2019: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Yu-Jen Huang, Chih-Yuan Lee, Jerry Cao, Hsuan-Shu Lee, Chih-Hao Chang, Po-Da Chen, Yao-Ming Wu
Acute liver failure is a life-threatening condition that rapidly progresses to loss of liver function. Currently, liver transplantation is the most definitive treatment for this entity, but suitable organs are at a significant shortage. Therefore, developing a clinically viable approach to gain additional waiting time before liver transplantation can be performed remains a top clinical priority. Umbilical cord blood plasma (UCBP), being traditionally regarded as biological waste, is now perceived as a rich reservoir of various significant biomolecules...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Youn Ju Lee, Mi-Sun Shu, Jong-Yeon Kim, Yun-Hye Kim, Kyeong Hwa Sim, Woo Jung Sung, Jong Ryeol Eun
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a worldwide health problem and hepatocyte apoptosis has been associated with the development/progression of ALD. However, no definite effective pharmacotherapy for ALD is currently available. Cilostazol, a selective type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor has been shown to protect hepatocytes from ethanol-induced apoptosis. In the present study, the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of cilostazol were examined. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with ethanol in the presence or absence of cilostazol...
2019: PloS One
Cengiz Yuksel, Seyit Ankarali, Nehir Aslan Yuksel
The strong magnetic field properties of magnets have led to their use in many modern technologies, as well as in the fields of medicine and dentistry. Neodymium magnets are a powerful type of magnet that has been the subject of recent research. This review provides a brief explanation of the definition, history, and characteristics of rare earth magnets. In addition, a broad overview of results obtained in studies performed to date on the effects of magnets, and neodymium magnets in particular, on body systems, tissues, organs, diseases, and treatment is provided...
September 2018: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
Brandon J Griffin, Natalie Purcell, Kristine Burkman, Brett T Litz, Craig J Bryan, Martha Schmitz, Claudia Villierme, Jessica Walsh, Shira Maguen
Individuals who are exposed to traumatic events that violate their moral values may experience severe distress and functional impairments known as "moral injuries." Over the last decade, moral injury has captured the attention of mental health care providers, spiritual and faith communities, media outlets, and the general public. Research about moral injury, especially among military personnel and veterans, has also proliferated. For this article, we reviewed scientific research about moral injury...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Traumatic Stress
S Imindu Liyanage, Prachi Vilekar, Donald F Weaver
In recent decades, clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed at an unprecedented rate. The etiology of AD has since come under renewed scrutiny, both to elucidate the underlying pathologies and to identify novel therapeutic strategies. Here, diet has emerged as a potential causative/protective agent. A variety of nutrients, including lipids, minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and sugars as well as broader dietary patterns and microbiotal interactions have demonstrated associations with AD. Although clinical trials have yet to definitively implicate any singular dietary element as therapeutic or causative, it is apparent that dietary preferences, likely in complex synergies, may influence the risk, onset and course of AD...
January 2019: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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