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Fred Pampel, Myriam Khlat, Damien Bricard, Stéphane Legleye
Introduction: Immigrants in the United States are less likely to smoke than those born in the U.S, but studies have not fully described the diversity of their smoking patterns. We investigate smoking by world region of birth and duration of residence in the United States, with a comprehensive approach covering current prevalence levels, education gradients, and male-to-female ratios. Methods: The data originate from the National Health Interview Surveys, 2000-2015, and the sample of 365,404 includes both U...
February 13, 2019: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
James Gilbert, Nicole Pearcy, Rupert Norman, Thomas Millat, Klaus Winzer, John King, Charlie Hodgman, Nigel Minton, Jamie Twycross
Motivation: Genome scale metabolic models (GSMMs) are increasingly important for systems biology and metabolic engineering research as they are capable of simulating complex steady-state behaviour. Constraints based models of this form can include thousands of reactions and metabolites, with many crucial pathways that only become activated in specific simulation settings. However, despite their widespread use, power and the availability of tools to aid with the construction and analysis of large scale models, little methodology is suggested for their continued management...
February 13, 2019: Bioinformatics
Rhonda Bacher
In this chapter, we describe a robust normalization method for single-cell RNA sequencing data. The procedure, SCnorm, is implemented in R and is part of Bioconductor. Also included in the package are diagnostic functions to visualize normalization performance. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology and provides example work-flows.
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Susy Piovesana
This trends article describes the analytical approaches for the in-depth characterization of the protein corona on liposome nanoparticles. In particular, examples since 2014 are summarized according to the analytical approach. Traditional protein corona characterizations from in vitro static experiments are provided along with the newly introduced experimental setups for characterization of the protein corona by in vitro dynamic and in vivo studies. Additionally, a special attention is also devoted to the need for introduction of new experimental workflows for characterization of a much wider array of biomolecules...
February 13, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Carolyn Cobbold
This essay describes how the Victorian media reported on the transformation of coal tar into a synthetic palette of colours in the form of aniline and azo dyes. These dyes were the first of many new chemical substances including drugs, perfumes, and flavourings, which chemists began to synthesise and produce on an industrial scale from a waste product of the coal gas industry. Although intended for use in the textile industry, the new dyes soon began to be added to food, becoming one of the first examples of laboratory-created, industrially manufactured chemicals to permeate our daily life in unexpected ways...
February 13, 2019: Ambix
Pengbo Cao, Xueming Wei, Ram Prasad Awal, Rolf Müller, Daniel Wall
Self-recognition underlies sociality in many group-living organisms. In bacteria, cells use various strategies to recognize kin to form social groups and, in some cases, to transition into multicellular life. One strategy relies on a single genetic locus that encodes a variable phenotypic tag ("greenbeard") for recognizing other tag bearers. Previously, we discovered a polymorphic cell surface receptor called TraA that directs self-identification through homotypic interactions in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus Recognition by TraA leads to cellular resource sharing in a process called outer membrane exchange (OME)...
February 12, 2019: MBio
Mirelis Santos-Cancel, Laura Walker Simpson, Jennie B Leach, Ryan J White
In this manuscript, we describe the development and application of electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors directly interfaced with astrocytes in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture to monitor stimulated release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The aptamer-based sensor couples specific detection of ATP, selective performance directly in cell culture media, and seconds time resolution using squarewave voltammetry for quantitative ATP-release measurements. More specifically, we demonstrate the ability to quantitatively monitor ATP release into the extracellular environment after stimulation by the addition of calcium (Ca2+), ionomycin, and glutamate...
February 12, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Igor Burstyn, Kathryn Anastos
When using repeated measures linear regression models to make causal inference in laboratory, clinical and environmental research, it is typically assumed that the within-subject association of differences (or changes) in predictor variable values across replicates is the same as the between-subject association of differences in those predictor variable values. However, this is often false. For example, with body weight as the predictor variable and blood cholesterol (which increases with higher body fat) as the outcome: (i) a 10-lb weight increase in the same adult affects more greatly an increase in cholesterol in that adult than does (ii) one adult weighing 10 lbs more than a second indicate higher cholesterol in the heavier adult...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sukuan Hou, Michael Cydylo, Melinda Danowitz, Nikos Solounias
We are describing and figuring for the first time skulls of Schansitherium tafeli, which are abundant in the Gansu area of China from the Late Miocene. They were animals about the size of Samotherium with shorter necks that had two pairs of ossicones that merge at the base, which is unlike Samotherium. The anterior ossicones consist of anterior lineations, which may represent growth lines. They were likely mixed feeders similar to Samotherium. Schansitherium is tentatively placed in a very close position to Samotherium...
2019: PloS One
Jasmijn A van Balveren, Wilhelmine P H G Verboeket-van de Venne, Lale Erdem-Eraslan, Albert J de Graaf, Annemarieke E Loot, Ruben E A Musson, Wytze P Oosterhuis, Martin P Schuijt, Heleen van der Sijs, Rolf J Verheul, Holger K de Wolf, Ron Kusters, Rein M J Hoedemakers
Background Knowledge of possible drug-laboratory test interactions (DLTIs) is important for the interpretation of laboratory test results. Test results may be affected by physiological or analytical drug effects. Failure to recognize these interactions may lead to misinterpretation of test results, a delayed or erroneous diagnosis or unnecessary extra tests or therapy, which may harm patients. Content Thousands of interactions have been reported in the literature, but are often fragmentarily described and some papers even reported contradictory findings...
February 12, 2019: Diagnosis
David M Corbett, Alice J Sweeting, Sam Robertson
In team-sport, physical and skilled output is often described via aggregate parameters including total distance and number of skilled involvements. However, the degree to which these output change throughout a team-sport match, as a function of time, is relatively unknown. This study aimed to identify and describe segments of physical and skilled output in team-sport matches with an example in Australian Football. The relationship between the number of change points and level of similarity was also quantified...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
K Le Roux, J Kotze, K Perrett
Hope exists for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies in Africa. Momentum is gathering towards this goal, with an increasing number of successful demonstration projects showing that elimination is feasible. The Pan African Rabies Control Network is bringing Africa together against rabies, supported by the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, which have a combined resolution to eliminate human deaths from dog-transmitted rabies by 2030...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Hans-Georg Evers, John K Pinnegar, Martin I Taylor
The global trade in ornamental fish involves c. 125 countries worldwide and is worth c. US $15-30 billion each year. This total is dominated (90%) by freshwater fishes, most of which are sourced from breeding facilities located in developing countries, typically in Asia or South America, but also in Israel, USA and Europe. Some fish are obtained from natural (wild) sources in Asia and South America, but the exact percentage of wild-caught fish is difficult to quantify given a lack of reliable data. Although c...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Fish Biology
P Besbeas, B J T Morgan
Integrated population modelling is widely used in statistical ecology. It allows data from population time series and independent surveys to be analysed simultaneously. In classical analysis the time-series likelihood component can be conveniently approximated using Kalman filter methodology. However, the natural way to model systems which have a discrete state space is to use hidden Markov models (HMMs). The proposed method avoids the Kalman filter approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. Subject to possible numerical sensitivity analysis, it is exact, flexible, and allows the use of standard techniques of classical inference...
February 12, 2019: Biometrics
Mohamed Hsairi, Faouzi Mehdi, Ridha Bellaaj, Mondher Kassis
BACKGROUND: The aim of screening is to improve individual health through an early detection of diseases at a stage where the prognosis of disease could be significantly. However, this kind of intervention is costly and it's necessary to respect criteria in selection of targeted diseases and screening tests. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe public health screening policy in the Maghreb countries in order to identify the main barriers to the development of this type of intervention...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Tycho Heimbach, Sandra Suarez-Sharp, Maziar Kakhi, Nico Holmstock, Andrés Olivares-Morales, Xavier Pepin, Erik Sjögren, Eleftheria Tsakalozou, Paul Seo, Min Li, Xinyuan Zhang, Ho-Pi Lin, Timothy Montague, Amitava Mitra, Denise Morris, Nikunjkumar Patel, Filippos Kesisoglou
This publication summarizes the proceedings of day 2 of a 3-day workshop on "Dissolution and Translational Modeling Strategies Enabling Patient-Centric Product Development." Patient-centric drug product development from a drug product quality perspective necessitates the establishment of clinically relevant drug product specifications via an in vitro-in vivo link. Modeling and simulation offer a path to establish this link; in this regard, physiologically based modeling has been implemented successfully to support regulatory decision-making and drug product labeling...
February 11, 2019: AAPS Journal
Jan Vicente, Jaime Andrés Ríos, Sven Zea, Robert J Toonen
Neopetrosia proxima (Porifera: Demospongiae: Haplosclerida) is described as a morphologically variable sponge common on shallow reefs of the Caribbean. However, the range of morphological and reproductive variation within putative N. proxima led us to hypothesize that such variability may be indicative of cryptic species rather than plasticity. Using DNA sequences and morphological characters we confirmed the presence of three previously undescribed species of Neopetrosia . Morphological differences of each new congener were best resolved by partial gene sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 over nuclear ones (18S rRNA and 28S rRNA)...
2019: PeerJ
Adriana Mika, Filippo Macaluso, Rosario Barone, Valentina Di Felice, Tomasz Sledzinski
Increased physical activity is an optimal way to maintain a good health. During exercise, triacylglycerols, an energy reservoir in adipose tissue, are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FAs) which are then released to the circulation, providing a fuel for working muscles. Thus, regular physical activity leads to a reduction of adipose tissue mass and improves metabolism. However, the reduction of lipid reservoir is also associated with many other interesting changes in adipose tissue FA metabolism. For example, a prolonged exercise contributes to a decrease in lipoprotein lipase activity and resultant reduction of FA uptake...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Giuliana Ferrero, Karen Setty, Bettina Rickert, Shannan George, Angella Rinehold, Jennifer DeFrance, Jamie Bartram
The World Health Organization has recommended Water Safety Plans (WSPs), a holistic risk assessment and risk management approach, for drinking-water suppliers across low-, middle- and high-income countries, since publishing its 2004 Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. While rapid WSP adoption has occurred, capacity is still catching up to implementation needs. Many countries and regions lack case examples, legal requirements, and training resources for WSPs, corresponding to widespread capacity shortfall in the water supply sector...
February 7, 2019: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Antoine Goujon, Adai Colom, Karolína Straková, Vincent Mercier, Dora Mahecic, Suliana Manley, Naomi Sakai, Aurélien Roux, Stefan Matile
Measuring forces inside cells is particularly challenging. With the development of quantitative microscopy, fluorophores which allow the measurement of forces became highly desirable. We have previously introduced a mechanosensitive flipper probe, which responds to the change of plasma membrane tension by changing its fluorescence lifetime and thus allows tension imaging by FLIM. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of flipper probes that selectively label intracellular organelles, i.e...
February 12, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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