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"predictive processing"

Nadine Dijkstra, Sander E Bosch, Marcel A J van Gerven
For decades, the extent to which visual imagery relies on the same neural mechanisms as visual perception has been a topic of debate. Here, we review recent neuroimaging studies comparing these two forms of visual experience. Their results suggest that there is a large overlap in neural processing during perception and imagery: neural representations of imagined and perceived stimuli are similar in the visual, parietal, and frontal cortex. Furthermore, perception and imagery seem to rely on similar top-down connectivity...
March 12, 2019: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Lara Fontanella, Luigi Ippoliti, Pasquale Valentini
In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian statistical model for the analysis of functional data observed at several time points. Examples of such data include the Michigan growth study where we wish to characterize the shape changes of human mandible profiles. The form of the mandible is often used by clinicians as an aid in predicting the mandibular growth. However, whereas many studies have demonstrated the changes in size that may occur during the period of pubertal growth spurt, shape changes have been less well investigated...
March 13, 2019: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Jingliang Zhao, Danni Ai, Yang Yang, Hong Song, Yong Huang, Yongtian Wang, Jian Yang
The structural information of coronary arteries has important clinical value for quantitative diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. In this study, a deep feature regression (DFR) method based on a convolutional regression network (CRN) and a stable point clustering mechanism for 3D vessel segmentation is proposed. First, the vessel model is constructed by a vessel section generator and a series of deviation parameter estimators. The generator provides 2D images for the training and prediction processes, while the estimators calculate pose parameters of an input vessel section...
March 12, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yi-Shin Sheu, Yu Liang, John E Desmond
Mounting evidence suggests that the right cerebellum contributes to verbal working memory, but the functional role of this contribution remains unclear. In an established theory of motor control, the cerebellum is thought to predict sensory consequences of movements through an internal "forward model." Here, we hypothesize a similar predictive process can generalize to cerebellar non-motor function, and that the right cerebellum plays a predictive role that is beneficial for rapidly engaging the phonological loop in verbal working memory...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Giuseppe Notaro, Wieske van Zoest, Magda Altman, David Melcher, Uri Hasson
A core question underlying neurobiological and computational models of behavior is how individuals learn environmental statistics and use them to make predictions. Most investigations of this issue have relied on reactive paradigms, in which inferences about predictive processes are derived by modeling responses to stimuli that vary in likelihood. Here we deployed a novel anticipatory oculomotor metric to determine how input statistics impact anticipatory behavior that is decoupled from target-driven-response...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Giuseppe Pagnoni
The theory of predictive processing in the comprehensive articulation proposed by Karl Friston is a framework that boasts an impressively wide explanatory power in neurobiology, where processes apparently as diverse as perception, action, attention, and learning unfold, and are coherently orchestrated, according to the single general mandate of free-energy minimization. In the present opinion piece, I argue that the adoption of this theoretical perspective can provide a much needed unitary framework for contemplative research as well, whose explosive growth in terms of the number of published studies and amount of collected data has not been matched yet by a similarly extensive effort to theoretically organize the findings, so that a deeper understanding of meditation-related processes can be attained...
2019: Progress in Brain Research
Shuhaila Mat-Sharani, Mohd Firdaus-Raih
BACKGROUND: Small open reading frames (smORF/sORFs) that encode short protein sequences are often overlooked during the standard gene prediction process thus leading to many sORFs being left undiscovered and/or misannotated. For many genomes, a second round of sORF targeted gene prediction can complement the existing annotation. In this study, we specifically targeted the identification of ORFs encoding for 80 amino acid residues or less from 31 fungal genomes. We then compared the predicted sORFs and analysed those that are highly conserved among the genomes...
February 4, 2019: BMC Bioinformatics
Antoine Lutz, Jérémie Mattout, Giuseppe Pagnoni
The surge of interest about mindfulness meditation is associated with a growing empirical evidence about its impact on the mind and body. Yet, despite promising phenomenological or psychological models of mindfulness, a general mechanistic understanding of meditation steeped in neuroscience is still lacking. In parallel, predictive processing approaches to the mind are rapidly developing in the cognitive sciences with an impressive explanatory power: processes apparently as diverse as perception, action, attention, and learning, can be seen as unfolding and being coherently orchestrated according to the single general mandate of free-energy minimization...
January 7, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
Ting Zhang, Lie Ju, Jingjing Zhai, Yujia Song, Jie Song, Chuang Ma
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding regulatory RNAs derived from hairpin precursors (pre-miRNAs). In synergy with experimental approaches, computational approaches have become an invaluable tool for identifying miRNAs at the genome scale. We have recently reported a method called miRLocator, which applies machine learning algorithms to accurately predict the localization of most likely miRNAs within their pre-miRNAs. One major strength of miRLocator is the fact that the machine learning-based miRNA prediction model can be automatically trained using a set of miRNAs of particular interest, with informative features extracted from miRNA-miRNA* duplexes and the optimized ratio between positive and negative samples...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nora Andermane, Jenny M Bosten, Anil K Seth, Jamie Ward
The phenomenon of change blindness reveals that people are surprisingly poor at detecting unexpected visual changes; however, research on individual differences in detection ability is scarce. Predictive processing accounts of visual perception suggest that better change detection may be linked to assigning greater weight to prediction error signals, as indexed by an increased alternation rate in perceptual rivalry or greater sensitivity to low-level visual signals. Alternatively, superior detection ability may be associated with robust visual predictions against which sensory changes can be more effectively registered, suggesting an association with high-level mechanisms of visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention...
2019: Neuroscience of Consciousness
Tomas E Matthews, Maria A G Witek, Ole A Heggli, Virginia B Penhune, Peter Vuust
The pleasurable desire to move to music, also known as groove, is modulated by rhythmic complexity. How the sensation of groove is influenced by other musical features, such as the harmonic complexity of individual chords, is less clear. To address this, we asked people with a range of musical experience to rate stimuli that varied in both rhythmic and harmonic complexity. Rhythm showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with ratings of pleasure and wanting to move, whereas medium and low complexity chords were rated similarly...
2019: PloS One
Yuichiro Ono, Satoshi Yoshioka, Kazuhisa Inoue, Masahiro Yoshida, Hayato Maruoka, Takayuki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Processed blood volume (PBV) required to obtain a predefined number of stem cells can be estimated from peripheral blood CD34+ cell concentration, body weight, and collection efficiency (CE). Because CE is indefinite, this study was designed to formulate and validate a new model of PBV based on stochastic CE distribution. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on 146 peripheral blood stem cell harvests from 114 patients and donors in a single institution from April 2014 to February 2018...
December 28, 2018: Transfusion
Ondřej Havlíček, Hermann J Müller, Agnieszka Wykowska
Distracting sensory events can capture attention, interfering with the performance of the task at hand. We asked: is our attention captured by such events if we cause them ourselves? To examine this, we employed a visual search task with an additional salient singleton distractor, where the distractor was predictable either by the participant's own (motor) action or by an endogenous cue; accordingly, the task was designed to isolate the influence of motor and non-motor predictive processes. We found both types of prediction, cue- and action-based, to attenuate the interference of the distractor-which is at odds with the "attentional white bear" hypothesis, which states that prediction of distracting stimuli mandatorily directs attention towards them...
December 26, 2018: Psychological Research
Małgorzata Gadzała, Dawid Dułak, Barbara Kalinowska, Zbigniew Baster, Michał Bryliński, Leszek Konieczny, Mateusz Banach, Irena Roterman
Existing computational models applied in the protein structure prediction process do not sufficiently account for the presence of the aqueous solvent. The solvent is usually represented by a predetermined number of H2 O molecules in the bounding box which contains the target chain. The fuzzy oil drop (FOD) model, presented in this paper, follows an alternative approach, with the solvent assuming the form of a continuous external hydrophobic force field, with a Gaussian distribution. The effect of this force field is to guide hydrophobic residues towards the center of the protein body, while promoting exposure of hydrophilic residues on its surface...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Myrthel Dogge, Dennis Hofman, Ruud Custers, Henk Aarts
Sounds that result from our own actions are perceptually and neurophysiologically attenuated compared to sounds with an external origin. This sensory attenuation phenomenon is commonly attributed to prediction processes implicated in motor control. However, accumulating evidence suggests that attenuation effects can also result from prediction processes beyond the motor domain. The aim of the present study was two-fold. First, we attempted to replicate the role of identity-specific motor predictions in attenuation...
December 17, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Caspar J Van Lissa, Renske Keizer, Pol A C Van Lier, Wim H J Meeus, Susan Branje
This 4-year, multi-informant longitudinal study ( N = 480, initial age: 15) investigated the interplay between parental support, behavioral and psychological control, and adolescents' emotion regulation development. We examined reciprocal effects between parents and children, mothers' versus fathers' unique roles in emotion regulation development, and sex differences. Multi-informant data allowed us to compare effects of adolescent-perceived and parent-reported parenting. Finally, innovative analyses allowed us to disentangle between-family differences from within-family predictive processes...
February 2019: Developmental Psychology
Sebastian Kahl, Stefan Kopp
During interaction with others, we perceive and produce social actions in close temporal distance or even simultaneously. It has been argued that the motor system is involved in perception and action, playing a fundamental role in the handling of actions produced by oneself and by others. But how does it distinguish in this processing between self and other, thus contributing to self-other distinction? In this paper we propose a hierarchical model of sensorimotor coordination based on principles of perception-action coupling and predictive processing in which self-other distinction arises during action and perception...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Roope Oskari Kaaronen
This article is a comparative study between predictive processing (PP, or predictive coding) and cognitive dissonance (CD) theory. The theory of CD, one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology, is shown to be highly compatible with recent developments in PP. This is particularly evident in the notion that both theories deal with strategies to reduce perceived error signals. However, reasons exist to update the theory of CD to one of "predictive dissonance." First, the hierarchical PP framework can be helpful in understanding varying nested levels of CD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ludwig Lausser, Lea Siegle, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Derk Frank, Steffen Just, Hans A Kestler
Genetic model organisms have the potential of removing blind spots from the underlying gene regulatory networks of human diseases. Allowing analyses under experimental conditions they complement the insights gained from observational data. An inevitable requirement for a successful trans-species transfer is an abstract but precise high-level characterization of experimental findings. In this work, we provide a large-scale analysis of seven weak contractility/heart failure genotypes of the model organism zebrafish which all share a weak contractility phenotype...
November 26, 2018: Biomolecules
Sigmar Schnutenhaus, Michael Graf, Isabel Doering, Ralph G Luthardt, Heike Rudolph
OBJECTIVE: For correct implant planning based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the bone contour must be accurately determined. Identification of the contour is difficult in bones with incomplete mineralization. In this clinical study, we investigated the intrapersonal and interpersonal reproducibilities of manual bone contour determination on CBCT images using a semi-automated computerized process. METHODS: The bone surface level in the area of the socket in 20 patients who had undergone tooth extraction from the upper jaw at 10 ± 1 weeks previously was determined on CBCT images...
July 27, 2018: Oral Radiology
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