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Cancer, pediatric cancer,

Bárbara Paranhos Coelho, Mariana Maier Gaelzer, Fernanda Dos Santos Petry, Juliana Bender Hoppe, Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Christianne G Salbego, Fátima T C R Guma
Several studies have demonstrated the antitumor effect of doxazosin, an α1-adrenergic blocker, against glioma and breast, bladder and prostate cancers. Doxazosin is also being evaluated as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism, and α1-adrenergic blockers have been linked to neuroprotection in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Cancer and AD have an inverse relationship in many aspects, with several factors that contribute to apoptosis inhibition and proliferation being increased in cancers but decreased in AD...
February 13, 2019: Neuroscience
Bridget G Parsons, Jennifer L Hay, Lisa G Aspinwall, Kelsey Zaugg, Angela Zhu, Ryan H Mooney, Stephanie Z Klein, Douglas Grossman, Sancy A Leachman, Yelena P Wu
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Screening can aid in early disease detection, when treatment is more effective. Although there are currently no consensus guidelines regarding skin screening for pediatric populations with elevated familial risk for melanoma, at-risk children with the help of their parents and healthcare providers may implement skin self-exams. Healthcare providers may also recommend screening practices for these children. The goal of the current study was to describe current screening behaviors and provider recommendation for screening among children of melanoma survivors...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Tony H Truong, Jason D Pole, Henrique Bittencourt, Tal Schechter, Geoff D E Cuvelier, Kristjan Paulson, Meera Rayar, David Mitchell, Kirk R Schultz, Debbie O'Shea, Randy Barber, Donna Wall, Lillian Sung
INTRODUCTION: Access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is primarily dependent on disease-related factors but may be influenced by social and economic determinants. METHODS: We included all children < 15 years old with newly diagnosed ALL in Canada between 2001 and 2018 using the Cancer in Young People in Canada (CYP-C) national registry. We examined factors potentially associated with the likelihood of receiving HSCT using univariate and multivariable logistic regression models...
February 12, 2019: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Eric J Chow, Kasey J Leger, Neel S Bhatt, Daniel A Mulrooney, Colin J Ross, Sanjeev Aggarwal, Neha Bansal, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Saro H Armenian, Jessica M Scott, Borah Hong
With five-year survival of children with cancer exceeding 80% in developed countries, premature cardiovascular disease is now a major cause of early morbidity and mortality. In addition to the acute and chronic cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines, related chemotherapeutics, and radiation, a growing number of new molecular targeted agents may also have detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Survivors of childhood cancer also may have earlier development of conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, which further increase their risk of serious cardiovascular disease...
February 15, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Cheryl C Rodgers, Mary C Hooke, Olga A Taylor, Kari M Koerner, Pauline A Mitby, Ida M Moore, Michael E Scheurer, Marilyn J Hockenberry, Wei Pan
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of the Childhood Cancer Symptom Cluster-Leukemia (CCSC-L) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). SAMPLE &AMP; SETTING: 327 children receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia from four pediatric oncology programs across the United States. METHODS &AMP; VARIABLES: Participants completed fatigue, sleep disturbance, pain, nausea, and depression symptom questionnaires at four time points; these symptoms comprised the CCSC-L...
March 1, 2019: Oncology Nursing Forum
Peter C Adamson, Gareth J Veal, Richard B Womer, Holly J Meany, M Brooke Bernhardt, A Lindsay Frazier, Frank M Balis
BACKGROUND: Carboplatin is often adaptively dosed based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), usually estimated by nuclear medicine tests. At least five pediatric adaptive dosing formulas have been developed. In an effort to standardize dosing in Children's Oncology Group protocols, we explored methodologic variation in GFR estimation and adaptive-dosing formula performance. PROCEDURE: Nuclear medicine GFR data from published series of ≥100 children with cancer were compared...
February 15, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Nadia Soudani, Miguela A Caniza, Aia Assaf-Casals, Rouba Shaker, Mireille Lteif, Yin Su, Li Tang, Imad Akel, Samar Muwakkit, Ahmad Chmaisse, Maysam Homsi, Ghassan Dbaibo, Hassan Zaraket
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer patients have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory viral infections than do other patient populations. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the causative viruses of respiratory infections and their burden among pediatric cancer patients in Lebanon. STUDY DESIGN: Nasopharyngeal swabs along with clinical and demographic data were collected from pediatric cancer patients presenting febrile episodes with upper respiratory tract symptoms...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
E Clemens, B Brooks, A C H de Vries, M van Grotel, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, B Carleton
Childhood cancer patients treated with platinums often develop hearing loss and the degree is classified according to different scales globally. Our objective was to compare concordance between five well-known ototoxicity scales used for childhood cancer patients. Audiometric test results (n = 654) were evaluated longitudinally and graded according Brock, Chang, International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) Boston, Muenster scales and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Technology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4...
2019: PloS One
Thomas J Jackson, Richard D Williams, Jesper Brok, Tanzina Chowdhury, Milind Ronghe, Mark Powis, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Gordan M Vujanić
INTRODUCTION: The International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols recommend preoperative chemotherapy appropriate for Wilms tumors (WTs) in children with renal tumors aged ≥6 months, reserving biopsy for "atypical" cases. The Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) joined the SIOP-WT-2001 study but continued the national practice of biopsy at presentation. METHOD: Retrospective study of concordance between locally reported renal tumor biopsies and central pathology review nephrectomy diagnoses of children enrolled by CCLG centers in the SIOP-WT-2001 study...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Kevin Madden, Maira Magno Charone, Sarah Mills, Seyedeh Dibaj, Janet L Williams, Diane Liu, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Systematic symptom assessment is not a standard of care in children with cancer. Many well-known symptom assessment tools are lengthy or difficult to integrate into a daily pediatric palliative care practice. We created a series of brief and simple questions to be systematically given to children and their caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the percentage of eligible children and caregivers exposed to the questions that were able to complete the assessment...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Tyler S McCann, Lays M Sobral, Chelsea Self, Joseph Hsieh, Marybeth Sechler, Paul Jedlicka
Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulatory control play fundamental roles in developmental morphogenesis, and, as more recently appreciated, are heavily implicated in the onset and progression of neoplastic disease, including cancer. Many epigenetic mechanisms are therapeutically targetable, providing additional incentive for understanding of their contribution to cancer and other types of neoplasia. Areas covered: The Jumonji-domain histone demethylase (JHDM) family exemplifies many of the above traits. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the functions and pharmacologic targeting of JHDMs in cancer and other neoplastic processes, with an emphasis on diseases affecting the pediatric population...
February 13, 2019: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Thomas P Howard, Taylor E Arnoff, Melinda R Song, Andrew O Giacomelli, Xiaofeng Wang, Andrew L Hong, Neekesh V Dharia, Su Wang, Francisca Vazquez, Minh-Tam Pham, Ann M Morgan, Franziska Wachter, Gregory H Bird, Guillaume Kugener, Elaine M Oberlick, Matthew G Rees, Hong L Tiv, Justin H Hwang, Katherine H Walsh, April Cook, John M Krill-Burger, Aviad Tsherniak, Prafulla C Gokhale, Peter J Park, Kimberly Stegmaier, Loren D Walensky, William C Hahn, Charles W M Roberts
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) are highly aggressive pediatric cancers that respond poorly to current therapies. In this study, we screened several MRT cell lines with large-scale RNAi, CRISPR-Cas9, and small-molecule libraries to identify potential drug targets specific for these cancers. We discovered MDM2 and MDM4, the canonical negative regulators of p53, as significant vulnerabilities. Using two compounds currently in clinical development, idasanutlin (MDM2-specific) and ATSP-7041 (MDM2/4-dual), we show that MRT cells were more sensitive than other p53 wild-type cancer cell lines to inhibition of MDM2 alone as well as dual inhibition of MDM2/4...
February 12, 2019: Cancer Research
Jianling Ji, Lishuang Shen, Moiz Bootwalla, Catherine Quindipan, Tatiana Tatarinova, Dennis T Maglinte, Jonathan Buckley, Gordana Raca, Sulagna C Saitta, Jaclyn A Biegel, Xiaowu Gai
BACKGROUND: Advancing the clinical utility of whole exome sequencing (WES) for patients with suspected genetic disorders is largely driven by bioinformatics approaches that streamline data processing and analysis. METHODS: Herein, we describe our experience with implementing a semi-automated and phenotype-driven WES diagnostic workflow, incorporating both the DRAGEN pipeline and the Exomiser variant prioritization tool, at an academic children's hospital with an ethnically diverse pediatric patient population...
February 12, 2019: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Paula K Braverman
Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted viral infection worldwide, is the causative agent for cervical cancer and attributed to anogenital cancers as well as oropharyngeal cancer. Three effective, safe, prophylactic HPV vaccines have been licensed, and studies have demonstrated decreases in HPV prevalence and HPV-related disease endpoints without evidence of waning protection to date. In the United States, only the 9-valent vaccine, which covers 90% of the cancers attributed to HPV in US registries, is available...
February 1, 2019: Pediatric Annals
Benjamin Walter, Simone Schmidbaur, Yannick Krieger, Alexander Meining
Background  En-bloc resection of large, flat lesions or early stages of cancer is challenging. No bimanual tasks are possible using standard endoscopes. Dual-channel endoscopes are not available everywhere and have a small distance between the channels. Patients and methods  A new external additional working channel (AWC) (Ovesco, Tuebingen, Germany) was designed and developed potentially enabling bimanual tasks. Fixed to the tip of a standard gastroscope or pediatric colonoscope, a second endoscopic tool can be inserted through the AWC and used for tissue retraction during endoscopic resection...
February 2019: Endoscopy International Open
Shannon M Grap, Edward Fox, Michelle Freeman, George F Blackall, Priti G Dalal
PURPOSE: Although total prevention of phantom pain is difficult, pediatric patients requiring amputation benefit from an individualized combination of analgesic techniques for phantom pain reduction using a multimodal and interprofessional approach. This is especially useful in the event a single therapy is ineffective for total pain reduction, and may ultimately lead to a reduction in chronic pain development. DESIGN: Case report with multimodal and interprofessional approach...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Burcu S Akel, Sedef Şahin, Meral Huri, Canan Akyüz
This study aimed to investigate the effect of task-oriented inpatient cognitive rehabilitation on fatigue perception and independence in daily activities. Forty (22 males, 18 females) children with pediatric cancer were randomized to either study [n=22; 10.81 (1.33) years] or control [n=18; 10.16 (1.24) years] groups. The study group received a cognitive rehabilitation intervention in addition to a routine therapy program, and the control group received a routine therapy program for 15 sessions. Cognitive status, fatigue, and daily life activity outcomes were assessed by blinded assessors in before and after interventions in the hospital setting...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Rachel L Harrington, Dima M Qato, James W Antoon, Rachel N Caskey, Glen T Schumock, Todd A Lee
Early survivors of pediatric cancer are at increased risk of experiencing chronic conditions; however, little is known about the morbidity burden in this population. In this observational cohort study of commercially insured pediatric cancer survivors in the United States (2009-2014), we find that 22.5% of survivors had one chronic condition, and 36.3% had multiple. Compared with survivors without chronic conditions, the presence of multiple conditions significantly increased the odds of an emergency department visit by 70% (odds ratios [OR], 1...
February 10, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Anna J Janss, Claire Mazewski, Briana Patterson
Pathologies of pediatric brain tumors are more varied than those diagnosed in adults and survival outcomes more optimistic. Therapies for pediatric brain tumors are also diverse and treatment options are expanding. The growing number of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors is quite diverse. Medical management of these adults requires understanding the tumor diagnosis and location, the modalities used to treat the tumor, the age of the survivor at the time of diagnosis and treatment, any complications of treatment, and, most importantly, the baseline medical condition and neurological function of each adult survivor...
February 9, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Marianna Criscuolo, Francesco Marchesi, Anna Candoni, Chiara Cattaneo, Annamaria Nosari, Barbara Veggia, Luisa Verga, Nicola Fracchiolla, Nicola Vianelli, Maria Ilaria Del Principe, Marco Picardi, Mario Tumbarello, Franco Aversa, Alessandro Busca, Livio Pagano
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections are still a relevant challenge for clinicians involved in the cure of patients with cancer. We retrospectively reviewed charts of hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies (HMs), in which a documented fungemia was diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2015 at 28 adult and 6 pediatric Italian Hematology Departments. METHODS: During the study period we recorded 215 fungal blood stream infections (BSI). Microbiological analyses documented that BSI was due to molds in 17 patients (8%) and yeasts in 198 patients (92%), being Candida spp identified in 174 patients (81%)...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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