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Attribution Biases

Yuyong Ke, Alain Dury, Fernand Labrie
Sensitive and accurate measurement of androstane-3β,17β-diol and androstane-3α,17β-diol in the circulation is important for clinical research and accurate clinical diagnosis. This report describes a highly sensitive, specific, precise and reliable assay for the simultaneous accurate measurement of serum androstane-3α,17β-diol and androstane-3β,17β-diol in postmenopausal women. The LLOQ of 1 pg/mL has been achieved with nicotinic acid derivatization, which is superior to picolinic acid by a factor of 5 to 10 in terms of signal to noise ratio...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Fabio Di Bello, Margherita Giamundo, Emiliano Brunamonti, Rossella Cirillo, Stefano Ferraina
The relationship between attention and incentive motivation has been mostly examined by administering Posner style cueing tasks in humans and varying monetary stakes. These studies found that higher incentives improved performance independently of spatial attention. However, the ability of the cueing task to measure actual attentional orienting has been debated by several groups that have highlighted the function of the motor system in affecting the behavioral features that are commonly attributed to spatial attention...
March 12, 2019: Neuroscience
Michael L Thomas
Item response theory (IRT) is moving to the forefront of methodologies used to develop, evaluate, and score clinical measures. Funding agencies and test developers are routinely supporting IRT work, and the theory has become closely tied to technological advances within the field. As a result, familiarity with IRT has grown increasingly relevant to mental health research and practice. But to what end? This article reviews advances in applications of IRT to clinical measurement in an effort to identify tangible improvements that can be attributed to the methodology...
March 14, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Mikkel Wallentin, Roberta Rocca, Sofia Stroustrup
We investigated biases in the organization of imagery by asking participants to make stick-figure drawings of sentences containing a man, a woman and a transitive action (e.g. she kisses that guy). Previous findings show that prominent features of meaning and sentence structure are placed to the left in drawings, according to reading direction (e.g. Stroustrup and Wallentin in Lang Cogn 10(2):193-207, 2018. ). Five hundred thirty participants listened to sentences in Danish and made eight drawings each...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Amy Sweeny, Lisa van den Berg, Julia Hocking, Julia Renaud, Sharleen Young, Richard Henshaw, Kelly Foster, Tegwen Howell
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure and impact of a Queensland Research Support Network (RSN) in emergency medicine (EM). DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This paper presents a descriptive summary of EM networks, network evaluations and the structure and development of the Emergency Medicine Foundation's (EMF) RSN in Queensland, including an observational pre- and post-study of research metrics. FINDINGS: In two years, the RSN supported 33 Queensland emergency departments (EDs), of which 14 developed research strategies...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Alessandro Garofolini, Simon Taylor, Patrick McLaughlin, Robert Stokes, Michael Kusel, Karen J Mickle
Toe flexor strength is a pivotal biomechanical contributor for effecting balance and gait. However, there are limited reports that evaluate measurement accuracy and repeatability of this important attribute. Dynamometers are designed to measure force which can be used to derive joint torque if the perpendicular distance to the joint axis is known. However, an accurate and reliable measurement method to assess the ability of the toe flexor muscles to produce torque, is lacking. Here we describe a new device and method, designed to quantify the toe flexor torque developed at the metatarsal phalangeal joint...
March 9, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
Brian M Cerny, Jonathan P Stange, Leah R Kling, Elissa J Hamlat, Lisa A O'Donnell, Christen Deveney, Scott A Langenecker
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with active major depressive disorder (MDD) have shown affective biases in cognitive flexibility and memory, particularly for negatively valenced stimuli. We evaluated whether impairments in affective flexibility would remain even during remission (rMDD), potentially representing trait- or scar-like effects of illness. METHOD: Participants completed the Emotion Card Sort Test (ECST), a measure of cognitive flexibility containing emotionally valenced stimuli, and the Emotion Word Stimulus Test (EWST), a measure of affective biases in delayed recall and recognition memory, and several self-report measures...
March 10, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Nathan Caruana, Timo Stein, Tamara Watson, Nikolas Williams, Kiley Seymour
INTRODUCTION: Faces provide a rich source of social information, crucial for the successful navigation of daily social interactions. People with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of social-cognitive deficits, including abnormalities in face perception. However, to date, studies of face perception in schizophrenia have primarily employed tasks that require patients to make judgements about the faces. It is, thus, unclear whether the reported deficits reflect an impairment in encoding visual face information, or biased social-cognitive evaluative processes...
March 8, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Megan Crow, Nathaniel Lim, Sara Ballouz, Paul Pavlidis, Jesse Gillis
Differential expression (DE) is commonly used to explore molecular mechanisms of biological conditions. While many studies report significant results between their groups of interest, the degree to which results are specific to the question at hand is not generally assessed, potentially leading to inaccurate interpretation. This could be particularly problematic for metaanalysis where replicability across datasets is taken as strong evidence for the existence of a specific, biologically relevant signal, but which instead may arise from recurrence of generic processes...
March 7, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kelly Kiyeon Lee
Understanding the underlying psychological process that leads to a bias is crucial for developing remedies to correct or reduce the bias. As one of the psychological processes that underlie judgmental biases, attribute substitution provides an explanation as to why people rely on heuristics and commit judgmental biases. Attribute substitution occurs when people make a judgment that requires the use of a target attribute, but make the judgment using a heuristic attribute that comes more readily to mind. This substitution inevitably introduces systematic errors because these two attributes are different...
2019: PloS One
Adrian I Campos, Julio A Freyre-González
Genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) have been widely studied, yet there is a lack of understanding with regards to the final size and properties of these networks, mainly due to no network currently being complete. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of GRN structural properties across a large set of distinct prokaryotic organisms and found a set of constrained characteristics such as network density and number of regulators. Our results allowed us to estimate the number of interactions that complete networks would have, a valuable insight that could aid in the daunting task of network curation, prediction, and validation...
March 6, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ariella L Gladstein, Michael F Hammer
The Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) are a population isolate sharing ancestry with both European and Middle Eastern populations that has likely resided in Central Europe since at least the 10th century. Between the 11th and 16th centuries, the AJ population expanded eastward leading to two culturally distinct communities in western/central and eastern Europe. Our aim was to determine whether the western and eastern groups are genetically distinct, and if so, what demographic processes contributed to population differentiation...
March 6, 2019: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Thangavel Vijayakanth, Richa Pandey, Priyangi Kulkarni, Balu Praveenkumar, Dinesh Kabra, Ramamoorthy Boomishankar
Molecular ferroelectric materials are an exciting class of materials for potential applications in energy and electronics. Herein, we report examples of hydrogen-bonded binary salts of diphenyl diisopropylamino phosphonium halides [Ph2(iPrNH)2P]·X [DPDP·X, X = Cl, Br, I] which show dielectric, piezoelectric and NLO properties and some potentially ferroelectric attributes at room temperature. The phosphonium bromide salt was prepared by bromination of the phosphine precursor Ph2PCl and its subsequent treatment with isopropyl amine...
March 6, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
You Jin Park, Jin Young Park, Kyung-Mi Chung, Yul-Mai Song, Kyungun Jhung
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the association of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem and their interaction with paranoia and attributional bias. The relationship of the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with paranoia and attributional bias was examined. METHODS: A total of 128 female college students participated. We administered the Implicit Association Test to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to measure explicit self-esteem...
March 7, 2019: Psychiatry Investigation
Huawei Hong, Lei Zhang, Fang Xie, Rongqiang Zhuang, Donglang Jiang, Huanhuan Liu, Jindian Li, Hongzhang Yang, Xianzhong Zhang, Liming Nie, Zijing Li
Currently, only a few 18 F-radiolabeling methods were conducted in aqueous media, with non-macroelement fluoride acceptors and stringent conditions required. Herein, we describe a one-step non-solvent-biased, room-temperature-driven 18 F-radiolabeling methodology based on organophosphine fluoride acceptors. The high water tolerance for this isotope-exchange-based 18 F-labeling method is attributed to the kinetic and thermodynamic preference of F/F over the OH/F substitution based on computational calculations and experimental validation...
March 1, 2019: Nature Communications
Sara M Clifton, Kaitlin Hill, Avinash J Karamchandani, Eric A Autry, Patrick McMahon, Grace Sun
Women have become better represented in business, academia, and government over time, yet a dearth of women at the highest levels of leadership remains. Sociologists have attributed the leaky progression of women through professional hierarchies to various cultural and psychological factors, such as self-segregation and bias. Here, we present a minimal mathematical model that reveals the relative role that bias and homophily (self-seeking) may play in the ascension of women through professional hierarchies...
February 2019: Chaos
Tara E Sutton, Leslie Gordon Simons, Brittany T Martin, Eric T Klopack, Frederick X Gibbons, Steve R H Beach, Ronald L Simons
Although researchers have explored negative individual consequences of racial discrimination, very little work has examined the connection between discrimination and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American men. Existing work tends to be cross-sectional and does not specify mediators or moderators that might explain this link. Thus, in the current study, we use longitudinal, prospective data from 200 young men to examine potential mediators and moderators of this association. Results demonstrated that anger and hostile attribution bias mediate the association between racial discrimination and IPV perpetration...
March 1, 2019: Violence Against Women
Manjari Garg, Bhera Ram Tak, V Ramgopal Rao, Rajendra Singh
Organic molecular monolayers (MoLs) have been used for improving the performance of various electronic device structures. In this work, the concept of organic molecular surface modification is applied for improving the performance of GaN-based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) Ultraviolet (UV) Photodetectors (PDs). Organic molecules of phenol-functionalized-metallated-Porphyrin (Zn-TPPOH) were adsorbed on GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/GaN/Zn-TPPOH/Ni PD structures were fabricated. This process was beneficial in two ways, firstly the reverse bias dark current was reduced by ~1000 times and secondly, the photocurrent was enhanced by ~100 times, in comparison to the dark and photo current values obtained for Ni/GaN/Ni MSM PDs, at high voltages of 10V...
March 1, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Stefano Bellucci, Gianluigi Bovesecchi, Antonino Cataldo, Paolo Coppa, Sandra Corasaniti, Michele Potenza
Thermal diffusivity of GNPs (graphene nano-platelets) is an important thermo-physical property as it is useful to predict the material behavior in many heat transfer applications. GNP samples were pressed at different loads to obtain different densities, and then thermal diffusivity was measured with the flash method. All samples were coated with a thin layer (~1 µm) of colloidal graphite (Aquadag® ) on both sides to reduce reflectance of their surfaces and consequently increase the emissivity. Carrying out measurements on both samples with and without coating, a difference between the two series of measurements was found: This is attributed to a non-negligible transmittance of the uncoated samples due to the porosity of GNPs ...
February 27, 2019: Materials
Batholomew Chireh, Muzi Li, Carl D'Arcy
We aim to examine the relationship between diabetes and depression risk in longitudinal cohort studies and by how much the incidence of depression in a population would be reduced if diabetes was reduced. Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for English-language published literature from January 1990 to December 2017. Longitudinal studies with criteria for depression and self-report doctors' diagnoses or diagnostic blood test measurement of diabetes were assessed. Systematic review with meta-analysis synthesized the results...
June 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
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