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schizophrenia differential diagnoses

João Gama Marques
Various case reports of patients with Dandy-Walker variant syndrome mimicking schizophrenia have been published in the last 20 years, suggesting that this neurodevelopment disorder should be part of the differential diagnosis for every patient with a first episode of psychosis. In this report, it is presented that a patient who was diagnosed and treated as a paranoid schizophrenic for 20 years and had four bone fractures secondary to ataxic gait impairment, before performing a neuroimaging examination that revealed Dandy-Walker variant syndrome...
2019: General psychiatry
Destiny L Peterson, Christopher A Webb, Jared W Keeley, Wolfgang Gaebel, Juergen Zielasek, Tahilia J Rebello, Rebeca Robles, Chihiro Matsumoto, Cary S Kogan, Maya Kulygina, Saeed Farooq, Michael F Green, Peter Falkai, Alkomiet Hasan, Silvana Galderisi, Veronica Larach, Valery Krasnov, Geoffrey M Reed
A major goal for the revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) is to increase the clinical utility of the diagnostic system. Schizoaffective disorder has a history of poor diagnostic reliability due to the similarities and overlap in symptoms that it shares with other disorders, especially primary psychotic and mood disorders. The present study was part of the case-controlled field trials for ICD-11 and examines how the proposed changes for schizoaffective disorder may improve differential diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy...
February 21, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Stephen Parker, Gordon Hopkins, Dan Siskind, Meredith Harris, Gemma McKeon, Frances Dark, Harvey Whiteford
BACKGROUND: Clinically operated community-based residential rehabilitation units (Community Rehabilitation Units) are resource intensive services supporting a small proportion of the people with severe and persisting mental illness who experience difficulties living in the community. Most consumers who engage with these services will be diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder. This review seeks to: generate a typology of service models, describe the characteristics of the consumers accessing these services, and synthesise available evidence about consumers' service experiences and outcomes...
February 4, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Kelsey Graber, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Frank H Duffy, Eugene D'Angelo, Georgios Sideridis, Damon E Hyde, Nicholas Morelli, Sahil Tembulkar, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich
Little research has investigated the use of electrophysiological biomarkers in childhood and adolescence to distinguish early onset psychosis and the clinical high risk state. The P300 evoked potential is a robust neurophysiological marker of schizophrenia that is dampened in patients with schizophrenia and, less consistently, in those with affective psychoses and those at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR). How it may differ between patients with psychotic disorders (PS) and CHR is less studied, especially in youth...
January 23, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Alice Medalia, Alice M Saperstein, Min Qian, Daniel C Javitt
BACKGROUND: Early auditory processing (EAP) has increasingly become a focus of efforts to identify biomarkers of treatment response in schizophrenia. EAP deficits lead to poor functional outcome via impaired cognition, and treatments that target EAP may drive downstream cognitive improvements. Assessment of baseline need provides an opportunity for cognitive remediation (CR) programs that give EAP training to personalize treatment and optimize its impact. This initial efficacy study examined the differential benefit of EAP training for those with and without baseline EAP deficits as defined by performance on the Tone Matching Test...
January 18, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Alex James Berry
A case of acute dyskinesia in a 42-year-old man with a history of cocaine use and schizophrenia is described. He had discontinued clozapine approximately 1 month before presenting to the emergency department displaying signs of psychosis, with generalised choreiform and dystonic movements. Urinary toxicology was positive for cocaine. Clozapine treatment was reinitiated, and within 2 weeks the dyskinesia had subsided. Review of his records revealed two previous episodes of similar dyskinesia, both of which were temporally associated with cocaine use...
December 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Johann Steiner, Harald Prüss, Stephan Köhler, Thomas Frodl, Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite intensive research, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders continue to be theoretical constructs that describe clinical syndromes and no pathophysiologically defined diseases. Moreover, there are no clear biomarkers at hand. Therefore, these diagnoses are still set up based on clinical ICD-10 / DSM-5 criteria and the exclusion of alcohol- / drug-associated, systemic or other brain organic causes. METHODS: Recently, autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as rare, but potentially treatable differential diagnosis...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Petros Ntounas, Alexandra Katsouli, Vasiliki Efstathiou, Dimitris Pappas, Pythagoras Chatzimanolis, Charalampos Touloumis, Charalampos Papageorgiou, Athanassios Douzenis
This cross sectional study aimed to compare the differences in psychopathology of Greek homicide and homicide attempters, patients with schizophrenia, with non violent individuals, suffering from schizophrenia. The study compared three Groups of 220 men, diagnosed with schizophrenia: (a) Group Α (Schizophrenia - No violence, (b) Group Β (Schizophrenia - with violence or violent crime), (c) Group C (Schizophrenia - not guilty by reason of insanity - violent crime). Several psychometric tools were used, such as M...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Yvonne Lee, Erica Winnicki, Lavjay Butani, Stephanie Nguyen
Psychogenic polydipsia is a well-described phenomenon in those with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Primary polydipsia is differentiated from psychogenic polydipsia by the lack of a clear psychotic disturbance. We present a case of a 27-month-old boy who presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory studies, imaging, and an observed water deprivation test were consistent with primary polydipsia. Polydipsia resolved after family limited his fluid intake and began replacing water drinking with other transition objects and behaviors for self-soothing...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Michael S Broder, Mallik Greene, Eunice Chang, Ann Hartry, Maëlys Touya, Jennifer Munday, Tingjian Yan
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are typically viewed as nonconcurrent psychiatric disorders, yet patients may experience mood and SCZ symptoms simultaneously. Several studies have shown overlap between SCZ and BD symptoms and susceptibility genes. This study explored the following: (1) patterns of administrative claims; (2) demographic characteristics and comorbidities; (3) health care resource use; and (4) health care costs in patients with diagnoses of SCZ, type I BD (BD-I), and both in a real-world setting...
September 4, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Kalman J Kaplan, Martin Harrow
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between suicide and social class has proved to be complex. Durkheim predicted suicide rate would increase with social status, while others thought the opposite. Results have been mixed. In some studies, suicidality has increased with increasing social status, and in other studies, the two variables have had an inverse relationship. These studies have been primarily conducted on general non-psychiatric populations Methods: The present study, in contrast, examines this relationship on a twenty-year prospective longitudinal sample of 400 psychiatric patients (differentiated by psychiatric diagnosis) after index hospitalization...
August 28, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Cunyan Li, Huai Tao, Xiudeng Yang, Xianghui Zhang, Yong Liu, Yamei Tang, Aiguo Tang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating psychiatric disorder. Validation of potential serum biomarkers during first-episode psychosis (FEP) is especially helpful to understand the onset and prognosis of this disorder. To address this question, we examined multiple blood biomarkers and assessed the efficacy to diagnose SZ. The expression levels of Neuregulin1 (NRG1), ErbB4, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1) and ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) proteins in peripheral blood of 53 FEP patients and 57 healthy controls were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Doron Amsalem, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Doron Gothelf, David Roe
OBJECTIVE: Subtle expressions of stigmata or microaggressions consist of insensitive and demeaning remarks or statements which negate an individual's perception of their reality. They are differentiated from more traditional and overt forms of discrimination in that they are often voiced by well-intentioned individuals who are unaware of the negative underpinnings and potentially harmful effects of their comments. This study aimed to explore the subjective experience of stigma and macroaggression among consumers and their family members during their encounters with mental health care providers...
September 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Marquis Philip Vawter, Robert Philibert, Brandi Rollins, Patricia L Ruppel, Terry W Osborn
This study developed potential blood-based biomarker tests for diagnosing and differentiating schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder type I (BD), and normal control (NC) subjects using mRNA gene expression signatures. A total of 90 subjects ( n = 30 each for the three groups of subjects) provided blood samples at two visits. The Affymetrix exon microarray was used to profile the expression of over 1.4 million probesets. We selected potential biomarker panels using the temporal stability of the probesets and also back-tested them at two different visits for each subject...
May 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Jason Smucny, Tyler A Lesh, Ana-Maria Iosif, Tara A Niendam, Laura M Tully, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of cognitive control, is characteristic of schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum and bipolar disorders (BDs). The longitudinal trajectory of these impairments, however, remains unclear. Indeed, some studies have observed degeneration and others stability or even improvement over time in these illnesses. Here we examined the longitudinal stability of the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), a cognitive control task, in 52 patients with recent-onset SZ (<2 years from first study measurement), 20 patients with recent-onset BD Type I with psychotic features, and 70 healthy control subjects...
November 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Leonid O Bryzgalov, Elena E Korbolina, Ilja I Brusentsov, Elena Y Leberfarb, Natalia P Bondar, Tatiana I Merkulova
BACKGROUND: A challenge of understanding the mechanisms underlying cognition including neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders is mainly given by the potential severity of cognitive disorders for the quality of life and their prevalence. However, the field has been focused predominantly on protein coding variation until recently. Given the importance of tightly controlled gene expression for normal brain function, the goal of the study was to assess the functional variation including non-coding variation in human genome that is likely to play an important role in cognitive functions...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, José Pinto-Gouveia, Ermelindo Peixoto
BACKGROUND: Social experiences have a significant impact on cognitive functioning and appraisals of social interactions. Specifically, recalls of antipathy from parents, submissiveness, and bullying during childhood can have a significant influence on paranoid ideation later in life. METHOD: Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was performed on a sample of 91 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in remission and active phase, their first-degree relatives (n = 32) and unaffected controls (n = 64)...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Kristen M Ward, Larisa Yeoman, Cora McHugh, A Zarina Kraal, Stephanie A Flowers, Amy E Rothberg, Alla Karnovsky, Arun K Das, Vicki L Ellingrod, Kathleen A Stringer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia are known to have higher rates of metabolic disease than the general population. Contributing factors likely include lifestyle and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) use, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study was to identify metabolomic variability in adult patients with schizophrenia who were taking AAPs and grouped by fasting insulin concentration, our surrogate marker for metabolic risk. DESIGN: Metabolomics analysis PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-four adult patients with schizophrenia who were taking an AAP for at least 6 months, with no changes in their antipsychotic regimen for the previous 8 weeks, and who did not require treatment with insulin, participated in the study...
June 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Sally Al Abdulmohsen, Ayman Ayoubi, Sadeq Al-Dandan
A 44-year-old male with schizophrenia presented with progressive right proptosis for one year and conjunctivitis for two months. An orbital cyst was seen in the superotemporal region on computerized tomography and was surgically removed. There was no history or radiological signs of paranasal sinus disease or previous trauma. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a cyst lined with respiratory epithelium. Respiratory choristomatous cysts of the orbit are considered rare in both pediatric and adult patients. We review the literature of respiratory orbital cysts and conclude that they tend to present in adults and should be considered in the differential diagnoses of orbital cysts...
2018: Case Reports in Pathology
H Duclos, B Desgranges, F Eustache, M Laisney
Social cognition is impaired in a large number of neurological afflictions, including neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodevelopmental syndromes, and has become a significant element in differential diagnoses. This report describes the different processes involved in social cognition and the way in which they work together to allow adapted behaviors. This is then followed by the numerous clinical symptoms of social behavioral disturbances and social cognition performance in different neurological afflictions such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia...
April 2018: Revue Neurologique
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