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Ravindra Shukla, M K Garg, Biplab Mandal, Praveen Devrabhai
We read with interest article by Crowley et al (1). The authors a found an apparent decrease in 11 β HSD- 1 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of deteriorators as compared to improvers. They explained it as compensatory decrease of 11 β HSD- 1 activity as consequence of overall adverse metabolic phenotype. It remained speculative whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) 11 β HSD1 was increased in deteriorators. While this is consistent with recently published study by us (2), in which we found liver/portal circulation 11 β HSD1 activity to be increased in diabetics as compared to controls...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Endocrinology
Samuel M Luedin, Nicole Liechti, Raymond P Cox, Francesco Danza, Niels-Ulrik Frigaard, Nicole R Posth, Joël F Pothier, Samuele Roman, Nicola Storelli, Matthias Wittwer, Mauro Tonolla
Blooms of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) are important drivers of the global sulfur cycling oxidizing reduced sulfur in intertidal flats and stagnant water bodies. Since the discovery of PSB Chromatium okenii in 1838, it has been found that this species is characteristic of for stratified, sulfidic environments worldwide and its autotrophic metabolism has been studied in depth since. We describe here the first high-quality draft genome of a large-celled, phototrophic, γ-proteobacteria of the genus Chromatium isolated from the stratified alpine Lake Cadagno, C...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Martin Heinrich, Simon Steiner, Christoph Michael Bauer
OBJECTIVES: Visual feedback as an intervention for people suffering from chronic back or chronic neck pain is a novel approach based on the person's perception of the painful body part. Visual feedback is an innovative therapeutic approach whose effects have not yet been systematically reviewed specifically for people with chronic back or chronic neck pain. Therefore, a systematic review was performed on the literature to evaluate the effects of visual feedback on pain intensity in people with chronic back or neck pain...
February 13, 2019: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Sagar P Nagare, Rohan Shrinivas Chaudhari, Rajendra S Birangane, Pratik C Parkarwar
Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. It is an investigative aspect of dentistry that analyzes dental evidence for human identification. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology, and it is important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters, crime investigations, and ethnic studies...
May 2018: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Vani Krishnamurthy, Nidha Nabil, Swathi Muni Reddy, Srinivasa Murthy Doreswamy
Context: Pyogenic meningitis is often a devastating condition which is diagnosed by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained by lumbar puncture (LP). CSF thus obtained can get contaminated with peripheral blood leucocytes during LP which renders it unusable for cytological analysis. Leucocyte esterase strips are available for identifying leucocyte esterase activity in urine and other body fluids which suggest inflammation. We conducted this experiment to see whether the leucocyte esterase strip can differentiate between neutrophils invited at the inflammatory site and circulating neutrophils in CSF...
January 2019: Journal of Cytology
Chengyu Chen, Tisheng Shan, Ying Liu, Cuicui Wang, Xueyan Shi, Xiwu Gao
Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases played an important role in detoxifying insecticides which potentially contributed to the metabolic resistance to insecticides. Bradysia odoriphaga, as a major pest of Chinese chive, was reported to be highly tolerant to neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid. In this study, a novel P450 gene, CYP6FV12, was cloned from B. odoriphaga. The full-length cDNA sequence of CYP6FV12 is 2520 bp long and its open reading frame (ORF) encodes 519 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the highest expression of CYP6FV12 was observed in fourth-instar larvae, which is 154...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sonam Chaudhary, Munna Alam, Surjit Singh, Sajana Deuja, Poonam Karmacharya, Monami Mondal
BACKGROUND: The Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist by Hip ratio have linear relation with increase in blood pressure. This study will correlate blood pressure with these anthropometric measures in normal subjects to find out the subtle increase in which of these measure would linearly increase blood pressure. The aim is to find the better anthropometric measure to relate with blood pressure changes. METHODS: One hundred and seventy five healthy medical students were enrolled for the study in Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara after getting ethical clearance...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Sonia Chew Wen Phang, Uma Devi Palanisamy, Khalid Abdul Kadir
OBJECTIVE: A preliminary study showed that geraniin extracted from Nephelium lappaceum L. at 50 mg/kg caused reduction in blood glucose and insulin resistance. The present study serves to further investigate the effects of geraniin at increasing doses between 3.125 and 100 mg/kg in high-fat diet-treated rats. METHODS: Geraniin (95% purity) was extracted and purified from rambutan rind. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 60% high-fat diet and standard rat chow, respectively, for 12 weeks...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Silvia B Lovato, Anne Marie Piper
Young children are prolific question-askers. The growing ubiquity of voice interfaces (e.g., Apple's Siri, Amazon's Alexa), as well as the availability of voice input in search fields, now make it possible for children to ask questions via Internet search when they are able to speak clearly, but before they have learned to read and write, typically between 3 and 6 years of age. The prevalence of voice search makes it important to understand children's changing conceptions of digital devices as a source of information and the role of technology-mediated question-asking in development...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Neil V Corzo, Jérémy Raskop, Aveek Chandra, Alexandra S Sheremet, Baptiste Gouraud, Julien Laurat
Considerable efforts have been recently devoted to combining ultracold atoms and nanophotonic devices1-4 to obtain not only better scalability and figures of merit than in free-space implementations, but also new paradigms for atom-photon interactions5 . Dielectric waveguides offer a promising platform for such integration because they enable tight transverse confinement of the propagating light, strong photon-atom coupling in single-pass configurations and potentially long-range atom-atom interactions mediated by the guided photons...
February 4, 2019: Nature
Nimsiri Abhayasinghe, Iain Murray, Shiva Sharif Bidabadi
Inertial measurement units are commonly used to estimate the orientation of sections of sections of human body in inertial navigation systems. Most of the algorithms used for orientation estimation are computationally expensive and it is difficult to implement them in real-time embedded systems with restricted capabilities. This paper discusses a computationally inexpensive orientation estimation algorithm (Gyro Integration-Based Orientation Filter-GIOF) that is used to estimate the forward and backward swing angle of the thigh (thigh angle) for a vision impaired navigation aid...
January 31, 2019: Sensors
Amine Slaoui, S Albisinni, F Aoun, G Assenmacher, W Al Hajj Obeid, R Diamand, S Regragui, A Touzani, A Bakar, A Mesfioui, T Karmouni, A Ameur, K Elkhader, A Koutani, A Ibnattya, T Roumeguere, A Peltier
PURPOSE: Amongst the unanswered questions regarding prostate cancer (PCa), the optimal management of oligometastatic disease remains one of the major concerns of the scientific community. The very existence of this category is still subject to controversy. Aim of this systematic review is to summarize current available data on the most appropriate management of oligometastatic PCa. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: All relevant studies published in English up to November the 1st were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Ovid database...
January 31, 2019: World Journal of Urology
Zhao Wang, Hong Yang, Cao Zhou, Wen-Jia Yang, Dao-Chao Jin, Gui-Yun Long
Chitin synthase is responsible for chitin synthesis in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. We cloned two alternative splicing variants of the chitin synthase 1 gene (SfCHS1) from the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera. The full-length cDNA of the two variants (SfCHS1a and SfCHS1b) consists of 6408 bp, contains a 4719-bp open reading frame encoding 1572 amino acids, and has 5' and 3' non-coding regions of 283 and 1406 bp, respectively. The two splicing variants occur at the same position in the cDNA sequence between base pairs 4115 and 4291, and consist of 177 nucleotides that encode 59 amino acids but show 74...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
A Larbi, P Omoumi, V Pasoglou, N Michoux, P Triqueneaux, B Tombal, C Cyteval, F E Lecouvet
PURPOSE: To assess the distribution of bone lesions in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and those with multiple myeloma (MM) using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); and to assess the added value of four anatomical regions located outside the thoraco-lumbo-pelvic area to detect the presence of bone lesions in a patient-based perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients (50 men; mean age, 67±10 [SD] years; range, 59-87 years) with PCa and forty-seven patients (27 women, 20 men; mean age, 62...
January 28, 2019: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Ugo Ballenghein, Olga Megalakaki, Thierry Baccino
The present study examined the effects of emotions on eye movements, head motion, and iPad motion during reading. Thirty-one participants read neutral, emotionally negative texts and emotionally positive texts on a digital tablet and both participants' eye movements and body movements were recorded using respectively eye-tracking glasses and a motion capture system. The results showed that emotionally positive texts were read faster than neutral texts, and that readers' movements decreased when reading emotional texts regardless of valence polarity...
January 30, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Annemarie Gous, Dirk Z H Swanevelder, Connal D Eardley, Sandi Willows-Munro
Pollination is a key component in agricultural food production and ecosystem maintenance, with plant-pollinator interactions an important research theme in ecological and evolutionary studies. Natural history collections provide unique access to samples collected at different spatial and temporal scales. Identification of the plant origins of pollen trapped on the bodies of pollinators in these collections provides insight into historic plant communities and pollinators' preferred floral taxa. In this study, pollen was sampled from Megachile venusta Smith bees from the National Collection of Insects, South Africa, spanning 93 years...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Aleksei A Korzhenkov, Stepan V Toshchakov, Rafael Bargiela, Huw Gibbard, Manuel Ferrer, Alina V Teplyuk, David L Jones, Ilya V Kublanov, Peter N Golyshin, Olga V Golyshina
BACKGROUND: The current view suggests that in low-temperature acidic environments, archaea are significantly less abundant than bacteria. Thus, this study of the microbiome of Parys Mountain (Anglesey, UK) sheds light on the generality of this current assumption. Parys Mountain is a historically important copper mine and its acid mine drainage (AMD) water streams are characterised by constant moderate temperatures (8-18 °C), extremely low pH (1.7) and high concentrations of soluble iron and other metal cations...
January 28, 2019: Microbiome
Eilis Hannon, Sarah J Marzi, Leonard S Schalkwyk, Jonathan Mill
Most variants associated with complex phenotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) do not directly index coding changes affecting protein structure. Instead they are hypothesized to influence gene regulation, with common variants associated with disease being enriched in regulatory domains including enhancers and regions of open chromatin. There is interest, therefore, in using epigenomic annotation data to identify the specific regulatory mechanisms involved and prioritize risk variants. We quantified lysine H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) - a robust mark of active enhancers and promoters that is strongly correlated with gene expression and transcription factor binding - across the genome in entorhinal cortex samples using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by highly parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
January 28, 2019: Molecular Brain
David D Wilson, Clayton E Alonso, Austin J Sim, Travis Peck, Lydia L Handsfield, Quan Chen, Leslie Blackhall, Timothy N Showalter, Kelli A Reardon, Paul W Read
BACKGROUND: Planning and treatment of bone metastases with palliative radiotherapy often requires 1-3 weeks, resulting in patient inconvenience and delayed palliation. We developed an expedited workflow that delivers palliative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to painful bone metastases in which CT, planning, quality assurance (QA), and initial treatment are performed one day. This prospective pilot clinical trial evaluates the feasibility, safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction of this workflow...
December 26, 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Rachael Burganowski, Marie Vahter, Elena I Queirolo, Fabiana Peregalli, Valentina Baccino, Elizabeth Barcia, Soledad Mangieri, Virginia Ocampo, Nelly Mañay, Gabriela Martínez, Katarzyna Kordas
BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) exposure has adverse health effects in children. Diet contributes to Cd exposure, but dietary components could affect body Cd levels. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between diet and urinary Cd (U-Cd) in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay, Cd exposure of 5-8 year old children (n = 279 with complete data) was assessed in first morning urine (U-Cd), a marker of long-term exposure, measured by ICP-MS and adjusted for specific gravity...
March 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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