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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772498/whole-tissue-cervical-mapping-of-hpv-infection-molecular-evidence-for-focal-latent-hpv-infection-in-humans
#1
Anne Hammer, Maurits Nc de Koning, Jan Blaakaer, Torben Steiniche, John Doorbar, Heather Griffin, Else Mejlgaard, Hans Svanholm, Wim Gv Quint, Patti E Gravitt
In this study, we aimed to provide molecular evidence of HPV latency in humans and discuss potential challenges of conducting studies on latency. We analyzed the entire cervix of two women who underwent hysterectomy unrelated to cervical abnormality. The cervices were sectioned into 242 and 186 sets respectively, and each set was tested separately for HPV using the SPF10-PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 system. To identify whether there was any evidence of transforming or productive infection, we used the biomarkers E4 and P16INK4a to stain slides immediately adjacent to HPV positive sections...
February 14, 2019: Papillomavirus Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770900/latent-infection-with-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-enhances-retrotransposition-of-long-interspersed-element-1
#2
Ryota Nakayama, Yumiko Ueno, Keiji Ueda, Tomoyuki Honda
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a gamma-2 herpesvirus, is the causative agent of KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and a plasma cell variant of multicentric Castleman's disease. Although KSHV latency is detected in KS-related tumors, oncogenic pathways activated by KSHV latent infection are not fully understood. Here, we found that retrotransposition of long interspersed element-1 (L1), a retrotransposon in the human genome, was enhanced in PEL cells. Among the KSHV latent genes, viral FLICE-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) enhanced L1 retrotransposition in an NF-κB-dependent manner...
February 15, 2019: Oncogene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770748/replication-competence-of-virions-induced-from-cd4-lymphocytes-latently-infected-with-hiv
#3
Douglas D Richman, Karissa Huang, Steven M Lada, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Marta Massanella, Bryson Menke
Latently infected CD4 lymphocytes preclude cure of HIV infection, even with the most effective antiretroviral therapy. The replication competent latent HIV reservoir has been quantified with the terminal dilution quantitative viral outgrowth assay, which induces virus propagation in CD4+ T cell culture supernatants following cellular activation. Efforts to improve the sensitivity of this inefficient assay have introduced more sensitive p24 ELISA and RNA PCR based endpoints, but these more sensitive endpoints have raised the question whether they are measuring induced replication competent or defective virions...
February 15, 2019: Retrovirology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768994/latent-toxoplasmosis-aggravates-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behaviour-and-suggest-a-role-of-gene-environment-interactions-in-the-behavioural-response-to-the-parasite
#4
Cecilie Bay-Richter, Eskild Petersen, Nico Liebenberg, Betina Elfving, Gregers Wegener
Toxoplasma gondii (TOX) is an intracellular parasite which infects warm-blooded animals including humans. An increasing number of clinical studies now hypothesize that latent toxoplasmosis may be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disease. For depression, the results have been varied and we speculate that genetic background is important for the response to latent toxoplasmosis. The main objective of this study was to elucidate gene - environment interactions in the behavioural response to TOX infection by use of genetically vulnerable animals (Flinders sensitive line, FSL) compared to control animals (Flinders resistant line, FRL)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768485/heterogeneous-hiv-1-reactivation-patterns-of-disulfiram-and-combined-disulfiram-romidepsin-treatments
#5
Anna Kula, Nadège Delacourt, Sophie Bouchat, Gilles Darcis, Veronique Avettand-Fenoel, Roxane Verdikt, Francis Corazza, Coca Necsoi, Caroline Vanhulle, Maryam Bendoumou, Arsene Burny, Stephane DE Wit, Christine Rouzioux, Oliver Rohr, Carine van Lint
OBJECTIVES: Few single latency-reversing agents (LRAs) have been tested in vivo and only some of them have demonstrated an effect, albeit weak, on the decrease of latent reservoir. Therefore, other LRAs and combinations of LRAs need to be assessed. Here, we evaluated the potential of combined treatments of therapeutically promising LRAs, disulfiram and romidepsin. SETTING: and methods: We assessed the reactivation potential of individual disulfiram or simultaneous or sequential combined treatments with romidepsin in vitro in latently-infected cell lines of T-lymphoid and myeloid origins and in ex vivo cultures of CD8-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from 18 HIV-1 cART-treated individuals...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767077/recent-innovations-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pediatric-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
James Gaensbauer, Richard Broadhurst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis is leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and a significant proportion of the burden of disease occurs in children. In the past 5 years, a number of innovations have improved the diagnosis and treatment for children with both latent tuberculosis infection and active disease. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses three key areas of innovation. First, we assess utilization and performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in different clinical and epidemiologic scenarios...
February 15, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766572/cytomegalovirus-infection-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-individuals-on-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-north-central-nigeria
#7
Augustine Udeze, Mutiat Odebisi-Omokanye, Toluwani Ajileye
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among HIV-infected individuals. Its contribution to morbidity and mortality became more apparent following introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) which improved survival among HIV-infected individuals. Objectives: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of both active and latent CMV infections among HIV-infected individuals on HAART in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 360 consented HIV-1 patients were recruited for the study...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766534/ptx3-polymorphisms-influence-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-after-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Cláudia F Campos, Luís Leite, Paulo Pereira, Carlos Pinho Vaz, Rosa Branca, Fernando Campilho, Fátima Freitas, Dário Ligeiro, António Marques, Egídio Torrado, Ricardo Silvestre, João F Lacerda, António Campos, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Background: Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients undergoing allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) predisposes to several clinical complications and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although pentraxin-3 (PTX3) has been previously described to bind both human and murine CMV and mediate several host antiviral mechanisms, whether genetic variation in the PTX3 locus influences the risk of CMV infection is currently unknown. Methods: To dissect the contribution of genetic variation within PTX3 to the development of CMV infection, we analyzed described loss-of-function variants at the PTX3 locus in 394 recipients of HSCT and their corresponding donors and assessed the associated risk of CMV reactivation...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766526/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3-socs3-degrades-p65-and-regulate-hiv-1-replication
#9
Vikas Sood, Sneh Lata, Vishnampettai G Ramachandran, Akhil C Banerjea
Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) is known to induce the expression of SOCS3 which is a negative feed-back regulator of inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrate that reactivation of latent HIV-1 leads to degradation of SOCS3 at early time points. Interestingly, SOCS3 degradation following transfection of HIV-1 RNA as well as polyIC in THP-1 cells further confirmed the role of viral RNA signaling in SOCS3 biology. Degradation of SOCS3 contributes toward viral RNA induced inflammatory responses. NF-κB signaling is also induced upon HIV-1 infection which leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to control the viral spread...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765243/prevalence-of-infection-among-asymptomatic-and-paucisymptomatic-contact-persons-exposed-to-ebola-virus-in-guinea-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-observational-study
#10
Mamadou Saliou Kalifa Diallo, Muriel Rabilloud, Ahidjo Ayouba, Abdoulaye Touré, Guillaume Thaurignac, Alpha Kabinet Keita, Christelle Butel, Cécé Kpamou, Thierno Alimou Barry, Mariama Djouldé Sall, Ibrahima Camara, Sandrine Leroy, Philippe Msellati, René Ecochard, Martine Peeters, Mamadou Saliou Sow, Eric Delaporte, Jean-François Etard
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Ebola virus infection among people who have been in contact with patients with Ebola virus disease remains unclear, but is essential to understand the dynamics of transmission. This study aimed to identify risk factors for seropositivity and to estimate the prevalence of Ebola virus infection in unvaccinated contact persons. METHODS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional observational study, we recruited individuals between May 12, 2016, and Sept 8, 2017, who had been in physical contact with a patient with Ebola virus disease, from four medical centres in Guinea (Conakry, Macenta, N'zérékoré, and Forécariah)...
February 11, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760613/anticytomegalovirus-peptides-point-to-new-insights-for-cmv-entry-mechanisms-and-the-limitations-of-in-vitro-screenings
#11
Joseph W Jackson, Trevor J Hancock, Pranay Dogra, Ravi Patel, Ravit Arav-Boger, Angela D Williams, Stephen J Kennel, Jonathan S Wall, Tim E Sparer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that can cause severe disease following in utero exposure, during primary infection, or latent virus reactivation in immunocompromised populations. These complications lead to a 1- to 2-billion-dollar economic burden, making vaccine development and/or alternative treatments a high priority. Current treatments for HCMV include nucleoside analogues such as ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet, and cidofovir. Recently, letermovir, a terminase complex inhibitor, was approved for prophylaxis after stem cell transplantation...
February 13, 2019: MSphere
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760247/levels-of-vitamin-d-associated-cytokines-distinguish-between-active-and-latent-tuberculosis-following-a-tuberculosis-outbreak
#12
Yoonki Hong, Youngmi Kim, Jae Jun Lee, Myung Goo Lee, Chang Youl Lee, Youlim Kim, Jeongwon Heo, Seon-Sook Han, Seung-Joon Lee, Woo Jin Kim, Ji Young Hong
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D levels are associated with the extent of mycobactericidal activity. Interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-32 play roles in the vitamin D-mediated tuberculosis (TB) defense mechanism. Vitamin D induces IL-1β, which plays an important role in terms of resistance to TB. We evaluated whether the levels of vitamin D-related cytokines distinguished between those with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). METHODS: In total, 50 TB-infected patients (25 with active TB and 25 with LTBI following a TB outbreak in a high school) were enrolled...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760211/social-network-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing-in-a-cohort-study-to-investigate-tb-transmission-in-an-educational-setting
#13
Simon Packer, Claire Green, Ellen Brooks-Pollock, Katerina Chaintarli, Sarah Harrison, Charles R Beck
BACKGROUND: TB outbreaks in educational institutions can result in significant transmission and pose a considerable threat to TB control. Investigation using traditional microbiological and epidemiological tools can lead to imprecise screening strategies due to difficulties characterising complex transmission networks. Application of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and social network analysis can provide additional information that may facilitate rapid directed public health action. We report the utility of these methods in combination with traditional approaches for the first time to investigate a TB outbreak in an educational setting...
February 13, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758779/tolerability-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-an-hiv-infected-cohort-of-paediatric-and-adolescent-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-from-a-resource-limited-setting-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Tinashe Mudzviti, Tinei Shamu, Cleophas Chimbetete, Tilda Munengerwa, Sandra Bote, Margaret Pascoe
BACKGROUND: Treating patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to prevent development of active disease is an essential strategy for eliminating TB. There are concerns regarding the use of isoniazid due to the potential for hepatotoxicity. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of adverse hepatic events after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) commencement in a cohort of HIV-infected paediatric and adolescent patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: This was a retrospective records review, using data from HIV-infected paediatric and adolescent patients collected during routine clinical visits at Newlands Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe...
February 13, 2019: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755517/herpes-simplex-virus-1-lytic-infection-blocks-microrna-mirna-biogenesis-at-the-stage-of-nuclear-export-of-pre-mirnas
#15
Dongli Pan, Gang Li, Jenna Morris-Love, Shuyuan Qi, Lei Feng, Max E Mertens, Igor Jurak, David M Knipe, Donald M Coen
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) switches between two infection programs, productive ("lytic") and latent infection. Some HSV-1 microRNAs (miRNAs) have been hypothesized to help control this switch, and yet little is known about regulation of their expression. Using Northern blot analyses, we found that, despite inherent differences in biogenesis efficiency among six HSV-1 miRNAs, all six exhibited high pre-miRNA/miRNA ratios during lytic infection of different cell lines and, when detectable, in acutely infected mouse trigeminal ganglia...
February 12, 2019: MBio
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753360/na%C3%A3-ve-cd4-t-cells-harbor-a-large-inducible-reservoir-of-latent-replication-competent-hiv-1
#16
Jennifer M Zerbato, Deborah K McMahon, Michelle D Sobolewski, John W Mellors, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer
Background: The latent HIV-1 reservoir represents a major barrier to a cure. Based on the levels of HIV-1 DNA in naïve (TN) versus resting memory CD4+ T cells, it is widely hypothesized that the latent reservoir resides primarily within memory cells. Here, we compared virus production from TN and central memory (TCM) CD4+ T cells isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive therapy. Methods: CD4+ TN and TCM cells were purified from the blood of seven HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive therapy for ≥ 5 years...
February 7, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746864/a-latent-class-approach-to-identify-multi-risk-profiles-associated-with-phylogenetic-clustering-of-recent-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-australia-and-new-zealand-from-2004-to-2015
#17
Sofia R Bartlett, Tanya L Applegate, Brendan P Jacka, Marianne Martinello, Francois Mj Lamoury, Mark Danta, Daniel Bradshaw, David Shaw, Andrew R Lloyd, Margaret Hellard, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews, Jason Grebely
INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV began increasing in post-industrialized countries. Little is known about transmission of acute or recent HCV, in particular among MSM living with HIV co-infection, which creates uncertainty about potential for reinfection after HCV treatment. Using phylogenetic methods, clinical, epidemiological and molecular data can be combined to better understand transmission patterns...
February 2019: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746219/risk-factors-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-immune-function-in-health-care-workers-in-suzhou-china
#18
Cui-Lin Shi, Jun-Chi Xu, Hui Chen, Zhi-Jian Ye, Xin-Nian Chen, Pei-Jun Tang, Li-Ling Ma, Zai-Xiang Tang, Mei-Ying Wu, Ping Xu
Background: The Chinese government has pay attention about tuberculosis infection among medical staff in infectious disease hospitals, but the effects have not yet been reported. This study will explore latent infection and immune function in the medical staff and systematically analyze the associated influencing factors. Methods: Ninety-four medical staffs were enrolled and 20 medical staffs were defined as low risk group and others were high risk group. We used IFN-γ release assay and flow cytometry to analyze the latent TB infection status and immune function...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745396/activity-of-a-long-acting-injectable-bedaquiline-formulation-in-a-paucibacillary-mouse-model-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#19
Amit Kaushik, Nicole C Ammerman, Sandeep Tyagi, Vikram Saini, Iwan Vervoort, Sophie Lachau-Durand, Eric Nuermberger, Koen Andries
The potent anti-tuberculosis activity and long half-life of bedaquiline make it an attractive candidate for long-acting/extended release formulations for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Our objective was to evaluate a long-acting injectable (LAI) bedaquiline formulation in a validated paucibacillary mouse model of LTBI. Following immunization with Mycobacterium bovis rBCG30, BALB/c mice were challenged by aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Treatment began 13 weeks after challenge infection with one of the following regimens: untreated negative control; positive controls of daily rifampin (10 mg/kg), once-weekly rifapentine (15 mg/kg) and isoniazid (50 mg/kg), or daily bedaquiline (25 mg/kg); test regimens of one, two, or three monthly doses of LAI bedaquiline at 160 mg/dose (BLAI-160 ); and test regimens of daily bedaquiline at 2...
February 11, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30743161/identification-of-glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate-phosphatase-as-a-novel-drug-target-against-resistant-strain-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-xdr1219-by-using-comparative-metabolic-pathway-approach
#20
Reaz Uddin, Noor-Ul-Ain Zahra, Syed Sikander Azam
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health challenge. It has been afflicting human for thousands of years and is still severely affecting a huge population. The etiological agent of the disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) that survives in the human host in latent, dormant, and non-replicative state by evading the immune system. It is one of the leading causes of infection related death worldwide. The situation is exacerbated by the massive increase in the resistant strains such as multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensive drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB)...
January 24, 2019: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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