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Motor priming

Ajit Kumar, K Dasgupta, Jayanta Das
Novel ways of regulating the speed of a hydraulic drive through controlled operation of the pump either by loading/unloading the UPRV (unloading pressure relief valve) or by switching on/off of the prime mover driving the pump have been presented in this paper. The UPRV is used to operate the pump with a minimum load by diverting the pump delivery to the tank at low pressure. The energy efficiency of the said two methods adopted for controlling the hydro-motor speed is also compared. In this respect, the MATLAB® /Simulink model of the system is made and validated experimentally...
January 25, 2019: ISA Transactions
Fanying Meng, Anmin Li, Yihong You, Chun Xie
Background: Executive control, the ability to regulate the execution of a goal-directed task, is an important element in an athlete's skill set. Although previous studies have shown that executive control in athletes is better than that in non-athletes, those studies were mainly confined to conscious executive control. Many recent studies have suggested that executive control can be triggered by the presentation of visual stimuli without participant's conscious awareness. However, few studies have examined unconscious executive control in sports...
2019: PeerJ
D A E Bolton, S E Schwartz, M Mansour, G Rydalch, D W McDannald
Merely viewing objects within reachable space can activate motor cortical networks and potentiate movement. This holds potential value for smooth interaction with objects in our surroundings, and could offer an advantage for quickly generating targeted hand movements (e.g. grasping a support rail to maintain stability). The present study investigated if viewing a wall-mounted safety handle resulted in automatic activation of motor cortical networks, and if this effect changes with age. Twenty-five young adults (18-30 years) and seventeen older adults (65+ years) were included in this study...
March 2019: Maturitas
Nadeeka N W Dissanayaka, Tiffany R Au, Anthony J Angwin, Kartik K Iyer, John D O'Sullivan, Gerard J Byrne, Peter A Silburn, Rodney Marsh, George D Mellick, David A Copland
BACKGROUND: Depression is a predominant non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), which is often under recognised and undertreated. To improve identification of depression in PD it is imperative to examine objective brain-related markers. The present study addresses this gap by using electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate the processing of emotionally valanced words in PD. METHODS: Fifty non-demented PD patients, unmedicated for depression or anxiety, completed an affective priming task while EEG was simultaneously recorded...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Christopher L Robinson, Richard D Evans, Kajana Sivarasa, Jose S Ramalho, Deborah A Briggs, Alistair N Hume
Regulation of organelle transport by the cytoskeleton is fundamental for eukaryotic survival. Cytoskeleton motors are typically modular proteins with conserved motor and diverse cargo binding domains. Motor:cargo interactions are often indirect and mediated by adaptor proteins e.g. Rab GTPases. Rab27a, via effector melanophilin (Mlph), recruits myosin-Va to melanosomes and thereby disperses them into melanocytes dendrites. To better understand how adaptors regulate motor:cargo interaction we used single melanosome fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (smFRAP) to characterise the association kinetics between myosin-Va, its adaptors and melanosomes...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Ada Le, Francis Benjamin Wall, Gina Lin, Raghavan Arunthavarajah, Matthias Niemeier
Functional behaviour affords that we form goals to integrate sensory information about the world around us with suitable motor actions, such as when we plan to grab an object with a hand. However, much research has tested grasping in static scenarios where goals are pursued with repetitive movements, whereas dynamic contexts require goals to be pursued even when changes in the environment require a change in the actions to attain them. To study grasp goals in dynamic environments here, we employed a task where the goal remained the same but the execution of the movement changed; we primed participants to grasp objects either with their right or left hand, and occasionally they had to switch to grasping with both...
January 29, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ashlyn K Frazer, Glyn Howatson, Juha P Ahtiainen, Janne Avela, Timo Rantalainen, Dawson J Kidgell
Frazer, AK, Howatson, G, Ahtiainen, JP, Avela, J, Rantalainen, T, and Kidgell, DJ. Priming the motor cortex with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation affects the acute inhibitory corticospinal responses to strength training. J Strength Cond Res 33(2): 307-317, 2019-Synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex (M1) is associated with strength training (ST) and can be modified by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The M1 responses to ST increase when anodal tDCS is applied during training due to gating...
February 2019: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Rhyomi C Sellnow, Jordan H Newman, Nicole Chambers, Anthony R West, Kathy Steece-Collier, Ivette M Sandoval, Matthew J Benskey, Christopher Bishop, Fredric P Manfredsson
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are a prevalent side effect of chronic treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA) for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has long been hypothesized that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are capable of L-DOPA uptake and dysregulated release of dopamine (DA), and that this "false neurotransmission" phenomenon is a main contributor to LID development. Indeed, many preclinical studies have demonstrated LID management with serotonin receptor agonist treatment, but unfortunately, promising preclinical data has not been translated in large-scale clinical trials...
January 15, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Geraldine Rodriguez-Nieto, Alexander T Sack, Marieke Dewitte, Franziska Emmerling, Teresa Schuhmann
The successful inhibition of sexual thoughts, desires, and behaviors represents an essential ability for adequate functioning in our daily life. Evidence derived from lesion studies indicates a link between sexual inhibition and the general ability for behavioral and cognitive control. This is further supported by the high comorbidity of sexual compulsivity with other inhibition-related disorders. Here, we aimed at investigating whether sexual and general inhibition recruit overlapping or distinct neural correlates in the brain...
2019: PloS One
Christina U Pfeuffer, Roland Pfister, Anna Foerster, Franziska Stecher, Andrea Kiesel
Telling a consistent lie across multiple occasions poses severe demands on memory. Two cognitive mechanisms aid with overcoming this difficulty: associations between a question and its corresponding response and associations between a question and its previous intentional context (in this case: honest vs. dishonest responding). Here, we assessed whether intentional contexts such as an honest versus dishonest mindset modulate the retrieval of stimulus-response associations. In an item-specific priming paradigm, participants classified stimuli either honestly or dishonestly during a prime and a later probe...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Dayana Hayek, Agnes Flöel, Daria Antonenko
Action comprehension that is related to language or gestural integration has been shown to engage the motor system in the brain, thus providing preliminary evidence for the gestural-verbal embodiment concept. Based on the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex (M1) in language processing, we aimed to further explore its role in the cognitive embodiment necessary for gestural-verbal integration. As such, we applied anodal (excitatory) and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left M1 (with reference electrode over the contralateral supraorbital region) during a gestural-verbal integration task where subjects had to make a decision about the semantic congruency of the gesture (prime) and the word (target)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yuhong V Jiang, Caitlin A Sisk
The control of selective attention is traditionally considered to be either goal-driven or stimulus-driven. Increasing research, however, has linked past experience to attentional selection. Effects of selection history may be transient, as in inter-trial priming, or durable. Here we review several examples of enduring changes of attention and relate them to properties of habits. Like motor habits, reading direction is reinforced over an extended period of time. Despite the brevity of training, probability learning, context learning, value-driven attention, and learned attentional set also exhibit habit-like properties, including automaticity, insensitivity to outcome devaluation, and inflexibility...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Shanie Amanda Liyanagamage Jayasinghe
Action observation involves the observation of an action followed by an attempt to replicate it. Recent studies show that increased sensorimotor cortical connectivity improves motor performance via observation, and that priming the sensory system before observation enhances the effects of observation-based learning. Understanding the role of the sensory system is, therefore, critical for rehabilitation of movement disorders that have a sensory deficit.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Max-Philipp Stenner, Charlotte Baumgaertel, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Christos Ganos, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disinhibition has been proposed as a key mechanism in Tourette syndrome. Yet classic inhibition tasks have yielded inconsistent results, likely reflecting interference by strategies compensating for tic release. METHODS: We examined a core inhibitory function that is immune to such interference because it suppresses movements automatically. We measured automatic motor inhibition behaviorally in 21 adults with Tourette syndrome and 21 healthy controls via the negative compatibility effect...
November 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Samantha M Meadows, Melissa M Conti, Libby Gross, Nicole E Chambers, Yarden Avnor, Corinne Y Ostock, Kathryn Lanza, Christopher Bishop
BACKGROUND: The serotonergic system is a well-established modulator of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. To date, targeting serotonin transporters or serotonin receptor subtype 1A (5-HT1A ) reduces l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in animal models; however, these strategies have failed to translate clinically. Ideally, a compound acting at both known antidyskinetic sites could optimize serotonin-mediated approaches. Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a partial 5-HT1A agonist approved by the U...
November 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Christopher J Dakin, David A E Bolton
To interact successfully with an uncertain environment, organisms must be able to respond to both unanticipated and anticipated events. For unanticipated events, organisms have evolved stereotyped motor behaviors mapped to the statistical regularities of the environment, which can be trigged by specific sensory stimuli. These "reflexive" responses are more or less hardwired to prevent falls and represent, maybe, the best available solution to maintaining posture given limited available time and information...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Francesco De Bellis, Alfonso Magliacano, Laura Sagliano, Massimiliano Conson, Dario Grossi, Luigi Trojano
Previous studies showed that motor information related to tool use (i.e., functional actions) could affect processing of objects semantic properties, whereas motor information related to grasping or moving tool (i.e., structural actions) cannot. However, little is known about the neural correlates mediating such interaction between motor and semantic information. Here, healthy participants performed a semantic judgment task requiring identification of semantic relations among objects, after observing a functional, a structural or a pointing action prime...
November 8, 2018: Psychological Research
Simone Schaeffner, Iring Koch, Andrea M Philipp
Sensory-motor modality compatibility is defined as the similarity between the sensory modality and the modality of response-related effects. Previous dual-task and task-switching studies have shown higher performance costs for coordinating relatively incompatible sensory-motor modality mappings (i.e., auditory-manual and visual-vocal) compared to more compatible mappings (i.e., auditory-vocal and visual-manual). Until now, however, little attention has been paid to potential variability in effects of modality compatibility depending on different processing codes...
October 9, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Harry Thomas Jordan, Cathy M Stinear
Bilateral priming is a rehabilitation adjuvant that can improve upper limb motor recovery post-stroke. It uses a table-top device to couple the upper limbs together such that active flexion and extension of one wrist leads to passive movement of the opposite wrist in a mirror symmetric pattern. Bilateral priming increases corticomotor excitability (CME) in the primary motor cortex (M1) of the passively driven wrist, however the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this increase remain unclear. This study explored these mechanisms by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right M1 and recording motor evoked potentials from the passively driven left extensor carpi radialis of healthy adults...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Camila Hillesheim Horst, Franciele Schlemmer, Natália de Aguiar Montenegro, Ana Carolina Martins Domingues, Gabriel Ginani Ferreira, Cínthia Yara da Silva Ribeiro, Rafael Rocha de Andrade, Elaine Del Bel Guimarães, Simoneide Souza Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly complex brain disorder regarding clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and therapeutics. The cardinal motor signs, i.e., rigidity, bradykinesia, and unilateral tremors, arise in consequence of a progressive neuron death during the prodromal phase. Although multiple transmission systems are involved in disease neurobiology, patients will cross the line between the prodromal and early stage of diagnosed PD when they had lost half of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells. As the neurons continue to die ascending the neuroaxis, patients will face a more disabling disease with motor and nonmotor signs...
November 2018: Neurochemical Research
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