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Emerging Treatment

Hideo Hagihara, Koji Ohira, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
AIMS: The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine in the brain are not fully understood. Emerging evidence has led to the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment induces dematuration of certain types of mature neurons in rodents. These studies have focused on the properties of typical molecular and/or electrophysiological markers for neuronal maturation. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether dematuration-related phenomena are present at the genome-wide gene expression level...
February 16, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Elizabeth Palmer Kelly, Alexa Meara, Madison Hyer, Nicolette Payne, Timothy M Pawlik
The purpose of the current study was to characterize the experiences of cancer patients and their caregiver/family members around their relationship with their oncologist, health care team, and the hospital environment. Participants were recruited from The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. Participant sociodemographic factors were assessed. Focus groups were moderated and recorded by two members of the research team using a semi-structured interview format. The audio recordings were transcribed and uploaded to NViVO 11 for analyses...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Adam Reuben, Andrew Appelboam, Andy Barton, Patricia Jane Vickery, Richard Body, Malcolm Hilton, Jason Coppell, Paul Ewings
INTRODUCTION: Patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with epistaxis uncontrolled by subsequent simple first aid measures or application of topical vasoconstrictors will typically undergo anterior nasal packing. Packing is effective, but can be extremely painful and unpleasant and patients usually need hospital admission. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a cheap, safe, readily available antifibrinolytic agent known to be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings where uncontrolled bleeding may be a problem...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Bridie Angela Evans, Alan Brown, Jenna Bulger, Greg Fegan, Simon Ford, Katy Guy, SIan Jones, Leigh Keen, Ashrafunnesa Khanom, Mirella Longo, Ian Pallister, Nigel Rees, Ian T Russell, Anne C Seagrove, Alan Watkins, Helen Snooks
OBJECTIVES: To explore paramedics' experience of delivering fascia iliaca compartment block ( FICB) to patients with suspected hip fracture at the scene of injury. DESIGN: Focus groups within a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Paramedics based at ambulance stations in the catchment area of one Emergency Department in South Wales, recruited and trained in a feasibility study about an alternative to routine prehospital pain management for patients with suspected hip fracture...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Eva M Mathews, Emily Jeffries, Chenen Hsieh, Glenn Jones, Julia D Buckner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Synthetic cannabinoid use is associated with severe problems, including psychosis, kidney failure, and death. Given that young adults are especially vulnerable to using synthetic cannabinoids, the current study sought to identify factors and consequences related to use within this population. METHODS: 1140 undergraduates completed an online survey of synthetic cannabinoid use, consequences, and related constructs. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime synthetic cannabinoid use was 7...
February 11, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Jiafu Li, Jiahui He, Yuna Li, Yunqing Liu, Wenjie Li, Nan Wu, Lifen Zhang, Ying Zhang, Zhiguang Niu
As one group of emerging pollutants, the threat of organophosphate esters (flame retardants and plasticizers, OPEs) to drinking water safety is not well recognized. Now, the oral reference dose (RfD) and oral cancer slope factor (SFO) of OPEs have been updated by USPEA, therefore the threat of OPEs to drinking water safety could be assessed. In this study, occurrence, health risk and key impact factor of OPEs in drinking water of China were analyzed covering 79 cities, whose population and gross domestic product (GDP) accounted for 28...
February 1, 2019: Water Research
Leah Quinlivan, Sarah Steeg, Jamie Elvidge, Rebecca Nowland, Linda Davies, Keith Hawton, David Gunnell, Nav Kapur
BACKGROUND: Risk scales are used widely for assessing individuals presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) following self-harm. There is growing evidence that risk scales have limited clinical utility in identifying episodes at highest risk of repeat self-harm. However, their cost-effectiveness in terms of treatment allocation and subsequent repeat self-harm is unknown. We aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of five risk scales (SAD PERSONS Scale, Modified SAD PERSONS Scale, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, Manchester Self-Harm Rule, Barratt Impulsivity Scale) and single item clinician and patient ratings of risk...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Joseph M Currier, Joshua D Foster, Charlotte vanOyen Witvliet, Alexis D Abernethy, Lindsey M Root Luna, Sarah A Schnitker, Karl VanHarn, Janet Carter
BACKGROUND: Persons contending with serious mental health difficulties often experience struggles with religious faith and/or spirituality that may also demand clinical attention. However, research has not examined the relative importance of specific forms of spiritual struggles in mental health status or treatment outcomes of psychiatric patients. METHODS: Focusing on 217 adults who completed a spiritually integrated inpatient program, this study examined (1) which struggles in Exline et al...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Arpandeep Randhawa, Tulika Gupta, Parmod Singh, Anjali Aggarwal, Daisy Sahni
INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a less invasive treatment than surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis. Understanding the anatomy of aortic valve complex may help in optimal positioning of prosthetic valve and circumvent complications that can arise during its implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The anatomy of aortic root was studied in 30 formalin-fixed cadavers. Aortic root and left ventricular cavity was opened to measure the diameter at the base of aortic root and sinotubular junction (STJ); distance of coronary ostia from base of aortic root and STJ; height and width of aortic valve leaflets; length and thickness of membranous septum (MS)...
January 21, 2019: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Stefan Noël Tolboom, Danay Carrillo-Nieves, Magdalena de Jesús Rostro-Alanis, Reynaldo de la Cruz Quiroz, Damià Barceló, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Roberto Parra-Saldivar
Owing to the controlled or uncontrolled industrial wastewater disposal, pharmaceutical-based hazardous emerging contaminants (ECs) can be found in the environment all over the world. With ever-increasing socioeconomic aspects and environmental awareness, people are now more concerns about the widespread occurrences of hazardous and persistent contaminants, around the globe. In this context, several studies have already shown that various types of emerging and/or re-emerging contaminants, regardless the source, type and concentration, are of supreme threat to the living system of flora and fauna...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Patrick W Sullivan, Ghushchyan Vahram, Kavati Abhishek, Navaratnam Prakash, Howard S Friedman, Ortiz Benjamin
BACKGROUND: Examining national trends in asthma treatment and control is essential to inform treatment and public health initiatives. OBJECTIVE: Explore national trends in asthma control and treatment over time among children and those residing in poor-urban areas. METHODS: This was an analysis of trends from 2003-2014 among children (aged 1-17) in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Indicators of poor control included use of >3 canisters short-acting beta agonist (SABA) in 3 months, asthma attack, Emergency Department (ED)/inpatient (IP) hospitalization and systemic corticosteroids (SCS)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Serge Ducommun, Maria Deak, Anja Zeigerer, Olga Göransson, Susanne Seitz, Caterina Collodet, Agnete B Madsen, Thomas E Jensen, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Philipp Gut, David Sumpton, Kei Sakamoto
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acting as a sensor of energy and nutrient status. As such, AMPK is considered a promising drug target for treatment of medical conditions particularly associated with metabolic dysfunctions. To better understand the downstream effectors and physiological consequences of AMPK activation, we have employed a chemical genetic screen in mouse primary hepatocytes in an attempt to identify novel AMPK targets. Treatment of hepatocytes with a potent and specific AMPK activator 991 resulted in identification of 65 proteins phosphorylated upon AMPK activation, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid/glycogen metabolism, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization...
February 14, 2019: Cellular Signalling
Xiao-Ju Wang, Rong-Jin Zhou, Ni Zhang, Zhao Jing
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have become a standard therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitive mutations. However, acquired resistance inevitably emerges after a median of 6~12 months. It has been demonstrated that autophagy plays an important role in EGFR-TKI resistance. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is proposed to sensitize the cancer cells to chemotherapy by inhibiting autophagy. We examined the ability of Rg3 to inhibit autophagy and increase the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to icotinib...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Mohamed M Hassanein, Rakesh Sahay, Khadija Hafidh, Khier Djaballah, Haoyu Li, Sami Azar, Naim Shehadeh, Wasim Hanif
AIMS: Adding lixisenatide to basal insulin (BI) instead of sulfonylurea (SU), versus continuing SU + BI was assessed in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who intended to fast during Ramadan 2017. METHODS: LixiRam (NCT02941367) was a phase 4, randomized, open-label, 12-22-week study in people with T2DM insufficiently controlled with SU + BI ± 1 oral anti-diabetic. Endpoints included the percentage of participants with ≥1 documented symptomatic hypoglycemia event (plasma glucose ≤70 mg/dL; primary endpoint) and any hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting...
February 14, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
E Pead, R Megaw, J Cameron, A Fleming, B Dhillon, E Trucco, T MacGillivray
The rising prevalence of age-related eye diseases, particularly age-related macular degeneration (AMD), places an ever-increasing burden on healthcare providers. As new treatments emerge, it is necessary to develop methods for reliably assessing patients' disease status and stratifying risk of progression. The presence of drusen in the retina represents a key early feature where size, number and morphology are thought to correlate significantly with risk of progression to sight-threatening AMD. Manual labelling of drusen on color fundus photographs by a human is labor intensive and is where automatic computerised detection would appreciably aid patient care...
February 14, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
Alastair Davies, Vincenza Conteduca, Amina Zoubeidi, Himisha Beltran
CONTEXT: Recent studies focused on the molecular characterization of metastatic prostate cancer have identified genomic subsets and emerging resistance patterns. Detection of these alterations in patients has potential implications for therapy selection and prognostication. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to review the current landscape of clinical and molecular biomarkers in advanced prostate cancer and understand how they may reflect underlying tumor biology...
February 13, 2019: European Urology Focus
Tara D Mangal, Ana Roberta Pati Pascom, Juan F Vesga, Mariana Veloso Meireles, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Timothy B Hallett
Emerging evidence suggests that HIV incidence rates in Brazil, particularly among men, may be rising. Here we use Brazil's integrated health systems data to develop a mathematical model, reproducing the complex surveillance systems and providing estimates of HIV incidence, number of people living with HIV (PLHIV), reporting rates and ART initiation rates. An age-structured deterministic model with a flexible spline was used to describe the natural history of HIV along with reporting and treatment rates. Individual-level surveillance data for 1,077,295 cases (HIV/AIDS diagnoses, ART dispensations, CD4 counts and HIV/AIDS-related deaths) were used to calibrate the model using Bayesian inference...
February 7, 2019: Epidemics
Kassie D Flewelling, Deborah E Sellers, Gregory S Sawicki, Walter M Robinson, Edward J Dill
BACKGROUND: Although social support has been linked to a variety of health outcomes in those with and without chronic illness, this construct has rarely been studied in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), who may face a unique set of clinical and psychosocial barriers. The current study explored the relationships between social support, mental health, physical health, treatment activity, and disease-specific quality of life in a sample of adults with CF. METHODS: Participants in the study included 250 adults with CF who took part in a larger longitudinal study...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Sara Tremblay, Nigel C Rogasch, Isabella Premoli, Daniel M Blumberger, Silvia Casarotto, Robert Chen, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Faranak Farzan, Fabio Ferrarelli, Paul B Fitzgerald, Jeanette Hui, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Pantelis Lioumis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Tarek Rajji, Gregor Thut, Reza Zomorrodi, Ulf Ziemann, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) has emerged as a powerful tool to non-invasively probe brain circuits in humans, allowing for the assessment of several cortical properties such as excitability and connectivity. Over the past decade, this technique has been applied to various clinical populations, enabling the characterization and development of potential TMS-EEG predictors and markers of treatments and of the pathophysiology of brain disorders. The objective of this article is to present a comprehensive review of studies that have used TMS-EEG in clinical populations and to discuss potential clinical applications...
January 19, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Seth Parkey, Thomas Erickson, Emily M Hayden, Calvin A Brown Iii, Jestin N Carlson
BACKGROUND: Nasotracheal intubation is rarely performed in the emergency department (ED) but may be required in specific situations such as angioedema. Both blind and flexible nasal intubation (FNI) may be utilized; however, the preferred technique is unknown. METHODS: We performed a randomized, crossover manikin study using a convenience sample of emergency physicians and medical students from a local community teaching hospital. Using a simulated angioedema model, we sought to compare the time required to successfully perform nasotracheal intubation between traditional blind nasotracheal intubation and FNI...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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