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Food additive

Hai Du, Xueshan Wang, Yuhang Zhang, Yan Xu
Many traditional fermented foods and beverages in both eastern and western countries are produced with the addition of starter cultures. Daqu is the undefined starter used for Chinese liquor, which contributed many fermentation functional fungal and bacterial communities to liquor fermentation process. However, the sources of these microbial communities and how these microorganisms formed in Daqu are still unclear. In this study, high-throughput sequencing combined with microbial source tracking analysis were applied to analyze the sources of the microbial communities in Daqu...
February 28, 2019: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Russell J Erickson, David R Mount, Terry L Highland, J Russell Hockett, Dale J Hoff, Correne T Jenson, Tylor J Lahren
The effects on juvenile rainbow trout survival, growth, food consumption, and food conversion efficiency from dietborne exposures to inorganic arsenic (arsenite, arsenate) and to the organoarsenicals monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB) were investigated in two experiments: (1) a 28-d exposure using live diets of oligochaete worms separately exposed via water to these five arsenic compounds and (2) a 56-d exposure using pellet diets prepared from commercial fish food to which arsenite, MMA, or DMA were added...
March 5, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Jonathan L Chua, Lee Ching Ng, Vernon J Lee, Marcus E H Ong, Er Luen Lim, Hoon Chin Steven Lim, Chee Kheong Ooi, Arif Tyebally, Eillyne Seow, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Identifying the source of an outbreak facilitates its control. Spatial methods are not optimally used in outbreak investigation, due to a mix of the complexities involved (e.g., methods requiring additional parameter selection), imperfect performance, and lack of confidence in existing options. We simulated 30 mock outbreaks and compared 5 simple methods that do not require parameter selection but could select between mock cases' residential and workplace addresses to localize the source. Each category of site had a unique spatial distribution; residential and workplace address were visually and statistically clustered around the residential neighborhood and city center sites respectively, suggesting that the value of workplace addresses is tied to the location where an outbreak might originate...
March 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Dave L Dixon, Lauren G Pamulapati, John D Bucheit, Evan M Sisson, Shawn R Smith, Caroline J Kim, George F Wohlford, Jonah Pozen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is caused by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although statins significantly reduce ASCVD risk, there remains a high degree of residual risk in statin-treated patients. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition has emerged as a significant therapeutic target for further lowering of LDL-C when used in combination with statins. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent evidence supporting the use of PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with ASCVD...
March 16, 2019: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Yi Wan, Jihong Yuan, Jie Li, Hao Li, Jingjing Zhang, Jun Tang, Yan Ni, Tao Huang, Fenglei Wang, Feng Zhao, Duo Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Observational studies have shown that diets high in fat and low in dietary fiber, might have an unfavorable impact on bile acid (BA) profiles, which might further affect host cardiometabolic health. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary fat content on BA profiles and associated gut microbiota, and their correlates with cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: In a randomized controlled-feeding trial, healthy young adults were assigned to one of the three diets: a lower-fat diet (fat 20%, carbohydrate 66% and protein 14%), a moderate-fat diet (fat 30%, carbohydrate 56% and protein 14%) and a higher-fat diet (fat 40%, carbohydrate 46% and protein 14%) for 6 months...
February 27, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kok Ming Goh, M Maulidiani, R Rudiyanto, Yu Hua Wong, May Yen Ang, Wooi Meng Yew, Faridah Abas, Oi Ming Lai, Yonghua Wang, Chin Ping Tan
The technique of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is widely used to generate spectral data for use in the detection of food contaminants. Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) is a refining process-induced contaminant that is found in palm-based fats and oils. In this study, a chemometric approach was used to evaluate the relationship between the FTIR spectra and the total MCPD content of a palm-based cooking oil. A total of 156 samples were used to develop partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (nnet), average artificial neural network (avNNET), random forest (RF) and cubist models...
June 1, 2019: Talanta
Cheng Peng, Evelien R van Meel, Andres Cardenas, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Abhijeet R Sonawane, Kimberly R Glass, Diane R Gold, Thomas A Platts-Mills, Xihong Lin, Emily Oken, Marie-France Hivert, Andrea A Baccarelli, Nicolette W de Jong, Janine F Felix, Vincent W Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts, Augusto A Litonjua, Dawn L DeMeo
Epigenetic mechanisms integrate both genetic variability and environmental exposures. However, comprehensive epigenome-wide analysis has not been performed across major childhood allergic phenotypes. We examined the association of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in mid-childhood peripheral blood (Illumina HumanMethyl450 Beadchip) with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, and environmental/inhalant and food allergen sensitization as intermediate phenotypes in 739 children in two birth cohorts (Project Viva-Boston, Massachusetts and the Generation R Study-Rotterdam, the Netherland)...
March 15, 2019: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Yajun Liu, Xia Luo, Hao Shan, Yuanyuan Fu, Qianqian Gu, Xueping Zheng, Qi Dai, Fan Xia, Zhihua Zheng, Peiqing Liu, Xiao-Ming Yin, Liang Hong, Min Li
Autophagy is a highly- evolutionarily-conserved catabolic pathway activated by various cellular stresses. Recently, non-canonical autophagy (NCA), which does not require all of the ATG proteins to form autophagosome or autophagosome-like structures, has been found in various conditions. Moreover, mounting evidence has indicated that non-canonical LC3 lipidation (NCLL) may reflect NCA. We and others have reported that niclosamide (Nic), an anti-helminthic drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration, could induce canonical autophagy via a feedback downregulation of mTOR complex 1...
March 15, 2019: Cells
Thembisile G Khoza, Ian A Dubery, Lizelle A Piater
The impact of fungal diseases on crop production negatively reflects on sustainable food production and overall economic health. Ergosterol is the major sterol component in fungal membranes and regarded as a general elicitor or microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule. Although plant responses to ergosterol have been reported, the perception mechanism is still unknown. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana protein fractions were used to identify those differentially regulated following ergosterol treatment; additionally, they were subjected to affinity-based chromatography enrichment strategies to capture and categorize ergosterol-interacting candidate proteins using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Benjamin Opuko Wayumba, Hyung Sic Choi, Lim Young Seok
Quality evaluations in potatoes are of necessity to meet the strict demands of the chip processing industry. Important parameters assessed include specific gravity, dry matter content, chip color, reducing sugars, and glycoalkaloids. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying specialized potato clones with acceptable qualities for processing chips, in comparison with two selected control varieties, Dubaek and Superior. As a result, high dry matter and specific gravity were observed for three potato clones, and the quantified ά-solanine levels ranged from 0...
March 14, 2019: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Syed Hamzeh Hosseini, Yanni Papanikolaou, Naorin Isalm, Patil Rashmi, Arash Shamloo, Hassan Vatanparast
The current analyses used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition 2015 to investigate grain-based food (GBF) dietary patterns of consumptions among 6,400,000 Canadian children and adolescents 2 to 18 years old. Nutrient intakes, socioeconomic differences, body mass index (BMI) z -scores, and intakes of several food groups were examined across the identified grain patterns of consumption. We employed k -mean cluster analysis to identify the consumption patterns of grain products. Based on the contributions of 21 grain food groups to the total energy intake of each individual, seven GBF consumption patterns were identified including other bread; salty snacks; pasta; rice; cakes and cookies; white bread; and mixed grains...
March 14, 2019: Nutrients
Raquel Torrijos, Tiago M Nazareth, Júlia Pérez, Jordi Mañes, Giuseppe Meca
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced in the secondary metabolism of fungus belonging to the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium . In this study, the employment of oriental mustard flour (OMF) as an ingredient in a packaged sauce was evaluated for the generation in situ of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in order to preserve pita bread contaminated with Penicillium verrucosum VTT D-01847, an OTA producer, in an active packaging system. Four different concentrations (8, 16, 33 and 50 mg/g) were tested...
March 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tae-Rang Seo, Inil Lee, Yong-Gi Chun, Dong-June Park, Sang-Hoon Lee, Bum-Keun Kim
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 , is a recognized therapeutic agent for treatment of bone diseases and cancer. However, instability and poor bioavailability have been major challenges for delivering Vitamin D3 . The objective of this study was to formulate improved nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) vitamin D3 emulsions. We tested the effect of different carrier oils and the use of a solid lipid nanoparticle emulsifier, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the stability of the vitamin D3 emulsions...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Food Science
Maryam Koopaie, Mahnaz Fatahzadeh, Sana Jahangir, Ronak Bakhtiari
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is considered the most common infectious disease in humans worldwide. Cariogenesis is the outcome of a complex interaction between the host's oral flora and diet. The consumption of snacks such as cake, which have the potential to promote dental caries, has increased. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including probiotic bacteria (Bacillus coagulans - B. coagulans) in consumed snack cake on the Streptococcus mutans (S...
March 15, 2019: Dental and Medical Problems
Zhongfei Zhang, Puyu Yang, Boyan Gao, Guoren Huang, Man Liu, Liangli Lucy Yu
A novel synthetic route was developed and utilized to synthesize six high purity 2-monochloropropanediol fatty acid esters (2-MCPD esters), a group of potential processing-induced food contaminants. A chlorine atom was introduced to C-2 of a diethyl malonate molecule, which was reduced by NaBH4 and followed by esterification using fatty acids. The reaction products were isolated and purified using silica gel columns to obtain three 2-MCPD monoesters and three diesters at about 50%-54% and 56%-59% yields, respectively...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sehan Jeong, Woo Young Kwon, Sung Hyun Hwang, Jiye Shin, Yonghwan Kim, Miran Lee, Ki Soo Park
A new method has been developed for the simple, fluorescence, turn-on detection of melamine, which utilizes DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) as a key component. In the sensor, melamine exhibits the dual functions: one is to enhance the fluorescence signal of DNA-AgNCs by its specific interaction with thymine residues in DNA template, and the other is to prevent Hg(II)-induced fluorescence quenching of DNA-AgNCs via its strong coordination with Hg(II). These consequently enable the sensitive and selective detection of melamine...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Daniel J Becker, Cecilia Nachtmann, Hernan D Argibay, Germán Botto, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Jorge E Carrera, Carlos Tello, Erik Winiarski, Alex D Greenwood, Maria L Méndez-Ojeda, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Anne Lavergne, Benoit de Thoisy, Gábor Á Czirják, Raina K Plowright, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G Streicker
Quantifying how the environment shapes host immune defense is important for understanding which wild populations may be more susceptible or resistant to pathogens. Spatial variation in parasite risk, food and predator abundance, and abiotic conditions can each affect immunity, and these factors can also manifest at both local and biogeographic scales. Yet identifying predictors and the spatial scale of their effects is limited by the rarity of studies that measure immunity across many populations of broadly distributed species...
March 15, 2019: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Jesper S Krog, Lars E Larsen, Solvej Ø Breum
Pigs are considered the main reservoir of genotypes 3 and 4 of the human pathogen hepatitis E virus (HEV). These viruses are prevalent at a high level in swine herds globally, meaning that consumers may be exposed to HEV from the food chain if the virus is present in pigs at slaughter. The aim of this study was to determine the HEV infection dynamics from birth to slaughter using 104 pigs from 11 sows in a single production system. Serum was collected from sows at 2 weeks prior to farrowing, in addition feces and serum samples were collected from the pigs every second week, from week 1 to week 17...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Guochao Shi, Mingli Wang, Yanying Zhu, Yuhong Wang, Xiaoya Yan, Xin Sun, Haijun Xu, Wanli Ma
In this work, we report a biomimetic synthesis route of 3D Ag nanofilm/glasswing butterfly wing hybrids (Ag-G.b.) by magnetron sputtering technology. The 3D surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is fabricated from an original chitin-based nanostructure, which serves as a bio-scaffold for Ag nanofilms to be coated on. The novel crisscrossing plate-like nanostructures of 3D Ag-G.b. nanohybrids with thick Ag nanofilms provide a substantial contribution to SERS enhancement. Measuring the SERS performance with crystal violet (CV), the Ag-G...
2019: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Nuria Salas-Massó, Quyen Than Linh, Wai Hoe Chin, Anders Wolff, Karl B Andree, M Dolors Furones, María José Figueras, Dang Duong Bang
The genus Arcobacter (Vandamme et al., 1991), comprised of Campylobacter -related species, are considered zoonotic emergent pathogens. The presence of Arcobacter in food products like shellfish, has an elevated incidence worldwide. In this study, we developed a specific viable quantitative PCR (v-qPCR), using the dye propidium monoazide (PMA), for quantification of the viable Arcobacter spp. cells in raw oysters and mussels. The high selectivity of primers was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 38 different species, 20 of them from the genus Arcobacter ...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
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