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ethylene rate

Lucas Q Flagg, Connor G Bischak, Jonathan W Onorato, Reem B Rashid, Christine K Luscombe, David S Ginger
We study poly(3-{[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]methyl}thiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3MEEMT), a new polythiophene derivative with ethylene glycol-based side chains, as a promising semiconducting polymer for accumulation-mode organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) with figures of merit comparable to state-of-the-art materials. By characterizing the OECT performance of P3MEEMT transistors as a function of anion, we find that large, hydrophobic anions lower the threshold voltage. We find that, compared to poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), P3MEEMT shows faster anion injection rates, which we attribute to the hydration of the P3MEEMT crystal lattice...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hyung Ha Jang, Su Bum Park, Jeong Sup Hong, Hye Lim Lee, Yeon Hui Song, Jungsoo Kim, Yun Hye Jung, Chan Kim, Doo-Man Kim, Sang Eun Lee, Young-Il Jeong, Dae Hwan Kang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to fabricate drug-eluting gastrointestinal (GI) stent using reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive nanofiber mats for treatment of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell. A ROS-producing agent, piperlongumine (PL)-incorporated nanofiber mats were investigated for drug-eluting stent (DES) application. METHODS: Selenocystamine-conjugated methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MePEG) was conjugated with poly(L-lactide) (PLA) to produce block copolymer (LEse block copolymer)...
February 18, 2019: Nanoscale Research Letters
Dong Hye Seo, Gyeong Mee Yoon
Hypocotyl growth during seedling emergence is a crucial developmental transition influenced by light and phytohormones such as ethylene. Ethylene and light antagonistically control hypocotyl growth in either continuous light or darkness. However, how ethylene and light regulate hypocotyl growth, including seedling emergence, during the dark-to-light transition remains elusive. Here, we show that ethylene and light cooperatively stimulate a transient increase in hypocotyl growth during the dark-to-light transition via the light-mediated stabilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthases (ACSs), the rate-limiting enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis...
February 18, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kang-Qiang He, Jun-Wei Zha, Peng Du, Samson Ho-Sum Cheng, Chen Liu, Zhi-Min Dang, Robert K Y Li
Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn considerable attention owing to their reliable safety performance, electrochemical stability and exceptional flexibility, which make them superior to conventional liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a novel composite electrolyte which is composed of homogeneously dispersed Li ion-conducting Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanowires in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/LiClO4 matrix. It is demonstrated that only 3 wt% LLTO nanofibers are needed for the optimal performance of SPEs...
February 18, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Qiang Zhang, Xiaofei Liu, Zhifei Zhang, Ningfang Liu, Danzhu Li, Longxing Hu
Melatonin (MT), polyamines (PAs), and ethylene have been suggested to play key roles in plant growth and development in response to environmental abiotic stresses. However, the effect of melatonin on polyamine and ethylene metabolism under waterlogging stress has rarely been elucidated. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin pretreatment on waterlogging stress in alfalfa. The experiment was arranged into four treatment groups control with water pretreatment (CK-MT), control with melatonin pretreatment (CK+MT), waterlogging pretreated with water (WL-MT) and waterlogging pretreated with melatonin (WL+MT), with three replications...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kai-Mei Zhang, Yu Shen, Jing Yang, Xiang Miu, Prasanta C Bhowmik, Xiaoqi Zhou, Yan-Ming Fang, Bao-Shan Xing
According to the novel weapons hypothesis, root exudates are the inhibition factors for native species growth and development through invasive plants. It is hypothesized that antioxidant system (AOS) presents an effective role in plant defense system. The allelopathy indexes of P. multifida gametophyte biomass and sporogonium conversions rates turn negative with the dose and time effects, and the synthetical allelopathic effect index was -55.07% at 100% treatments under root exudates treatments. Under transmission electron microscopy, the cell structures turn burry...
February 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Dahu Rui, Zhipeng Wu, Mingchng Ji, Jianfei Liu, Shuren Wang, Yuzuru Ito
To improve the washing efficiency for low-permeability clay, the method of freeze-thaw synergistic chemical washing was put forward to study the cadmium (Cd)-and lead (Pb)- real-site contaminated soils as the research object and ethylene diaminete traacetic acid (EDTA) was selected as the eluent to conduct a soil column washing test of heavy metal-contaminated clay soil. Results show that repeated freeze-thaw of soil can destroy the original structure of soil particles, help the eluent fully interact with pollutants, and thus improve washing efficiency...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Joohyung Park, Jong Kook Won, Jun-Gu Park, Seungwoo Yu, Jihyun An, Jongin Hong, Choongik Kim, Kang-Jun Baeg, Myung-Gil Kim
Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of a scalable bar-coated nanocomposite organic-inorganic hybrid film and developed robust barrier films for general purpose packaging. Using combinatory printing of polymers and nanocomposites by bar coating, a facile and effective barrier film fabrication method was developed. Based on a preliminary survey with several material combinations, a rationalized two-fold nanocomposite film was fabricated. The number of layers in the barrier film significantly modified oxygen barrier performance such that, for the 1 wt% ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) intercalated film, the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the 5-layer sample was reduced to 31...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Vedbar Singh Khadka, Kimberley Vaughn, Juan Xie, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Qin Ma, Grant R Cramer, Anne Y Fennell
BACKGROUND: Drought is an important constraint on grapevine sustainability. Vitis riparia, widely used in rootstock and scion breeding, has been studied in isolated leaf drying response studies; however, it is essential to identify key root and shoot water deficit signaling traits in intact plants. This information will aid improved scion and rootstock selection and management practices in grapevine. RNAseq data were generated from V. riparia roots and shoots under water deficit and well-watered conditions to determine root signaling and shoot responses to water deficit...
February 13, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
Bekir Sanal, Omer Fatih Nas, Mehmet Korkmaz, Cuneyt Erdogan, Bahattin Hakyemez
Purpose: We evaluated carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) cases which were treated with various vascular routes and different embolization agents. Our aim was to present endovascular treatment procedures, clinical and radiological findings, and to discuss the safety and clinical efficacy of the treatment. Materials and Methods: The demographic information, presenting symptoms and clinical findings of 25 CCF cases in 23 patients treated with endovascular route were reviewed...
November 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
James K Carrow, Andrea Di Luca, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Lorenzo Moroni, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
Additive manufacturing (AM) has shown promise in designing 3D scaffold for regenerative medicine. However, many synthetic biomaterials used for AM are bioinert. Here, we report synthesis of bioactive nanocomposites from a poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate) (PEOT)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) (PEOT/PBT) copolymer and 2D nanosilicates for fabricating 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PEOT/PBT have been shown to support calcification and bone bonding ability in vivo , while 2D nanosilicates induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in absence of osteoinductive agents...
February 2019: Regenerative Biomaterials
Jianlong Liu, Jie Yang, Haiqi Zhang, Liu Cong, Rui Zhai, Chengquan Yang, Zhigang Wang, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu
Understanding ripening and senescence processes in postharvest stored fruit is key to the identification and implementation of effective treatment methods. Here, we explored the effects of exogenous applications of melatonin (MT) and nitric oxide (NO) on ripening and softening processes in three cultivars of European pear ( Pyrus communis L.). The results showed that MT and NO played important roles in the two processes: they decreased the rate of upregulation of PcCel and PcPG, inhibited expression of ethylene synthetase genes ( PcACS and PcACO), and reduced rates of respiration and ethylene production...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhouxiang Zhao, Chunmei Ding, Yaqin Wang, Hong Tan, Jianshu Li
Traditional antibacterial treatments, such as chlorhexidine (CHX), destroy cariogenic biofilms. However, they exert negative effects in clinical applications, for example, teeth staining, taste disturbance and harm to oral tissue after a long-term exposure. Therefore, biocompatible strategies for efficient antibacterial drug delivery are in high demand. In this study, aimed at dental caries therapy enhancement, we designed a pH-responsive nanocarrier system, capable of releasing CHX in an acidic environment within cariogenic biofilms...
February 6, 2019: Biomaterials Science
Yukun Ma, Haijun Wang, Mengyan Guo
Stainless steel wire mesh supported molecularly imprinted composite membranes for selective separation of Ebracteolata Compound B (ECB) were prepared based on surface polymerization using ECB separated from Euphorbia fischeriana as a template, acrylamide as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, azodiisobutyronitrile as an initiator, and stainless steel wire mesh as support. Structure and purity of ECB were characterized by nuclear magenetic resonance (¹H-NMR, 13 C-NMR) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)...
February 4, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anna Marzec, Bolesław Szadkowski, Jacek Rogowski, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Dariusz Moszyński, Przemysław Rybiński, Marian Zaborski
In this study, hybrid pigments based on carminic acid (CA) were synthesized and applied in polymer materials. Modification of aluminum-magnesium hydroxycarbonate (LH) with CA transformed the soluble chromophore into an organic-inorganic hybrid colorant. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to study the structure, composition, and morphology of the insoluble LH/CA colorant...
February 3, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jie Zhang, Qin Shi, Jun Tao, Yayun Peng, Ting Cai
Amorphous solid dispersions have been widely used as an effective formulation strategy in the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. However, one of the main challenges in the development of amorphous drugs is to maintain their physical stability. The underlying mechanism of amorphous drugs crystallized in polymeric matrices is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the phenomenon of polymer enrichment at the crystal-liquid interface during the crystallization of griseofulvin (GSF) in the presence of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO)...
February 4, 2019: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jamie A Nowalk, Cheng Fang, Amy L Short, Ryan M Weiss, Jordan H Swisher, Peng Liu, Tara Yvonne Meyer
The bulk properties of a copolymer are directly affected by monomer sequence, yet efficient, scalable, and controllable syntheses of sequenced copolymers remain a defining challenge in polymer science. We have previously demonstrated, using polymers prepared by a step-growth synthesis, that hydrolytic degradation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)s is dramatically affected by sequence. While much was learned, the step-growth mechanism gave no molecular weight control, unpredictable yields, and meager scalability...
February 4, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xuejing Li, Congcong Liu, Weiqiang Zhou, Xuemin Duan, Yukou Du, Jingkun Xu, Changcun Li, Jing Liu, Yanhua Jia, Peipei Liu, Qinglin Jiang, Chan Luo, Cheng Liu, Fengxing Jiang
The regulation of oxidation level is of great importance as an efficient way to optimize the thermoelectric (TE) performance of conducting polymers. Many efforts have been devoted into the acquisition of high TE performance for PEDOT:PSS by oxidation/reduction post-treatment to achieve an effective compromise. However, a strong oxidant/reductant is usually employed to tune TE performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) with high electrical conductivity ( σ) and Seebeck coefficient ( S), and also presents a number of operational challenges depending on fast reaction rate...
February 4, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
O Saoudi, N Ghaouar
This investigation may be of interest for researchers working on the determination of several biocatalytic properties of the laccase from Trametes versicolor. So, We will treated the effects of pH, temperature, several organic components and heavy metals by performing enzyme assays in the presence of a 2,6 dimethoxyphenol (DMP) as substrate on the laccase activity. The optimum activity and temperature are 4 and 40 °C, respectively. The maximum rate of the reaction is 124.53 U/mg and the Michaelis constant is in order of 1...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jacob P Brutman, David J Fortman, Guilhem X De Hoe, William R Dichtel, Marc A Hillmyer
Cross-linked polymers are used in many commercial products and are traditionally incapable of recycling via melt reprocessing. Recently, tough and reprocessable cross-linked polymers have been realized by incorporating cross-links that undergo associative exchange reactions, such as transesterification, at elevated temperatures. Here we investigate how cross-linked polymers containing urethane linkages relax stress under similar conditions, which enables their reprocessing. Materials based on hydroxyl-terminated star-shaped poly(ethylene oxide) and poly((±)-lactide) were cross-linked with methylene diphenyldiisocyanate in the presence of stannous octoate catalyst...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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