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Polymer electrolyte

Xin Liu, Yi Li, Jiandang Xue, Weikang Zhu, Junfeng Zhang, Yan Yin, Yanzhou Qin, Kui Jiao, Qing Du, Bowen Cheng, Xupin Zhuang, Jianxin Li, Michael D Guiver
Proton exchange membranes with short-pathway through-plane orientated proton conductivity are highly desirable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Magnetic field is utilized to create oriented structure in proton exchange membranes. Previously, this has only been carried out by proton nonconductive metal oxide-based fillers. Here, under a strong magnetic field, a proton-conducting paramagnetic complex based on ferrocyanide-coordinated polymer and phosphotungstic acid is used to prepare composite membranes with highly conductive through-plane-aligned proton channels...
February 19, 2019: Nature Communications
Kang-Qiang He, Jun-Wei Zha, Peng Du, Samson Ho-Sum Cheng, Chen Liu, Zhi-Min Dang, Robert K Y Li
Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn considerable attention owing to their reliable safety performance, electrochemical stability and exceptional flexibility, which make them superior to conventional liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a novel composite electrolyte which is composed of homogeneously dispersed Li ion-conducting Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanowires in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/LiClO4 matrix. It is demonstrated that only 3 wt% LLTO nanofibers are needed for the optimal performance of SPEs...
February 18, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
J G Manjunatha
In this paper, a poly (glycine) modified carbon paste electrode (PGMCPE) for sensitive determination of Tartrazine (Tz) was developed. The electrochemical behaviors of Tz at the PGMCPE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential voltammetry and the results showed that the polymer film on electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidation of Tz in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7 (PBS). The influencing factors containing a supporting electrolyte, pH of the solution, deposition potential, amount of Tz and scan rate were investigated...
November 2018: Heliyon
Robin T White, Sebastian H Eberhardt, Yadvinder Singh, Tylynn Haddow, Monica Dutta, Francesco P Orfino, Erik Kjeang
Understanding of degradation mechanisms present in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is important to continue the integration of this clean energy technology into everyday life. Further comprehension of the interaction between various components during fuel cell operation is also critical in this context. In this work, a four-dimensional operando X-ray computed tomography method is developed for combined visualization of all PEFC components as well as transient water distribution residing in the cell, which results as a by-product of the electrochemical reaction...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jayesh Cherusseri, Kowsik Sambath Kumar, Nitin Choudhary, Narasimha Nagaiah, Yeonwoong Jung, Tania Roy, Jayan Thomas
Electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors have achieved great interest in the recent past due to their potential applications ranging from microelectronic devices to hybrid electric vehicles. Supercapacitors can provide high power densities but their inherently low energy density remains a great challenge. The high-performance supercapacitors utilize large electrode surface area for electrochemical double-layer capacitance and/or pseudocapacitance. To enhance the performance of supercapacitors, various strategies have been adopted such as electrode nanostructuring, hybrid electrode designs using nanocomposite electrodes and hybrid supercapacitor configurations...
February 12, 2019: Nanotechnology
Edwin C Johnson, Timothy J Murdoch, Isaac J Gresham, Ben A Humphreys, Stuart W Prescott, Andrew Nelson, Grant B Webber, Erica J Wanless
The temperature induced swelling/collapse transition of poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes has been investigated in electrolyte solutions comprised of multiple anions. The behaviour of a POEGMA brush in mixed salt environments of potassium acetate (KCH3COO, causes collapse) and thiocyanate (KSCN, causes swelling), two ions at opposite ends of the Hofmeister series, has been monitored with neutron reflectometry (NR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). These techniques revealed that the balance of the swelling/collapse influence of the two ions on the structure of the brush is temperature dependent...
February 12, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Takao Oi, Kaishu Seki, Yoshikazu Kikawada, Satoshi Yanase
18 O/16 O isotope effects were observed at the cathode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell at 25 and 35°C. Results of experiments in which the 18 O/16 O isotope ratios of the oxygen gases supplied to and exhausted from the cell were measured revealed that the lighter isotope 16 O reacted more preferentially to form water molecules at the cathode than the heavier one, 18 O. The value of the oxygen isotope separation factor, S1 , defined as the ratio of the 18 O/16 O isotope ratios of the oxygen gases supplied to and exhausted from the cell, ranged from 1...
February 12, 2019: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Zhifu Wu, Dai Dang, Xin Long Tian
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are appealing to resolve the environmental and energy issues, whereas is still heavily inhibited by the dilemma for fabricating effective and durable electrocatalysts towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, highly open Pt3Cu nanoframes and one dimensional, hollow titanium nitride architectures are both successfully explored and implemented as the new system to replace the traditional Pt-Carbon motif. The ORR performance of the obtained electrocatalyst shows a specific and mass activity of 5...
February 8, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qinyu Zhu, Xuming Wang, Jan D Miller
High performance solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have long been desired for the next generation of lithium batteries. One of the most promising ways to improve the morphological and electrochemical properties of SPEs is the addition of fillers with specific nanostructures. However, the production of such fillers is generally expensive and requires complicated preparation procedures. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), with their tubular structure, resemble carbon nanotubes in terms of geometric features, and can be obtained at relatively low cost...
February 6, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juanli Liu, Peng Liu
Conducting polymers and their hybrids have attracted significant attention in electrochemical capacitors due to their unique electrochemical properties. However, the poorer cycle life and lower rate capability have greatly restricted their practical applications. Herein, well-defined poly(1,5-diaminoanthraquinone)/reduced graphene oxide hybrids (PDAA/rGO) with excellent electrochemical performance were successfully prepared via in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization of 1,5-diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) using HClO4 as initiator and (NH4 )2 S2 O8 as oxidant in organic solvent mixture at room 25 °C...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Qingtao Ma, Xiaowen Sun, Ping Liu, Yongyao Xia, Xingjiang Liu, Jiayan Luo
Lithium metal batteries are promising candidates for next-generation battery technology due to their high energy density. However, research progress in lithium metal batteries is severely hindered by the lithium dendrite growth. Lithium is soft with mechanical modulus as low as polymers. This inspires us to suppress lithium dendrites using nacre structure, which is soft-hard organic-inorganic lamella. Here, we view lithium as the soft organic segment and choose colloidal vermiculite sheets as the hard inorganic constituent, which theoretically have 30 times higher modulus...
February 4, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Juanli Liu, Peng Liu
Nanostructured conducting polymers show their promising potential as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Here, chemical oxidation polymerization of 1,5-diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) was conducted with HClO4 as initiator and (NH4 )2 S2 O8 as oxidant in different solvent systems. Due to the different solubilities of its oligomers, different poly(1,5-diaminoanthraquinone) (PDAA) nanostructures were obtained, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanoribbons. As electrode materials, the PDAA nanotubes synthesized in 1:1 CH3 CN/DMF mixture possessed the highest specific capacitance of 353 F/g at 1 A/g and the best rate capability with the capacitance retention of 52% even at 20 A/g in 1 M H2 SO4 electrolyte, while the PDAA nanoparticles synthesized in DMF showed the best cycling stability of 111% of its initial capacitance after 10,000 CV cycles at 100 mV/s, despite the same chemical structure with different morphologies...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
José Tiago Carvalho, Viorel Dubceac, Paul Grey, Inês Cunha, Elvira Fortunato, Rodrigo Martins, Andre Clausner, Ehrenfried Zschech, Luís Pereira
Fully printed and flexible inorganic electrolyte gated transistors (EGTs) on paper with a channel layer based on an interconnected zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle matrix are reported in this work. The required rheological properties and good layer formation after printing are obtained using an eco-friendly binder such as ethyl cellulose (EC) to disperse the ZnO nanoparticles. Fully printed devices on glass substrates using a composite solid polymer electrolyte as gate dielectric exhibit saturation mobility above 5 cm² V-1 s-1 after annealing at 350 °C...
January 30, 2019: Nanomaterials
Wenhao Li, Laura Bradley, James J Watkins
Reliable integration of thin film solid-state polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with 3D electrodes is one major challenge in microbattery fabrication. We used initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) to produce a series of nanoscale copolymer films comprised of hydroxyethyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol diacrylate. Conformal copolymer coatings were applied to a variety of patterned 3D electrodes and subsequently converted into ionic conductors by lithium salt doping. Broad tunability in ionic conductivity was achieved by optimizing the copolymer crosslinking density and matrix polarity, resulting in a room temperature conductivity of (6...
January 28, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xue Zhang, Shuo Wang, Chuanjiao Xue, Chengzhou Xin, Yuanhua Lin, Yang Shen, Liangliang Li, Ce-Wen Nan
Polymer-based electrolytes have attracted ever-increasing attention for all-solid-state lithium (Li) metal batteries due to their ionic conductivity, flexibility, and easy assembling into batteries, and are expected to overcome safety issues by replacing flammable liquid electrolytes. However, it is still a critical challenge to effectively block Li dendrite growth and improve the long-term cycling stability of all-solid-state batteries with polymer electrolytes. Here, the interface between novel poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF)-based solid electrolytes and the Li anode is explored via systematical experiments in combination with first-principles calculations, and it is found that an in situ formed nanoscale interface layer with a stable and uniform mosaic structure can suppress Li dendrite growth...
January 25, 2019: Advanced Materials
Yoshikazu Yahata, Keiji Kimura, Yohei Nakanishi, Shoko Marukane, Takaya Sato, Yoshinobu Tsujii, Kohji Ohno
Immiscible composite materials with controlled phase-separated structures are important in area ranging from catalysis to battery. We succeeded in controlling the phase-separated structures of immiscible blends of polystyrene (PS) and two ionic-liquids (ILs), namely, N, N-diethyl- N-(2-methoxyethyl)- N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEME-TFSI) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI), by adding precisely designed concentrated-polymer-brush-grafted (CPB-grafted) silica nanoparticles (CPB-SiPs) prepared by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization...
January 24, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lin Ma, Chengyin Fu, Longjun Li, Karthik S Mayilvahanan, Tylan Watkins, Brian R Perdue, Kevin R Zavadil, Brett A Helms
To suppress dendrite formation in lithium metal batteries, high cation transference number electrolytes that reduce electrode polarization are highly desirable, but rarely available using conventional liquid electrolytes. Here, we show that liquid electrolytes increase their cation transference numbers (e.g., ~0.2 to >0.70) when confined to a structurally-rigid polymer host whose pores are on a similar length scale (0.5-2 nm) as the Debye screening length in the electrolyte, which results in a diffuse electrolyte double layer at the polymer-electrolyte interface that retains counter-ions and reject co-ions from the electrolyte due to their larger size...
January 23, 2019: Nano Letters
Aobing Du, Huanrui Zhang, Zhonghua Zhang, Jingwen Zhao, Zili Cui, Yimin Zhao, Shanmu Dong, Longlong Wang, Xinhong Zhou, Guanglei Cui
A polymer-based magnesium (Mg) electrolyte is vital for boosting the development of high-safety and flexible Mg batteries by virtue of its enormous advantages, such as significantly improved safety, potentially high energy density, ease of fabrication, and structural flexibility. Herein, a novel polytetrahydrofuran-borate-based gel polymer electrolyte coupling with glass fiber is synthesized via an in situ crosslinking reaction of magnesium borohydride [Mg(BH4 )2 ] and hydroxyl-terminated polytetrahydrofuran...
January 23, 2019: Advanced Materials
Haiyang Yu, Yihang Chen, Huanhuan Wei, Jiangdong Gong, Wentao Xu
The gate insulators play a role as important as the semiconductor in high-performance OFETs with high on/off current ratio, low hysteresis, and device stability. The essential requirements for gate dielectrics include high capacitance, high dielectric breakdown strength, solution-processibility, and flexibility. In this paper, we review recent progress in developing high-k gate polymeric insulators for modern organic electronic applications in recent years. After a general introduction to OFETs, three types of high-k polymeric gate insulating materials have been enumerated in achieving high-quality OFETs, including polymer gate insulators, polymer-inorganic gate composites or bilayers, and ion gel electrolytes...
January 22, 2019: Nanotechnology
Robert Löwe, Thomas Hanemann, Andreas Hofmann
Eight new polymerizable ammonium-TFSI ionic liquids were synthesized and characterized with respect to an application in energy storage devices. The ionic liquids feature methacrylate or acrylate termination as polymerizable groups. The preparation was optimized to obtain the precursors and ionic liquids in high yield. All products were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Phase transition temperatures were obtained by DSC analysis. Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity of the ionic liquids were compared and discussed...
January 17, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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