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Pediatric In Review

Daphne Li, Tahaamin Shokuhfar, Julia Pantalone, Brian Rothstein, Tord D Alden, Ali Shaibani, Amanda M Saratsis
Diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus (DVHCP) is a rare cause of communicating hydrocephalus. DVHCP may be diagnosed radiographically and through histological evaluation. It may be associated with genetic abnormalities, particularly involving chromosome 9. Due to CSF overproduction, patients with DVHCP often fail management with shunting alone and may require adjuvant interventions. The authors present the case of a child with partial trisomy 9p and delayed diagnosis of hydrocephalus with radiographic evidence of DVHCP who was successfully managed with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement, adjuvant bilateral endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation (CPC), and the novel application of anterior choroidal artery embolization...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Aymeric Amelot, Kevin Beccaria, Thomas Blauwblomme, Marie Bourgeois, Giovanna Paternoster, Marie-Laure Cuny, Michel Zerah, Christian Sainte-Rose, Stephanie Puget
OBJECTIVEArachnoid cysts (ACs) are most frequently located in the middle cranial fossa. Some patients are asymptomatic whereas others exhibit signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, or cognitive and behavioral symptoms. When ACs do require treatment, the optimal surgical technique remains controversial. This study was conducted to assess the most effective surgical treatment for these cysts.METHODSThe authors retrospectively reviewed 240 temporal intracranial ACs managed over a 25-year period in their pediatric neurosurgical unit...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Jin K. Kim, Michael E. Chua, Jessica M. Ming, Min Joon Lee, Amre Kesavan, Nathaniel Kahn, Jacob C. Langer, Armando Lorenzo, Darius Bagli, Walid A. Farhat, Frank Papanikolaou, Martin A. Koyle
Background: Before 2014, there was a lack of recommendations on managing cryptorchidism, or undescended testis (UDT), from a large pediatric urological or surgical organization. We assessed the variability in management of UDT among pediatric urologists and pediatric surgeons at a single tertiary pediatric referral centre before publication of major guidelines. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the electronic records of patients who underwent primary unilateral or bilateral orchidopexy at our centre between January 2012 and January 2014...
March 22, 2019: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Kirsten K Davison, Adam Gavarkovs, Brent McBride, Milton Kotelchuck, Raymond Levy, Elsie M Taveras
OBJECTIVE: Fathers are critical stakeholders in childhood obesity prevention but are difficult to engage. This review presents a new approach to engaging fathers in obesity prevention during the first 1,000 days. METHODS: The review focuses on five existing health and social service programs, including prenatal care, pediatric care, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, home visiting, and Early Head Start. For each program, the obesity prevention services provided, evidence of father engagement, and barriers thereto are outlined...
April 2019: Obesity
Karina Miura da Costa, Amulya K Saxena
BACKGROUND: Gastric volvulus (GV) in children is a rare condition. This study reviewed management and outcomes of GV in the pediatric population. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies in English regarding GV in patients < 18 years old between 2008 and 2017, selected by two reviewers. Results were presented as percentages and medians. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate categorical variables, and Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons...
March 21, 2019: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Stacy J Kim, Thomas L Ratchford, Paula M Buchanan, Dhiren R Patel, Ting Y Tao, Jeffrey H Teckman, Jeffrey J Brown, Shannon G Farmakis
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of gadolinium deposition given the potential need for multiple contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) exams over their lifetime. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gadolinium-based contrast agents are necessary in assessing active bowel inflammation on MRE in pediatric patients with known or suspected IBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 77 patients (7-18 years; 68...
March 21, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Roel Lemmens, Thierry Devreker, Bruno Hauser, Elisabeth Degreef, Annieta Goossens, Yvan Vandenplas
A clinical suspicion of intestinal spirochetosis is required when patients have long lasting complaints of abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and nausea. An endoscopy with biopsies needs to be performed to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis. The diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis is based on histological appearance. Intestinal spirochetosis can also be associated with other intestinal infections and juvenile polyps (JPs). JPs seem to be more frequent in patients with intestinal spirochetosis than in patients without intestinal spirochetosis...
March 2019: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Dong Hyun Lee, Se Jin Kim, Hee Jung Lee, Hyo-Jeong Jang
Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify factors related to the recurrence of intussusception in pediatric patients. Methods: The medical charts of patients diagnosed with intussusception and treated at Dongsan Medical Center, between March 2015 to June 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: Among 137 patients, 23 patients (16.8%) had a recurrent intussusception and 8 of these patients (6%) had more than 2 episodes of recurrence...
March 2019: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Shawana Kamran, Sara A Awan, Kamran N Ahmad, Yasir Iqbal
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with balanced translocation t (8;21) is one of the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities and carries a favorable clinical outcome. However, according to a literature review, additional chromosomal aberrations can affect the overall disease prognosis. Trisomy 4 is a rare numerical abnormality in AML patients with t (8;21), which can be associated with c-KIT gene involvement. In adults, c-KIT mutation carries an unfavorable clinical outcome; however, its incidence and clinical importance in the pediatric population are still under scrutiny...
January 14, 2019: Curēus
Ceren Günbey, Kutay Sel, Çağrı Mesut Temuçin, Hayrettin Hakan Aykan, Bahadır Konuşkan, Tevfik Karagöz, Banu Anlar
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been examined in myasthenia gravis but not in congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). We aimed to evaluate cardiac autonomic functions in genetically defined CMS. Patients diagnosed with and under treatment for CMS were reviewed for 24-hour cardiac rhythm monitoring. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures were defined as: SDNN, mean of the standard deviations for all R-R intervals; SDNNi, standard deviation of all R-R intervals in successive five-minute epochs; RMSSD, square root of the mean of squared differences between successive R-R intervals...
February 19, 2019: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Michelle Condren, Shea Bowling, Brian Hall, Megan Woslager, Amber Shipman, Heather McIntosh
OBJECTIVE: To characterize medication discrepancies for patients with chronic illnesses seen at outside facilities. METHODS: This was a retrospective evaluation of a medication reconciliation across care transitions (MRAT) program developed and piloted for one year in an academic pediatric primary care medical home. The MRAT involved chart review and contacting caregivers upon receiving external specialist notes or hospital discharge summaries. Data obtained from the program were used to determine the frequency and types of medication discrepancies for children with complex and noncomplex chronic conditions...
March 18, 2019: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Karel Ey Claes, Nathalie A Roche, Dries Opsomer, Edward J De Wolf, Casper E Sommeling, Koenraad Van Landuyt
BACKGROUND: Since the first reports on microsurgery in children, there has been an evolution in the reconstruction of soft tissue defects as evidenced by a shift to free flaps as the first-line treatment. METHODS: The primary objective of this systematic review was to compare the complication rate of free perforator/fasciocutaneous flaps with free muscular/myocutaneous flaps in pediatric lower limb soft tissue reconstructions. The secondary objective was to evaluate the frequency and severity of complications for both reconstructive options...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Amy Elizabeth Valasek, Julie A Young, Lihong Huang, Bhavna Singichetti, Jingzhen Yang
Pediatric overuse injuries present with a gradual mechanism of onset and an underlying pathogenesis of microtrauma. We evaluated the clinical presentation of pediatric sports injuries to determine if differences exist between age and sex. A retrospective chart review was performed over a 6-year period; 6593 overuse injuries were included with the mean age of 13.4 years. Males presented with a greater proportion of apophysis, physis, and articular cartilage injuries ( P < .01). Females presented with greater bone, tendon, and "other" injuries ( P < ...
March 22, 2019: Clinical Pediatrics
Annie M Q Wang, Min Kim, Emily S Ho, Kristen M Davidge
BACKGROUND: Camptodactyly is a pediatric hand condition, the treatment of which remains controversial. The authors' aim was to improve patient care through clarifying the definition of camptodactyly and indications for surgical and/or conservative management, summarizing outcomes, and defining risks. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of articles in all languages on outcomes following surgical and/or conservative management of idiopathic camptodactyly in children using MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), PubMed, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica database), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), and CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (until January 2017)...
March 22, 2019: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Nicole Lounsbury, Mary G Reeber, Georges Mina, Christiane Chbib
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to describe the outcomes of patients treated with ceftaroline in the non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in both pediatric and adult populations. DATA SOURCES: A systematic overview was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and The Cochrane Library up to January 2019. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All English-language clinical trials and case reports related to the efficacy of ceftaroline in new, not-yet-approved FDA indications in MRSA infections in pediatric or adult populations...
March 20, 2019: Antibiotics
Julie Voeller, Paul M Sondel
Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics, yet overall survival is poor for high-risk cases. Immunotherapy regimens using a tumor-selective antidisialoganglioside (anti-GD2) monoclonal antibody (mAb) have been studied for several decades now, but have only recently been incorporated into standard of care treatment for patients with high-risk NBL with clear benefit. Here we review a brief history of anti-GD2-based immunotherapy, current areas of neuroblastoma research targeting GD2, and potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses targeting GD2...
April 2019: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Nobutsune Ishikawa, Yuichi Tateishi, Hiroo Tani, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Masao Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Perampanel (PER) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) with a novel mechanism of action. Investigations of the efficacy and safety of PER in pediatric and adult patients have increased recently. Although the clinical usefulness and pharmacokinetics of PER have been investigated in adolescent and adult populations, similar studies have not been performed in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients treated with PER for more than 6 months in the Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Hospital, between September 2016 and November 2018...
March 18, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Xinyuan Hong, Sarah Khalife, Sarah Bouhabel, Chantal Bernard, Sam J Daniel, John J Manoukian, Lily H P Nguyen
INTRODUCTION: Burkitt lymphoma (BL), an aggressive form of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, arising from the nose and paranasal sinuses is relatively rare. It can present with various symptoms leading to potential misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. BL is fatal if left untreated, while early identification and treatment can improve prognosis. OBJECTIVES: 1) To review clinical presentations and sites of involvement of six cases of pediatric BL with rhinologic manifestations and compare these with the current literature...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Eun Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
The social and medical costs of bronchiectasis in children are becoming considerable due to its increasing prevalence. Early identification and intensive treatment of bronchiectasis are needed to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with bronchiectasis in children. Area covered: This review presents the current pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treating bronchiectasis in children with a focus on non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Expert opinion: Evidence for the effectiveness of diverse treatment strategies in bronchiectasis is lacking, particularly in children, although the disease burden is substantial for bronchiectasis...
March 21, 2019: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Stav Brown, Amy Yao, Paymon Sanati-Mehrizy, Sheemon P Zackai, Peter J Taub
BACKGROUND: Postoperative analgesia following craniosynostosis repair is a clinical challenge for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. There is a paucity of published data on the postoperative pain associated with craniosynostosis repair procedures and the prescribed analgesia varies with different unit protocols. The authors sought to summarize the current knowledge of the postoperative analgesia following craniosynostosis repair by reviewing the literature for existing regimens, clinical outcomes, and recommendations...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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