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cerebral cholinergic function

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711380/regulation-of-cortical-blood-flow-responses-by-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-during-nociceptive-processing
#1
Thierry Paquette, Ryota Tokunaga, Sara Touj, Hugues Leblond, Mathieu Piché
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for neuronal metabolic functions. CBF is partly regulated by cholinergic projections from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) during cortical processing of sensory information. During pain-related processing, however, this mechanism may be altered by large fluctuations in systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP). The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of NBM to CBF responses evoked by nociceptive electrical stimuli and how it may be affected by systemic MAP...
January 31, 2019: Neuroscience Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688265/-kai-xin-san-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#2
Yu-Min Xu, Xin-Chen Wang, Ting-Ting Xu, Hong-Ying Li, Shang-Yan Hei, Na-Chuan Luo, Hong Wang, Wei Zhao, Shu-Huan Fang, Yun-Bo Chen, Li Guan, Yong-Qi Fang, Shi-Jie Zhang, Qi Wang, Wei-Xiong Liang
Kai Xin San (KXS, containing ginseng, hoelen, polygala, and acorus), a traditional Chinese herbal compound, has been found to regulate cognitive dysfunction; however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, 72 specific-pathogen-free male Kunming mice aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into a vehicle control group, scopolamine group, low-dose KXS group, moderate-dose KXS group, high-dose KXS group, and positive control group. Except for the vehicle control group and scopolamine groups (which received physiological saline), the doses of KXS (0...
May 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688147/positive-allosteric-modulation-of-cholinergic-receptors-improves-spatial-learning-following-cortical-contusion-injury-in-mice
#3
Daniel P Holschneider, Yumei Guo, Zhuo Wang, Milagros Vidal, Oscar Umberto Scremin
We examined benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), a novel M1 muscarinic positive allosteric modulator, for improving memory and motor dysfunction following cerebral cortical contusion injury (CCI). Adult mice received unilateral motorsensory cortical CCI or sham injury. BQCA (5, 10, 20mg/kg, i.p.x2/day x 3-4 weeks) or vehicle (Veh) were administered, and weekly evaluations undertaken using a battery of motor tests, as well as the Morris Water Maze. Thereafter, cerebral metabolic activation was investigated in awake animals during walking with [<sup>14</sup>C]-2-deoxygIucose autoradiography, comparing CCI mice previously treated with BQCA (20 mg/kg) or vehicle...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630780/effect-of-acetylcholine-in-rat-brain-in-promoting-early-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-monoamine-oxidase-enzyme-a-pre-clinical-evidence
#4
Cheng Chen, Lin-Fei He, Jia-Nan Zhang, Yi Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most common causes of severe incapacity and has been associated with high health care expenditures. The present study designed to assess the effect of acetylcholine in rat brain (cortex) promotes early recovery of SCI by inhibiting monoamine oxidase enzyme. Male adult wistar rats (200-250 gram in body weight) were kept in isolated cages with 12-day and dark cycle, and were offered regular food and water (as and when required) during the day. Protocol was approved by ethics committees of Soochow University...
November 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604494/bioluminescence-calcium-imaging-of-network-dynamics-and-their-cholinergic-modulation-in-slices-of-cerebral-cortex-from-male-rats
#5
Ludovic Tricoire, Estelle Drobac, Keisuke Tsuzuki, Thierry Gallopin, Sandrine Picaud, Bruno Cauli, Jean Rossier, Bertrand Lambolez
The activity of neuronal ensembles was monitored in neocortical slices from male rats using wide-field bioluminescence imaging of a calcium sensor formed with the fusion of green fluorescent protein and aequorin (GA) and expressed through viral transfer. GA expression was restricted to pyramidal neurons and did not conspicuously alter neuronal morphology or neocortical cytoarchitecture. Removal of extracellular magnesium or addition of GABA receptor antagonists triggered epileptiform flashes of variable amplitude and spatial extent, indicating that the excitatory and inhibitory networks were functionally preserved in GA-expressing slices...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30564123/-rhodiola-rosea-l-improves-learning-and-memory-function-preclinical-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#6
Gou-Ping Ma, Qun Zheng, Meng-Bei Xu, Xiao-Li Zhou, Lin Lu, Zuo-Xiao Li, Guo-Qing Zheng
Rhodiola rosea L. ( R. rosea L.) is widely used to stimulate the nervous system, extenuate anxiety, enhance work performance, relieve fatigue, and prevent high altitude sickness. Previous studies reported that R. rosea L. improves learning and memory function in animal models. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for preclinical studies to assess the current evidence for R. rosea L. effect on learning and memory function. Ultimately, 36 studies involving 836 animals were identified by searching 6 databases from inception to May 2018...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30552921/how-does-physical-activity-and-different-models-of-exercise-training-affect-oxidative-parameters-and-memory
#7
Natan Feter, Roselia Maria Spanevello, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Luiza Spohr, Nathalia Stark Pedra, Natália Pontes Bona, Matheus Pintanel Freitas, Nicole Gomes Gonzales, Luiz Guilherme Martinho Sampaio Ito, Francieli Moro Stefanello, Airton José Rombaldi
The present study investigated the chronic effects of different physical exercise and physical activity models on cognitive function, cholinergic activity, and oxidative stress markers in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Eighty 60-day old C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following five groups: Sedentary (SED), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), resistance training (RT), and physical activity (RW, for "running wheel"). Cognitive function (recognition and spatial memory), oxidative stress parameters, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were evaluated...
December 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30510000/two-distinct-profiles-of-fmri-and-neurophysiological-activity-elicited-by-acetylcholine-in-visual-cortex
#8
Daniel Zaldivar, Alexander Rauch, Nikos K Logothetis, Jozien Goense
Cholinergic neuromodulation is involved in all aspects of sensory processing and is crucial for processes such as attention, learning and memory, etc. However, despite the known roles of acetylcholine (ACh), we still do not how to disentangle ACh contributions from sensory or task-evoked changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Here, we investigated the effects of local injection of ACh on fMRI and neural signals in the primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized macaques by combining pharmaco-based MRI (phMRI) with electrophysiological recordings, using single electrodes and electrode arrays...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30453020/interleukin-1-mediates-ischaemic-brain-injury-via-distinct-actions-on-endothelial-cells-and-cholinergic-neurons
#9
Raymond Wong, Nikolett Lénárt, Laura Hill, Lauren Toms, Graham Coutts, Bernadett Martinecz, Eszter Császár, Gábor Nyiri, Athina Papaemmanouil, Ari Waisman, Werner Müller, Markus Schwaninger, Nancy Rothwell, Sheila Francis, Emmanuel Pinteaux, Adam Denes, Stuart M Allan
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key contributor to neuroinflammation and brain injury, yet mechanisms by which IL-1 triggers neuronal injury remain unknown. Here we induced conditional deletion of IL-1R1 in brain endothelial cells, neurons and blood cells to assess site-specific IL-1 actions in a model of cerebral ischaemia in mice. Tamoxifen treatment of IL-1R1 floxed (fl/fl ) mice crossed with mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase under the Slco1c1 promoter resulted in brain endothelium-specific deletion of IL-1R1 and a significant decrease in infarct size (29%), blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown (53%) and neurological deficit (40%) compared to vehicle-treated or control (IL-1R1fl/fl ) mice...
November 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316049/blood-acetylcholinesterase-level-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-the-early-detection-of-cerebral-amyloid-deposition-in-cognitively-normal-individuals
#10
Sun-Ho Han, Jong-Chan Park, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Dong Young Lee, Inhee Mook-Jung
Cerebral β-amyloid (cAβ) deposition and cholinergic dysfunction have been considered as major pathological and functional hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is one of the major cholinergic enzymes, and there is no report to show the relationship between cAβ accumulation and peripheral AChE alteration in early stage of AD pathogenesis. Recent studies demonstrate that cAβ starts to deposit 15-20 years ahead of symptomatic appearance and this preclinical AD is important for early diagnosis of disease...
September 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30290256/protective-roles-of-amanita-caesarea-polysaccharides-against-alzheimer-s-disease-via-nrf2-pathway
#11
Zhiping Li, Xia Chen, Yongfeng Zhang, Xin Liu, Chunyue Wang, Lesheng Teng, Di Wang
This study explores the neuro-protective effects of Amanita caesarea polysaccharides (ACPS), obtained by 80% alcohol precipitation of water extract and purified using a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column, related to antioxidant activity. A 3-h pre-treatment of ACPS prior to l‑glutamic acid (l‑Glu) co-exposure reversed the decreased cell viability, inhibited apoptosis, suppressed the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and restored mitochondrial membrane potential in HT22 cells. Compared to l‑Glu-exposed cells, ACPS enhanced the nuclear levels of NF-E2p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reduced the cytoplasmic levels of Nrf2 and cytochrome C, suppressed the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, and enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase‑1, superoxide dismutase 1 and cysteine ligase catalytic subunit...
January 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30125941/brain-of-the-tree-pangolin-manis-tricuspis-iii-the-unusual-locus-coeruleus-complex
#12
Aminu Imam, Adhil Bhagwandin, Moyosore S Ajao, Amadi O Ihunwo, Kjell Fuxe, Paul R Manger
Here, we used a range of immunohistochemical stains, focussing on tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase, to show that within the pons of tree pangolins clusters of noradrenergic neurons are present. No noradrenergic neurons were observed in the pontine periventricular gray matter (A6 and A4 groups missing), with all noradrenergic neurons being found within the pontine tegmentum (A7 and A5 groups). The tree pangolin is unique in lacking the locus coeruleus (A6) cell group observed in all vertebrates previously studied; however, noradrenergic axons and terminal networks were found throughout the cerebral cortex...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30108425/detection-of-severity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-using-computational-modeling
#13
Hyunjo Kim
The prevalent cause of dementia - Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an early cholinergic deficit that is in part responsible for the cognitive deficits (especially memory and attention defects). Prolonged AD leads to moderate-to-severe AD, which is one of the leading causes of death. Placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials have shown significant effects of Acetyl cholin esterase inhibitors (ChEIs) on function, cognition, activities of daily living (ADL) and behavioral symptoms in patients...
2018: Bioinformation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30106050/effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cognitive-function-and-cholinergic-activity-in-the-rat-hippocampus-after-vascular-dementia
#14
Xiao-Qiao Zhang, Li Li, Jiang-Tao Huo, Min Cheng, Lin-Hong Li
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive treatment that can enhance the recovery of neurological function after stroke. Whether it can similarly promote the recovery of cognitive function after vascular dementia remains unknown. In this study, a rat model for vascular dementia was established by the two-vessel occlusion method. Two days after injury, 30 pulses of rTMS were administered to each cerebral hemisphere at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and a magnetic field intensity of 1.33 T...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30043595/distribution-of-choline-acetyltransferase-chat-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-the-teleost-cyprinus-carpio
#15
Arianna Casini, Rosa Vaccaro, Mattia Toni, Carla Cioni
Cholinergic systems play a role in basic cerebral functions and its dysfunction is associated with deficit in neurodegenerative disease. Mechanisms involved in human brain diseases, are often approached by using fish models, especially cyprinids, given basic similarities of the fish brain to that of mammals. In the present paper, the organization of central cholinergic systems have been described in the cyprinid Cyprinus carpio, the common carp, by using specific polyclonal antibodies against ChAT, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine, that is currently used as a specific marker for cholinergic neurons in all vertebrates...
July 24, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30042647/cognitive-dysfunction-in-relation-to-topography-and-burden-of-cerebral-microbleeds
#16
Gülseren Büyükşerbetçi, Esen Saka, Kader Karli Oğuz, Rahşan Göçmen, Ethem Murat Arsava, Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Contribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on cognitive dysfunctions in elderly patients with otherwise asymptomatic white matter lesions (WMLs) is not well-documented. Methods: MRI parameters of cerebral atrophy, CMBs and WMLs were herein analyzed in relation to global and main domains (attention, executive, memory, visuospatial, language) of cognitive function. Eighty-five patients older than 50, without neurodegenerative/cerebrovascular disease, but had CMBs were recruited from 2562 with T2*-gradient-echo MR imaging during one-year period...
March 2018: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30031104/experimentally-induced-maternal-hypothyroidism-alters-enzyme-activities-and-the-sensorimotor-cortex-of-the-offspring-rats
#17
Juliana Tonietto Domingues, Carolinne Sayury Wajima, Patricia Acordi Cesconetto, Eduardo Benedetti Parisotto, Elisa Winkelmann-Duarte, Karin Dos Santos, Najla Saleh, Fabíola Branco Filippin-Monteiro, Guilherme Razzera, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Ariane Zamoner
In this study, we used an experimental model of congenital hypothyroidism to show that deficient thyroid hormones (TH) disrupt different neurochemical, morphological and functional aspects in the cerebral cortex of 15-day-old offspring. Our results showing decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and Ca2+ overload in the cerebral cortex of hypothyroid pups suggest misregulated glutamate metabolism associated with developmentally induced TH deficiency. The 14 C-MeAIB accumulation indicates upregulated System A activity and glutamine uptake by neurons...
July 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29988373/function-of-selective-neuromodulatory-projections-in-the-mammalian-cerebral-cortex-comparison-between-cholinergic-and-noradrenergic-systems
#18
REVIEW
Hee-Jun Rho, Jae-Hyun Kim, Seung-Hee Lee
Cortical processing is dynamically modulated by different neuromodulators. Neuromodulation of the cerebral cortex is crucial for maintaining cognitive brain functions such as perception, attention and learning. However, we do not fully understand how neuromodulatory projections are organized in the cerebral cortex to exert various functions. The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic projection and the locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic projection are well-known neuromodulatory projections to the cortex. Decades of studies have identified anatomical and physiological characteristics of these circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#19
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
July 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29772805/ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-persimmon-diospyros-kaki-ameliorates-cerebral-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficit-via-the-jnk-akt-pathway-in-tmt-induced-mice
#20
Jong Min Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Su Bin Park, Seul Ki Yoo, Hye Ju Han, Chul-Woo Kim, Uk Lee, Sea-Hyun Kim, Ho Jin Heo
This study was conducted to assess the antioxidant capacity and protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction from persimmon ( Diospyros kaki ) (EFDK) on H₂O₂-induced hippocampal HT22 cells and trimethyltin chloride (TMT)-induced Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. EFDK had high antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects in HT22 cells. EFDK ameliorated behavioral and memory deficits in Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. Also, EFDK restored the antioxidant system by regulating malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced gluthathione (GSH), and the cholinergic system by controlling the acetylcholine (ACh) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and expression...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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