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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785444/protection-of-hepatocyte-mitochondrial-function-by-blueberry-juice-and-probiotics-via-sirt1-regulation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Tingting Ren, Lili Zhu, Yanyan Shen, Qiuju Mou, Tao Lin, Hongchao Feng
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous study has firstly reported that blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) effectively protect liver function in NAFLD. However, the role of BP in hepatic mitochondria is unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of BP on the mitochondrial function and oxidative stress of rats with NAFLD. The NAFLD rat models were established and treated with BP and SIRT1 siRNA. The mitochondrial ultrastructure was analyzed by electron microscopy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by immunofluorescence, and biomarkers of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were examined via quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784480/combined-effect-of-heat-and-nutritional-stress-on-superovulation-of-malpura-ewes-in-a-semi-arid-region
#2
Davendra Kumar, Kalyan De, Indu Shekhawat, Saumya Bahadur, Krishnappa Balaganur, S M K Naqvi
Sheep reared in hot semi-arid environments are generally exposed to heat and nutritional stress in some seasons of the year, which affects both production and reproduction. To assess the effect of high ambient temperature and feed scarcity on superovulation, 16 adult Malpura ewes were randomly divided into two groups of 8 animals each. G1 (control) was kept under a shed and offered a maintenance diet, and G2 (combined stress) was subjected to both nutritional (30% less of maintenance diet) and heat (38-44 °C for 6 h/day) stress...
February 2019: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784263/triphenyl-phosphonium-tpp-derived-protein-sulfenic-acid-trapping-agents-synthesis-reactivity-and-effect-on-mitochondrial-function
#3
Zhe Li, Tom E Forshaw, Reetta J Holmila, Stephen A Vance, Hanzhi Wu, Leslie B Poole, Cristina M Furdui, S Bruce King
Redox mediated protein modifications control numerous processes in both normal and disease metabolism. Protein sulfenic acids, formed from the oxidation of protein cysteine residues, play a critical role in thiol-based redox signaling. The reactivity of protein sulfenic acids requires their identification through chemical trapping and this paper describes the use of the triphenyl phosphonium ion to direct known sulfenic acid traps to the mitochondria, a verified source of cellular reactive oxygen species. Coupling of the triphenyl phosphonium (TPP) group with the 2, 4-(dioxocyclohexyl)propoxy (DCP) unit and the bicyclo[6...
February 20, 2019: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781698/chronic-hypoxia-enhances-%C3%AE-oxidation-dependent-electron-transport-via-electron-transferring-flavoproteins
#4
Dominik C Fuhrmann, Catherine Olesch, Nina Kurrle, Frank Schnütgen, Sven Zukunft, Ingrid Fleming, Bernhard Brüne
Hypoxia poses a stress to cells and decreases mitochondrial respiration, in part by electron transport chain (ETC) complex reorganization. While metabolism under acute hypoxia is well characterized, alterations under chronic hypoxia largely remain unexplored. We followed oxygen consumption rates in THP-1 monocytes during acute (16 h) and chronic (72 h) hypoxia, compared to normoxia, to analyze the electron flows associated with glycolysis, glutamine, and fatty acid oxidation. Oxygen consumption under acute hypoxia predominantly demanded pyruvate, while under chronic hypoxia, fatty acid- and glutamine-oxidation dominated...
February 18, 2019: Cells
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779720/hemodynamic-directed-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-improves-neurologic-outcomes-and-mitochondrial-function-in-the-heart-and-brain
#5
Andrew J Lautz, Ryan W Morgan, Michael Karlsson, Constantine D Mavroudis, Tiffany S Ko, Daniel J Licht, Vinay M Nadkarni, Robert A Berg, Robert M Sutton, Todd J Kilbaugh
OBJECTIVES: Less than half of the thousands of children who suffer in-hospital cardiac arrests annually survive, and neurologic injury is common among survivors. Hemodynamic-directed cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves short-term survival, but its impact on longer term survival and mitochondrial respiration-a potential neurotherapeutic target-remains unknown. The primary objectives of this study were to compare rates of 24-hour survival with favorable neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest treated with hemodynamic-directed cardiopulmonary resuscitation versus standard depth-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to compare brain and heart mitochondrial respiration between groups 24 hours after resuscitation...
March 2019: Critical Care Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778570/effects-of-dietary-taurine-supplementation-on-growth-performance-jejunal-morphology-appetite-related-hormones-and-genes-expression-in-broilers-subjected-to-chronic-heat-stress
#6
Xiaofang He, Zhuang Lu, Bingbing Ma, Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Yun Jiang, Guanghong Zhou, Feng Gao
This study was aimed to elucidate effects of taurine supplementation on growth performance, jejunal histology, and appetite-related genes expressions of broilers under heat stress. A total of 144 broilers on 28 d were allocated to three groups with 6 cages each group, 8 broilers per cage. The experiment period is from 28 to 42 d of age. In normal control (NC) group, chickens were held at 22°C ambient temperature (thermoneutral) and fed a basal diet. In the heat stress (HS) group, chickens were raised to constant HS at 32°C and received a basal diet...
February 19, 2019: Poultry Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778303/polyscore-of-non-invasive-cardiac-risk-factors
#7
Alexander Steger, Alexander Müller, Petra Barthel, Michael Dommasch, Katharina Maria Huster, Katerina Hnatkova, Daniel Sinnecker, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Marek Malik, Georg Schmidt
Non-invasive risk stratification of cardiac patients has been the subject of numerous studies. Most of these investigations either researched unique risk predictors or compared the predictive power of different predictors. Fewer studies suggested a combination of a small number of non-invasive indices to increase the accuracy of high-risk group selection. To advance non-invasive risk assessment of cardiac patients, we propose a combination score (termed the Polyscore) of seven different cardiac risk stratifiers that predominantly quantify autonomic cardiovascular control and regulation, namely the slope of heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity of heart rate, non-invasively assessed baroreflex sensitivity, resting respiration frequency, expiration triggered sinus arrhythmia, post-ectopic potentiation of systolic blood pressure, and frequency of supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778219/nad-metabolism-governs-the-proinflammatory-senescence-associated-secretome
#8
Timothy Nacarelli, Lena Lau, Takeshi Fukumoto, Joseph Zundell, Nail Fatkhutdinov, Shuai Wu, Katherine M Aird, Osamu Iwasaki, Andrew V Kossenkov, David Schultz, Ken-Ichi Noma, Joseph A Baur, Zachary Schug, Hsin-Yao Tang, David W Speicher, Gregory David, Rugang Zhang
Cellular senescence is a stable growth arrest that is implicated in tissue ageing and cancer. Senescent cells are characterized by an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, which is termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). NAD+ metabolism influences both tissue ageing and cancer. However, the role of NAD+ metabolism in regulating the SASP is poorly understood. Here, we show that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme of the NAD+ salvage pathway, governs the proinflammatory SASP independent of senescence-associated growth arrest...
February 18, 2019: Nature Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778093/effects-of-light-and-darkness-on-ph-regulation-in-three-coral-species-exposed-to-seawater-acidification
#9
A A Venn, E Tambutté, N Caminiti-Segonds, N Techer, D Allemand, S Tambutté
The resilience of corals to ocean acidification has been proposed to rely on regulation of extracellular calcifying medium pH (pHECM ), but few studies have compared the capacity of coral species to control this parameter at elevated pCO2 . Furthermore, exposure to light and darkness influences both pH regulation and calcification in corals, but little is known about its effect under conditions of seawater acidification. Here we investigated the effect of acidification in light and darkness on pHECM , calcifying cell intracellular pH (pHI ), calcification, photosynthesis and respiration in three coral species: Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora hyacinthus...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777185/measurement-of-feeding-rates-respiration-and-ph-regulatory-processes-in-the-light-of-ocean-acidification-research
#10
Meike Stumpp, Sam Dupont, Marian Y Hu
The physiology of marine larvae has received considerable attention in the context of anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA). Many marine larvae including those of echinoderms, hemichordates, and mollusks are characterized by a developmental delay when exposed to reductions in seawater pH with the underlying mechanisms being largely unexplored. A key task in the frame of OA research lies in the identification of unifying physiological principles that may explain reductions in growth and development. The sea urchin larva has been identified as a good model organism, and energy allocations toward compensatory processes were found to be key factors affecting development...
2019: Methods in Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775567/respiratory-patterns-of-european-pear-pyrus-communis-l-conference-throughout-pre-and-post-harvest-fruit-development
#11
Nicole Brandes, Manuela Zude-Sasse
Information on the developmental stage of pear pre-harvest and in shelf-life is crucial to determine the optimum timing of harvest, post-harvest treatment, and time of consumption ensuring high eating quality. In the present study, CO2 emission and fruit quality of European pear ( Pyrus communis L.) 'Conference' were analysed pre- and post-harvest with emphasis on shelf life for three years. Additionally, cytochrome and cyanide-resistant O2 consumption were analysed in the last year of experiments. The respiration rate of pear showed typical climacteric rise of CO2 emission in two years only, despite daily measurements...
January 2019: Heliyon
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775180/impact-of-intercropping-on-the-coupling-between-soil-microbial-community-structure-activity-and-nutrient-use-efficiencies
#12
Tengxiang Lian, Yinghui Mu, Jian Jin, Qibin Ma, Yanbo Cheng, Zhandong Cai, Hai Nian
Sugarcane-soybean intercropping has been widely used to control disease and improve nutrition in the field. However, the response of the soil microbial community diversity and structure to intercropping is not well understood. Since microbial diversity corresponds to soil quality and plant health, a pot experiment was conducted with sugarcane intercropped with soybean. Rhizosphere soil was collected 40 days after sowing, and MiSeq sequencing was utilized to analyze the soil microbial community diversity and composition...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774207/effect-of-forward-head-posture-on-thoracic-shape-and-respiratory-function
#13
Taiichi Koseki, Fujiyasu Kakizaki, Shogo Hayashi, Naoya Nishida, Masahiro Itoh
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of forward head posture on upper and lower thoracic shape in adults to better understand the relationship between a forward head posture and respiratory function. [Participants and Methods] Fifteen healthy males were recruited after obtaining informed consent from all participants. All participants were instructed to respire in both the forward and neutral head postures while seated. Respiratory function was assessed using spirometry. Thoracic shape during respiration was assessed using 23 markers on both the upper and the lower thorax and compared between the 2 postures...
January 2019: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771629/ecotoxicological-effects-of-traffic-related-pollutants-in-roadside-soils-of-moscow
#14
Olga Nikolaeva, Vladimir Tikhonov, Maxim Vecherskii, Natalia Kostina, Elena Fedoseeva, Angelika Astaikina
The objective of this research is to find correlations between traffic-related contaminants in the roadside soils and their ecotoxicity. The study was conducted in Moscow in the vicinity of a highway of 125 000 vehicles per day. The topsoils (0-3 cm depth) were sampled perpendicular to the road at 1-, 6-, 10-, 18- and 50-m distances from the roadbed. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy metals (HM) in total and phyto-available forms, and deicing salts (DS) were determined...
February 13, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770604/differential-responses-to-ocean-acidification-between-populations-of-balanophyllia-elegans-corals-from-high-and-low-upwelling-environments
#15
Joanna S Griffiths, Francis T-C Pan, Morgan W Kelly
Ocean acidification (OA), the global decrease in surface water pH from absorption of anthropogenic CO2 , may put many marine taxa at risk. However, populations that experience extreme localized conditions, and are adapted to these conditions predicted in the global ocean in 2100, may be more tolerant to future OA. By identifying locally adapted populations, researchers can examine the mechanisms used to cope with decreasing pH. One oceanographic process that influences pH, is wind driven upwelling. Here we compare two Californian populations of the coral Balanophyllia elegans from distinct upwelling regimes, and test their physiological and transcriptomic responses to experimental seawater acidification...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Ecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770287/night-time-transpiration-favouring-growth
#16
REVIEW
Wieland Fricke
Plants grow and transpire water during the day and night. Recent work highlights the idea that night-time transpirational water loss is a consequence of allowing respiratory CO2 to escape at sufficiently high rates through stomata. Respiration fuels night-time leaf expansion and requires carbohydrates produced during the day. As carbohydrate availability and growth are under the control of the plants' internal clock, so is night-time transpiration. The cost of night-time transpiration is that water is lost without carbon being gained, the benefit is a higher efficiency of taken up water for use in leaf expansion...
February 12, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769812/computational-psychometrics-using-psychophysiological-measures-for-the-assessment-of-acute-mental-stress
#17
Pietro Cipresso, Desirée Colombo, Giuseppe Riva
The goal of this study was to provide reliable quantitative analyses of psycho-physiological measures during acute mental stress. Acute, time-limited stressors are used extensively as experimental stimuli in psychophysiological research. In particular, the Stroop Color Word Task and the Arithmetical Task have been widely used in several settings as effective mental stressors. We collected psychophysiological data on blood volume pulse, thoracic respiration, and skin conductance from 60 participants at rest and during stressful situations...
February 14, 2019: Sensors
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767385/carbon-flux-from-decomposing-wood-and-its-dependency-on-temperature-wood-n-2-fixation-rate-moisture-and-fungal-composition-in-a-norway-spruce-forest
#18
K T Rinne-Garmston Rinne, K Peltoniemi, J Chen, M Peltoniemi, H Fritze, M Peltoniemi, R Mäkipää
Globally 40-70 Pg of carbon (C) are stored in coarse woody debris on the forest floor. Climate change may reduce the function of this stock as a C sink in the future due to increasing temperature. However, current knowledge on the drivers of wood decomposition is inadequate for detailed predictions. To define the factors that control wood respiration rate of Norway spruce and to produce a model that adequately describes the decomposition process of this species as a function of time, we used an unprecedentedly diverse analytical approach, which included measurements of respiration, fungal community sequencing, N2 fixation rate, nifH copy number, 14 C-dating as well as N%, δ13 C and C% values of wood...
February 15, 2019: Global Change Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767245/metabolic-responses-to-potassium-availability-and-waterlogging-reshape-respiration-and-carbon-use-efficiency-in-oil-palm
#19
Jing Cui, Marlène Davanture, Michel Zivy, Emmanuelle Lamade, Guillaume Tcherkez
Oil palm is by far the major oil-producing crop at the global scale, with ≈62 Mt oil produced each year. This species is a strong potassium (K)-demanding species cultivated in regions where soil K availability is generally low and waterlogging due to tropical heavy rains can limit further nutrient absorption. However, the metabolic effects of K and waterlogging have never been assessed precisely. Here, we examined the metabolic response of oil palm saplings in the greenhouse under controlled conditions (nutrient composition with low or high K availability, with or without waterlogging), using gas exchange, metabolomics and proteomics analyses...
February 15, 2019: New Phytologist
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766559/prevalence-of-autonomic-dysfunction-among-pre-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-in-a-tertiary-hospital-south-east-nigeria
#20
Obinna Onodugo, Ejikeme Arodiwe, Julius Okoye, Birinus Ezeala, Nkiru Onodugo, Ifeoma Ulasi, Chinwuba Ijoma
Background: Autonomic dysfunction (AD) has been recognized as an important contributor to the poor outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Several studies have reported abnormalities in heart rate variability (HRV) among these patients. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Autonomic Dysfunction (AD) in pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional study of eighty chronic kidney disease patients attending the renal unit out-patient in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu was carried out...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
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