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Reversible process

Junyi Zeng, Jingjing Zhao, Bin Dong, Xingming Cai, Jingzhou Jiang, Ruicong Xue, Fengjuan Yao, Yugang Dong, Chen Liu
Oxidative stress is considered an important pathogenic process of cardiac hypertrophy. Lycopene is a kind of carotenoid antioxidant that protects the cardiovascular system, so we hypothesized that lycopene might inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by attenuating oxidative stress. Phenylephrine and pressure overload were used to set up the hypertrophic models in vitro and in vivo respectively. Our data revealed that treatment with lycopene can significantly block pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in in vitro and in vivo studies...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Zhilin Zhang, Guoxin Guo, Jian Zhang, Chunlin Li, Qiang Huang, Ritsu Go, Tianyi Yan, Hidenao Fukuyama, Shintaro Funahashi, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has indicated that the mismatch negativity (MMN) is elicited in response to a discernible small change of a somatosensory stimulus applied on the hand. However, the neural mechanism for detecting small change of somatosensory stimulus remains unknown. In the present study, we developed a novel pressure stimulation device using air jet applied on the index finger pad, and determined the just noticeable differences (JNDs) of pressure discrimination for each subject. Using the deviant-standard-reversed oddball paradigm, we analyzed the average dynamic changes in MMN amplitude and changes of evoked spectral power...
February 13, 2019: Biological Psychology
Aurora Scrivo, Patrice Codogno, Pascale Bomont
Autophagy is an essential self-digestion machinery for cell survival and homoeostasis. Membrane elongation is fundamental, as it drives the formation of the double-membrane vesicles that engulf cytosolic material. LC3-lipidation, the signature of autophagosome formation, results from a complex ubiquitin-conjugating cascade orchestrated by the ATG16L1 protein, whose regulation is unknown. Here, we identify the Gigaxonin-E3 ligase as the first regulator of ATG16L1 turn-over and autophagosome production. Gigaxonin interacts with the WD40 domain of ATG16L1 to drive its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Zhanjun Ma, Xue Cui, Li Lu, Guohu Chen, Yang Yang, Yan Hu, Yubao Lu, Zhangqi Cao, Yan Wang, Xuexi Wang
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanoscale membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells, and cancer cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the cross-talk between cancer cells and other cellular components in the tumor microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have tropism for tumors and have been used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy; however, the safety of such therapeutic use of MSCs is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of glioma cell-derived exosomes in the tumor-like phenotype transformation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 15, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Simon Guerrero-Cruz, Karin Stultiens, Maartje A H J van Kessel, Wouter Versantvoort, Mike S M Jetten, Huub J M Op den Camp, Boran Kartal
Nitrite-dependent methane-oxidizing bacteria couple the reduction of nitrite to the oxidation of methane via a unique oxygen-producing pathway. This process is carried out by genus Methylomirabilis bacteria that belong to the NC10 phylum. Contrary to other known anaerobic methane oxidizers, they do not employ the reverse methanogenesis pathway for methane activation, but a canonical particulate methane monooxygenase similar to those used by aerobic methanotrophs. Methylomirabilis -like bacteria are detected in many natural and manmade ecosystems, but their physiology is not well understood...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ioannis Sokolakis, Fotios Dimitriadis, Pearline Teo, Georgios Hatzichristodoulou, Dimitrios Hatzichristou, Francois Giuliano
INTRODUCTION: Despite recent promising clinical results, the underlying mechanism of action of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) for erectile dysfunction (ED) is mostly unclear and currently under investigation. AIM: To systematically identify and evaluate evidence regarding the basic science behind Li-ESWT for ED, discuss and propose a putative mechanism of action, address the limitations, and imply insights for further investigation in the field...
February 2019: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ning Li, X Cao, Tianci Of Chang, Shiwei Long, Ping Jin
Pursuing excellent photochromic (PC) property is still a longstanding challenge for energy-efficient smart coatings. Herein, we have prepared a novel series of self-coated crystalline WO3-amorphous WO3-x homojunction by one-step hydrothermal process, in which oxalic acid was used for a capping agent to prevent polycondenstation and crystallization of [WO6]. The as-prepared nanopowders have large specific surface area and rich surface electron, which lead to a dramatic photochromic property reaching up to △Tsol=64...
February 15, 2019: Nanotechnology
Naseer Ahmad, Priyanka Kushwaha, Anirudha Karvande, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Priyanka Kothari, Sulekha Adhikary, Vikram Khedgikar, Vijay Kumar Mishra, Ritu Trivedi
Post-menopausal condition augments the biological aging process, characterized by multiple metabolic disorders in which bone loss is the most prevalent outcome and usually coupled with sarcopenia. Coexistence of such associated pathogenesis have much worse health outcomes, compared to individuals with osteoporosis only. Pre- and post-natal bone development demands calcium from mother to fetus during pregnancy and lactation leading to a significant maternal skeletal loss. It follows an anabolic phase around weaning during which there is a notable recovery of the maternal skeleton...
January 10, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Ashutosh Kumar, Kusum Harjai, Sanjay Chhibber
Enterobacterial pathogens that have acquired antibiotic resistance genes are a leading cause of community and hospital acquired infections. In such a situation vaccination is considered as a better option to prevent such infections. In the current study reverse vaccinology approach has been used to select peptides from already known immunogenic proteins to design a chimeric construct. We selected Yersiniabactin receptor of Escherichia coli UMN026 and Flagellin of Stenotrophomonas maltophila. B-cell linear epitopes were predicted using Bepipred prediction tool...
February 12, 2019: Human Immunology
Daranporn Triwongwaranat, Rattapon Thuangtong, Sittiroj Arunkajohnsak
Hair pigmentation is regulated by follicular melanogenesis, in which the process consists of melanin formation and transfer to keratinocytes in the hair shaft. Human hair follicles contain two types of melanin: the brown-black eumelanin and yellow-red pheomelanin. Eumelanin is commonly present in black and brown hair while pheomelanin is found in auburn and blonde hair. Hair follicle melanogenesis is under cyclical control and is concurrently coupled to hair growth. Many factors including intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect the follicular melanogenesis...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Dermatology
Caio Jordão Teixeira, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Alex Rafacho, Gabriel Forato Anhe, Silvana Bordin
Pancreatic islets from pregnant rats develop a transitory increase in the pancreatic β-cell proliferation rate and mass. Increased apoptosis during early lactation contributes to the rapid reversal of those morphological changes. Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during pregnancy has been previously reported to impair insulin secretion, but its impacts on pancreatic islet morphological changes during pregnancy and lactation have not been described. To address this issue, we assessed the morphological and molecular characteristics of pancreatic islets from rats that underwent undisturbed pregnancy (CTL) or were treated with dexamethasone between the 14th and 19th days of pregnancy (DEX)...
February 1, 2019: Endocrine Connections
Cristian Fernandez-Oto, Omer Tzuk, Ehud Meron
Degradation processes in living systems often take place gradually by front propagation. An important context of such processes is loss of biological productivity in drylands or desertification. Using a dryland-vegetation model, we analyze the stability and dynamics of desertification fronts, identify linear and nonlinear front instabilities, and highlight the significance of these instabilities in inducing self-recovery. The results are based on the derivation and analysis of a universal amplitude equation for pattern-forming living systems for which nonuniform instabilities cannot emerge from the nonviable (zero) state...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Akihiro Nishiguchi, Tetsushi Taguchi
An injectable bone may serve as a minimally invasive therapy for large orthopedic defects and osteoporosis and an alternative to allografting and surgical treatment. However, conventional bone substitutes lack the desirable biodegradability, bioresponsibility, and functionality to regulate the bone regeneration process. Here, we report an injectable, bioresponsive bone composed of bisphosphonate-modified nanocellulose (pNC) as a bone substitute for bone regeneration. Composites composed of nano-fibrillated cellulose and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) mimic bone structures in which apatite reinforces collagen fibrils...
February 15, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Jongwook W Heo, Munseok S Chae, Jooeun Hyoung, Seung-Tae Hong
Rhombohedral potassium-zinc hexacyanoferrate K1.88 Zn2.88 [Fe(CN)6 ]2 (H2 O)5 (KZnHCF) synthesized using a precipitation method is demonstrated as a high-voltage cathode material for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs), exhibiting an initial discharge capacity of 55.6 mAh g-1 with a discharge voltage of 3.9 V versus K/K+ and a capacity retention of ∼95% after 100 cycles in a nonaqueous electrolyte. All K ions are extracted from the structure upon the initial charge process. However, only 1.61 out of 1.88 K ions per formula unit are inserted back into the structure upon discharge, and it becomes the reversible ion of the second cycle onward...
February 15, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Jihane Sebai
Given the changing needs of the user, the model of public service administration that was once constructed in ignorance of the user and his concerns no longer finds its place. There is therefore mention of a reversal of trends and a modernization of public institutions and structures based on a reflective approach that over-emphasizes the user's place in the system as beneficiary, recipient and partner of the care service. The participation and the viewpoint of the user constitute therefore a very important stake in the improvement of the quality of the care and the evaluation of the health technologies...
September 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Alexander J Watts, Kenneth B Storey
During winter hibernation in mammals, body temperature falls to near-ambient levels, metabolism shifts to favor lipid oxidation, and metabolic rate is strongly suppressed by inhibiting many ATP-expensive processes (e.g., transcription, translation) for animals in order to survive for many months on limited reserves of body fuels. Regulation of such profound changes (i.e., metabolic rate depression) requires rapid and reversible controls provided by protein posttranslational modifications. Protein lysine methylation provides one mechanism by which the functionality, activity, and stability of cellular proteins and enzymes can be modified for the needs of the hibernator...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Haimin Zhang, Guoqiang Liu, Zhiqing Cui, Miaomiao Han, Shengbo Zhang, Cuijiao Zhao, Chun Chen, Guozhong Wang
Electrosynthesis of NH3 from N2 reduction reaction (NRR) at ambient conditions has been regarded as a promising technology to replace the industrial energy and capital intensive Haber-Bosch process. Here we report a room-temperature spontaneous redox approach to fabricate core-shell structure Au@CeO2 composite with Au nanoparticle sizes below ~10 nm and loading amount of 3.6 wt.% for the NRR. The results demonstrate that the as-synthesized Au@CeO2 possesses a surface area of 40.7 m2 g-1 and porous structure, as electrocatalyst exhibiting high NRR activity with a NH3 yield rate of 28...
February 14, 2019: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chaozhu Shu, Jiazhao Wang, Jianping Long, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi-Xue Dou
The aprotic lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) battery has excited huge interest due to it having the highest theoretical energy density among the different types of rechargeable battery. The facile achievement of a practical Li-O2 battery has been proven unrealistic, however. The most significant barrier to progress is the limited understanding of the reaction processes occurring in the battery, especially during the charging process on the positive electrode. Thus, understanding the charging mechanism is of crucial importance to enhance the Li-O2 battery performance and lifetime...
February 15, 2019: Advanced Materials
Sereana Wan, Folkert Kuipers, Rick Havinga, Hiromi Ando, Dennis E Vance, René L Jacobs, Jelske N van der Veen
Phosphatidylethanolamine N -methyltransferase (PEMT) is a hepatic integral membrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PEMT catalyzes approximately 30% of hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis. Pemt-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop steatohepatitis. Interestingly, portions of the ER located close to the canaliculus are enriched in PEMT. Phospholipid balance and asymmetrical distribution by adenosine triphosphatase phospholipid transporting 8B1 (ATP8B1) on the canalicular membrane is required for membrane integrity and biliary processes...
February 2019: Hepatology Communications
Xiang-Bo Ji, Jun Luo, Xiu-Li Feng, Qiu-Liang Xu, Teng Man, Dong Zhao, Xin-Feng Li, Gai-Ping Zhang, Pu-Yan Chen
Background: In the recent past, many studies have been focused on extracts of BF and multiple biologically active factors and their effects on humoral immune system in chickens and birds. However, the mechanism of those immunomodulatory peptides on the B lineage cells proliferation and antibody production in chicken is fairly unknown. DT40 cell line, an avian leucosis virus-induced chicken pre-B cell line, expresses immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype B cell reporter in the plasma membrane...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
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